California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Center for Analytical Chemistry (CAC) scientists Bahar Nakhjavan, Nighat Sami Ahmed and Maryam Khosravifard were recently published in the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) academic journal Toxins special issue, Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination. Their article, “Development of an Improved Method of Sample Extraction and Quantitation of Multi-Mycotoxin in Feed by LC-MS/MS,” details their research of evaluating the three most popular sample preparation techniques for determination of mycotoxins, then selecting the best method and optimizing it.
Mycotoxins are the most common contaminants in agricultural crops produced by several species of mold and fungi. During growth, maturity, harvest, storage and processing of food and animal feed products, the fungus produces mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed threaten human and animal health even at very low concentration.
Nakhjavan, Ahmed and Khosravifard work in CDFA’s CAC Environmental Safety Laboratory. Testing for mycotoxin in food and animal feed in the Regulatory Analysis Laboratory is part of their job of preventing contaminated food and feed from being consumed by humans, livestock and poultry in California. CAC uses state-of-the-art equipment and processes to test fruits, vegetables, nuts, animal feed, milk, water and air to ensure that pesticide and chemical levels are within the safety range established by national and international standards. Additional CAC staff who contributed to the work discussed in this published paper include Sally Henandez, Jose Salazar and Sarva Balachandra. They assisted with sample preparation for analysis and method review and approval.
Abstract of published paper
A multi-mycotoxin chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fumonisins (FB1, FB2 and FB3), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) in feed. The three most popular sample preparation techniques for determination of mycotoxins were evaluated, and the method with highest recoveries was selected and optimized. This modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) approach was based on the extraction with acetonitrile, salting-out and cleanup with lipid removal. A reconstitution process in methanol/water was used to improve the detection and then the extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In this method, the recovery range is 70–100% for DON, DAS, FB1, FB2, FB3, HT-2, T-2, OTA, ZON, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1 and AFB2 and 55% for NIV in the spike range of 2–80 µg/kg. Method robustness was determined with acceptable performance standards in proficiency tests and validation experiments.
Click here to read “Development of an Improved Method of Sample Extraction and Quantitation of Multi-Mycotoxin in Feed by LC-MS/MS,” by CAC scientists Nakhjavan, Ahmed and Khosravifard.
Nakhjavan, B., Ahmed, N.S., Khosravifard, M., “Development of an Improved Method of Sample Extraction and Quantitation of Multi-Mycotoxin in Feed by LC-MS/MS.” Toxins: Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination, 2020, 12, 462.