Tag Archives: insects and mites

Japanese Flower Thrips | Thrips setosus

California Pest Rating for
Thrips setosus Moulton: Japanese flower thrips
Photo Citation: Mound, L. (2005), PaDIL – http://www.padil.gov.au
Thrips setosus Moulton: Japanese flower thrips
Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

USDA is considering changing the status of Thrips setosus from actionable to non-actionable.  A pest rating proposal is needed to advise direction on this insect.

History & Status:

Background:  Thrips setosus is a polyphagous leaf and flower-feeding thrips.  Female thrips lay eggs in leaves where they are difficult to detect and protected from chemical treatment.  Nymphs and adults feed on plants and cause silvering or bronzing of leaves and leaf scorching.  Known hosts include:  Apiaceae: hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium1); Asparagaceae: Hosta sp.1; Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum morifolium1, Erigeron sp.1, sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus1), oriental false hawksbeard (Youngia japonica1); Balsaminaceae: Impatiens sp.1; Cucurbitaceae: cucumber (Cucumis sativus1); Euphorbiaceae: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima1); Fabaceae: soybean (Glycine max1), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris1), fava bean (Vicia faba1), asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedaris1); Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp.1; Lamiaceae: red dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum1); Pedaliaceae: sesame (Sesamum indicum1); Plantaginaceae: foxglove (Digitalis sp.1); Ranunculaceae: Helleborus sp.1; Solanaceae: bell pepper (Capsicum annum1), jimsonweed (Datura stromium1), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum1), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum1), Petunia x hybrid1, Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense1), eggplant (Solanum melongena1); and Urticaceae: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica1). Thrips setosus has been associated with many additional plants but host records need confirmation (see uncertainty section).  Thrips setosus can be transported long distances when infested plants, cut flowers, or other fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Thrips setosus is presumably native to Japan.  From there, it has spread to Indonesia, The Republic of Korea, Croatia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom1.  In the United States, it was first found in 2016 in Michigan in a greenhouse at a nursery that imports plants from multiple nations1.  In that greenhouse, Thrips setosus was able to build up significant populations, despite existing pest management practices.  Since then, the thrips has also been found in the environment surrounding that greenhouse, in associated nursery fields located 11 miles away, and in a trace-forward survey at a greenhouse in Rhode Island1.  The thrips continues to be found in the original infested greenhouse even after multiple treatments.  Before detection, plants from that greenhouse were shipped to 39 other states, so the thrips might be more widespread.  However, trace forward surveys have not found it anywhere else.

Official Control: Thrips setosus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Thrips setosus has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions Thrips setosus has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Thrips setosus (Japanese flower thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Thrips setosus is polyphagous and is expected to be able to establish throughout plant hardiness zones 4 to 111. It can be expected to establish throughout almost all of California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Thrips setosus is known to feed on plants in at least 26 genera in 14 plant families.  There are unverified host records on many other plants in 13 additional families.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips setosus females can lay up to 8 eggs per day and the species can complete 7-12 generations per year, depending on temperature1.  This indicates a high reproductive rate.  Thrips can be transported long distances when infested plants, cut flowers, or other fresh plant parts are moved.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Thrips setosus has been documented as a vector of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV)1.  This virus can cause bronzing, curling, necrotic streaks, or spots on tomato leaves, dark-brown streaks on leaf petioles, stems, and growing tips, and infected plants can be stunted1.  In addition, tomato fruit infected with TSWV is discolored1Thrips setosus is considered to be a less efficient vector of TSWV compared to thrips that are already present in California1.  However, in Michigan the thrips has not been controlled by existing thrips management programs and has not been affected by existing biological control agents.  New chemical treatments required for this thrips are likely to disrupt existing IPM programs in California agroecosystems.  Thrips setosus has not been found in other major tomato growing regions and larger populations of a thrips that is more difficult to control are expected to increase spread of the virus.  If the thrips were to establish in California it is likely to lower crop yields, especially for tomatoes.  It is certain to increase crop production costs.  It is also likely to disrupt California exports.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Thrips setosus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. Several endangered species are closely related to possible hosts (see uncertainty section) and might be directly affected by the thrips including Ashland thistle (Cirsium ciliolatum), fountain thistle (Cirsium fontinale fontinale), Chorro Creek bog thistle (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense), Suisun thistle (Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum), La Graciosa thistle (Cirsium loncholepis), surf thistle (Cirsium rhothophilum), Parish’s daisy (Erigeron parishii), Scott’s Valley polygonum (Polygonum hickmanii), showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  Thrips setosus would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It is likely to trigger new treatment programs by growers, in the nursery industry, and by residents.  Many of the host plants are popular in home/urban gardens and as ornamentals and would likely be significantly impacted by this thrips.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thrips setosus (Japanese flower thrips): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Thrips setosus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

In addition to the known hosts described above there many other host records in the literature that have not yet been verified by USDA.  These candidate hosts include:  Amaryllidaceae: amaryllis (Hippeastrum sp.1); Asparagaceae: monkey grass (Liriope platyphylla1), mondo grass (Ophiopogon jaburan1); Asteraceae: pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium1), Japanese thistle (Cirsium japonicum1), Dahlia sp.1, double Japanese aster (Kalimeris pinnatifida1), Japanese aster (Kalimeris yomena1), lettuce (Lactuca sativa1), Tagetes sp.1; Balsaminaceae: touch-me-not (Impatiens balsamina1); Brassicaceae: cabbage, broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohirabi, and gai lan (Brassica olearacea1); Caprifoliaceae: Abelia spathulata1, Cucurbitaceae: melon (Citrullus battich1), melon (Cucumis melo1), squash (Cucurbita maxima1), squash (Cucurbita moschata1), bitter melon (Momordica charantia1); Dioscoreaceae: Japanese mountain yam (Dioscorea japonica1); Ebenaceae: persimmon (Diospyros kaki1); Fabaceae: Dumasia truncata1, pea (Pisum sativum1), kudzu (Pueraria lobata1), white clover (Trifolium repens1), clover (Trifolium sp.1), vetch (Vicia sativa1); Iridaceae: Iris sp.1; Lamiaceae: henbit (Lamium amplexicaule1), wild mint (Mentha arvensis1), Moraceae: fig (Ficus carica1); Onagraceae: evening primrose (Oenothera sp.1); Poaceae: rice (Oryza sativa1); Polygonaceae: knotweed (Polygonum sp.1); Rosaceae: strawberry (Fragaria ananassa1); Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1; Simaroubaceae: tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima1); Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum1); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis vinifera1); and Unknown: glory lily1.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Thrips setosus has only been found in greenhouses in Michigan and Rhode Island as well as several fields in Michigan associated with the infested greenhouse1.  There is uncertainty about whether or not Thrips setosus can survive in the northern United States1.  Since both Michigan and Rhode Island are northern states and the thrips has not been found elsewhere, it is not yet clear that this species has established in the United States or if it is only a regulatory incident that could be addressed.  If Thrips setosus were to establish in California it is likely to have significant impacts to crops worth as much as $14 billion annually including tomatoes, bell pepper, grapes, citrus, lettuce, melons, rice, strawberry, fig, and Brassicaceae.  The thrips would also be expected to have significant environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Morrice, Jarrod. 2017.  NPAG Report: Thrips setosus Moulton: Japanese flower thrips. Thysanoptera: Thripidae.  United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Plant Protection and Quantine.  New Pest Advisory Group. Raleigh, NC.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

7/21/2017 – 9/4/2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Sri Lankan Weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus

California Pest Rating for
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus: Sri Lankan weevil
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus has been rated A by CDFA. Due to recent interceptions in California, a pest rating proposal is required.

History & Status:

Background: Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, the Sri Lankan weevil, is a plant pest with a wide range of hosts. This weevil spread from Sri Lanka into India and then to Pakistan where it is considered a pest of more than 20 crops. In the United States, the Sri Lankan weevil was first identified on citrus sp. in Pompano Beach a city in Broward County Florida1.

Adult Sri Lankan weevils vary in length from approximately 6.0 to 8.5 mm; the female weevil is slightly larger than the male by 1.0 to 2.0 mm. In this genus, 336 species recognized are from Southeast Asia. These weevils can feed on more than 80 different plants species. These include, citrus, cotton, sweet potato, fig, loquat, plum, mango and mahogany3.

Worldwide Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is native to southern India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It has been reported from Southeast Asia (including China and Japan), Africa, the Palearctic, Indonesia, Australia and the United States (Florida)3.

Official Control: The Sri Lankan weevil is listed as a harmful organism in the Republic of Korea5.

California Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is not reported in California; however, there have not been any recent surveys to confirm this.

California Interceptions: The Sri Lankan weevil was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and March, 2017, this insect was intercepted six times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida4.

The risk Sri Lankan weevil would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The Sri Lankan weevil can feed on a variety of field crops, nursery stocks, and fruits of California. The Sri Lankan weevil may establish in larger, but limited, warm agricultural and metropolitan areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The Sri Lankan weevil has a wide range of hosts and it can feed on almost 80 different kinds of plant species3.  Since, host species are grown throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Myllocerus may lay up to 360 eggs over a 24-day period, and larvae emerge in 3-5 days. The Sri Lankan weevil eggs are laid directly on organic material at the soil surface, a common substrate in California. Eggs are less than 0.5 mm, ovoid and usually laid in clusters of 3-5. The eggs are white or cream-colored at first, then gradually turn brown when they are close to hatching1. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is well-known for causing significant damage to agricultural crops and fruits products, especially young plants. Leaf-feeding adults damage the foliage of ornamental plants, fruit trees, and vegetables, whereas the larvae injure root systems; this decreases crop value and yield. Peach growers in Florida are reported to be having a difficult time managing damage from the weevil. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control infestations. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The Sri Lankan weevil receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Sri Lankan weevil: High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The Sri Lankan weevil has never been found in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not Established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The Sri Lankan weevil is intercepted six times in California. There have not been any detection surveys conducted recently to confirm its presence. The environment of California is highly favorable for the Sri Lankan weevil therefore, the uncertainty about this species is high.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:  

The Sri Lankan weevil is not established in California, it would be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Anita Neal 2013.  University of Florida.   Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/sri_lankan_weevil.htm

  1. Charles W. O’Brien, Muhammad Haseeb, Michael C. Thomas. Pest weevil from Indian Subcontinent. Florida  Dept. Of Agricultural. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/10795/141061/ent412.pdf

  1. Pest Alert. Florida dept. Of Agriculture & consumer services. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.famu.edu/cesta/iframeapps/Invasive_Weevil_Species/Desktop/Myllocerus_undatus_Marshall_-_Sri_Lanka_Weevil_or_Asian_Grey_Weevil.htm

  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.

http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 3-20-17.

https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

July 7, 2017 – August 21, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Pandemis cerasana Hübner | Barred Fruit-tree tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2014 USDA’s New Pest Advisory Group distributed a report that proposed to change the status of Pandemis cerasana, barred fruit-tree tortrix, to non-actionable for the continental United States.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous leaf-rolling moth that feeds on shoots, leaves, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of a wide variety of hosts in 20 plant families.  Economically important hosts in California include apple, cherry, plum, peach, pear, blueberry, raspberry, and rose.  In these crops, feeding on flowers and fruit may result in crop losses and blemished fruit.  The most likely pathway for spread of Pandemis cerasana into California is as eggs, larvae, or pupae on nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana is native to Europe and Asia.  It was detected in British Columbia in 19653.  The moth was found in Washington in 1994 and has spread through the nine western counties.  It was first detected in Portland, Oregon in 2013.  It appears that the moth is established in Washington and is spreading naturally through the Pacific Northwest.

Official Control: Pandemis cerasana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, and South Africa2 and is considered a quarantine pest by Australia4.  It will also remain actionable in Hawaii under the NPAG report recommendations.

California Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana has never been detected in California.

California Interceptions Pandemis cerasana has never been intercepted in California or by USDA on imported fruit from Canada.

The risk Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants that grow in California and is expected to establish in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9.  It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants in 20 families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pandemis cerasana has moderate reproductive potential.  The moth has one or two generations per year3 and each female typically lays 40-90 eggs.  The moths can fly and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of undetected eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or plant material.  Pandemis cerasana receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pandemis cerasana has been reported as a minor pest defoliator of apple and pear trees in western Washington; it has not yet spread to the major fruit production areas of that state.  In Europe, management measures for the moth include chemical control, monitoring and control programs, and a regional forecasting model.  In Italy, up to 10-15% of fruit has been reported damaged.  Furthermore, there may be trade disruptions with Australia and Hawaii, where it is considered a quarantine pest.   Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pandemis cerasana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is likely to feed on endangered species that it encounters, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The moth is not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  Pandemis cerasana may trigger new treatments in orchards and in the nursery industry.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-Tree Tortrix):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pandemis cerasana has not been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

There are existing integrated pest management programs in orchards in California.  It is possible that these programs will also manage Pandemis cerasana.  There have not been any recent surveys for this moth in California.  It may already be established in some places.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pandemis cerasana is established in western Washington and has recently spread to Oregon.  It is likely to spread to California at some point in the future, either naturally or through movement of plant material.  When it enters the State, the moth may have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Millar, Leah 2014.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report on Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory.  Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Gilligan, T. M., and M. E. Epstein. 2012. Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI). Colorado State University and California Department of Food and Agriculture.  http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Pandemis_cerasana.htm

4 Plant Health Australia:  Cherry brown tortrix.  High priority pest of cherries. http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/cherry-brown-tortrix/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Operophtera brumata (L.) | Winter Moth

California Pest Rating for
Operophtera brumata (L.):  Winter Moth
Lepidoptera:  Geometridae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In January 2013 USDA announced that Operophtera brumata, winter moth, was under consideration for deregulation at our ports.  Stephen Brown (CDFA) recommended a rating proposal for the moth.

History & Status:

Background:  Winter moth is an invasive, polyphagous moth that feeds on flower and leaf buds and expanding leaf clusters of more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families3.  In Oregon, adult moths emerge from pupae in soil from early November through December1.  Females are unable to fly.  They climb trees, mate, and lay eggs in bark crevice.  Eggs hatch mid-March. First (1st) instar larvae may balloon by wind; closely related species have been documented dispersing 850m2.  By May larvae have completed development.  They then drop from trees and pupate 1-12 cm below the soil surface3.

Worldwide Distribution: Operophtera brumata is native to Palearctic region.  It was first detected in North America in Nova Scotia in 1949, but is believed to have been introduced before 19351.  It was found in British Columbia in 1976 and Oregon in 1978.  However, museum specimens from a natural history museum indicate that the moth was present in Oregon in 1958, but misidentified as the native moth Operophtera occidentalis.  Recently, winter moth has invaded Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York (Long Island).4

Official Control: United States Department of Agriculture has listed Operophtera brumata as an actionable pest.  It is unknown if winter moth is under official control anywhere else.

California Distribution:  Operophtera brumata has never been found in California.

California Interceptions Operophtera brumata has never been intercepted in California.

This risk winter moth would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Operophtera brumata is highly polyphagous and can be expected to find a plethora of suitable hosts in California. Temperatures above 27˚C (80.6˚F) are reportedly lethal to eggs6; therefore, winter moth may not be able to establish in portions of southern California where temperatures are warm between January and March.  Winter moth is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the cooler parts of California.  Winter moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Pest Host Range: Operophtera brumata feeds on more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: While adult winter moths have limited natural dispersal capabilities given their flightless females, wind-aided larval dispersal by ballooning is a valid concern.  Furthermore, the moth may be moved long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Female winter moths lay 150-350 eggs.  Operophtera brumata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Winter moth is considered a major pest of blueberries (an $82 million industry in California) and deciduous trees in Washington.  Hosts also include a number of other economically important crops, including almond5 ($3.9 billion), raspberries ($223 million), cherry5,7 ($197 million), pears ($98 million), and apple ($58 million).  Operophtera brumata has the potential to impact crops by consuming flower buds and defoliating trees, reducing crop yield.  The moth may also trigger additional treatment programs during prebloom and bloom stages, increasing crop production costs.  Chemical treatments during bloom have the potential to disrupt pollination services, negatively changing normal cultural practices.  The moth is therefore expected to have a significant economic impact on California.  Winter moth receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact:  As Operophtera brumata invades new areas, it can cause widespread defoliation4.  Forest trees can be defoliated and forced to grow a second set of flush.  When combined with other stressors, such as drought, this can kill trees.  Rosa is listed as a host of winter moth and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) is listed as an endangered species by the state of California.  However, winter moth is not expected to establish in warmer parts of the state where small-leaved rose is found.  Winter moth may also impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings by defoliating trees, reducing fruit yields, or triggering additional treatments by residents.  O. brumata receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score:

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Winter Moth:  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Operophtera brumata has never been collected in California.  Winter moth therefore receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and backed up by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one ecoarea (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous ecoareas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous ecoareas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High (14)

Uncertainty:  

The parasitoids Cyzenis albican (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Agrypon flaveolatum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been introduced to the United States and Canada as biological control agents to control winter moth populations.  In most areas they have been successful at limiting damage from the moth.  However, winter moth populations sometimes continue to reach outbreak levels after parasitoids are introduced3.  It is not certain if the parasitoids would be successful in California, or if resources would be available for mass-rearing programs.  It is also uncertain if O. brumata populations would be controlled by existing IPM programs in some agricultural ecosystems, mitigating economic damage.  Also, since there have been no recent surveys, it is possible that winter moth might be established in limited areas of the state and unnoticed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Winter moth (Operophtera brumata) has potential to cause significant economic and environmental damage to California.  An ‘A’ rating is justified.

References:

1Kimberling, D.N., J.C. Miller, and R.L. Penrose.  1986.  Distribution and parasitism of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepitoptera: Geometridae), in western Oregon.  Environmental Entomology 15: 1042-1046.

2Brown, C.E.  1962.  The life history and dispersal of the bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst.), Lepidoptera: Geometridae.  Can. Ent. 94:1103-1107.

3Horgan, F.G., J.H. Myers, and R. Van Meel. 1999.  Cyzenis albicans (Diptera: Tachinidae) does not prevent the outbreak of winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in birch stands and blueberry plots on the lower mainland of British Columbia.  Environ. Entomol. 28(1): 96-107.  https://academic.oup.com/ee/article-abstract/28/1/96/502294/Cyzenis-albicans-Diptera-Tachinidae-Does-Not?redirectedFrom=PDF

4Elkinton, J.S., G.H. Boettner, M. Sremac, R. Cwiazdowski, R.R. Hunkins, J. Callahan, S.B. Schuefele, C.P. Donahue, A.H. Porter, A. Khrimian, B.M. Whited, and N.K. Campbell.  2010.  Survey for winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northeastern North America with pheromone-baited traps and hybridization with the native bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 103(2): 135-145.

5Rajaei, H., M. Abaii, and A. Hausmann.  2010.  First record of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northern Iran.  Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6(2):63-68.  https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0ahUKEwjWgbGU3qnUAhUJxmMKHXHrA2IQFgg9MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fijab.um.ac.ir%2Findex.php%2Fbiosys%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F25213%2F4299&usg=AFQjCNGYV9wmYICCMDmP4ftvpf2sKx6plw&cad=rja

6Embree, D.G. 1970.  The diurnal and seasonal pattern of hatching winter moth eggs, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae: Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 102(6): 759-768.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8557345

7San, N.V. and K. Spitzer.  1993.  Isolated populations of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), their heavy metal content and parasitism.  Eur. J. Entomol. 90: 311-321.  http://www.eje.cz/pdfarticles/473/eje_090_3_311_VanSanSpit.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) | Cherry Bark Tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli):  Cherry Bark Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix) is established in the Pacific Northwest, where it is a significant pest of cherry and other Prunus species.  CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey includes trapping for this moth, which is currently unrated.  A pest rating proposal is needed before cherry bark tortrix is detected in California.

History & Status:

Background:  Enarmonia formosana is a wood boring moth whose larvae feed on the bark and sapwood of practically all rosaceous trees, including Prunus (cherry, almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, and plum), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Pyracantha (firethorne)1.  There is one generation per year2.  Adult moths fly and lay eggs from April to September2.  Eggs are laid in cracks, crevices, wounds, crotches, and lenticels of trees2.  Eggs hatch after a few weeks and larvae seek out openings in the bark through which they enter the tree2.  Larvae burrow deep into the cambium where they feed until the following spring2.  Feeding causes dieback and wilting of the tree canopy and the damage makes the tree susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases, frost damage, and other insect pests2.  This secondary damage can be fatal to the tree.  Because the moths usually attack mature trees, the most likely pathway for spread of cherry bark tortrix into California is through firewood of the host species.

Worldwide Distribution: Enarmonia formosana is native to the Palearctic region.  It is widespread in Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa1.  The first North American detection was in Richmond, British Colombia in May, 19891.  From there, it has been spreading to the south.  It was found just across the border in Whatcom county, Washington in 19912 and then in Oregon in 20004.  Although the moth is widespread in western Washington, it has not been found in eastern Washington, suggesting that the Cascades may be a barrier to natural spread of the moth.

Official Control: Oregon has established a quarantine against Enarmonia formosana regulating the entire state of Washington, the entire province of British Colombia, Multnomah and Clackamas counties in Oregon, and any other state, province, or territory where an established population of the moth is detected and not eradicated.  The quarantine covers all plants in the genera Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus and Sorbus, and unseasoned firewood derived from trees of these host plant genera.  Uninfested nursery stock plants of these genera that are less than two inches in diameter are exempted from the quarantine3.

California Distribution Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California.  Trapping for the moth is included in CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey and it has not been trapped, further supporting its absence from the State.

California Interceptions Enarmonia formosana has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk cherry bark tortrix (Enarmonia formosana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rosaceous plants are widely cultivated in California and Enarmonia formosana is likely to establish wherever they are grown. Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although cherry bark tortrix is only reported to feed on plants in one family (Rosaceae), these hosts include economically important fruit crops valued at billions of dollars annually.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cherry bark tortrix spread rapidly throughout western Washington in a decade, infesting 80% of host trees in some areas.  This indicates high reproductive and local dispersal potential.  The moths can spread long distances through the movement of infested firewood or large plants.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Enarmonia formosana is likely to lower the yield of infested host trees.  Crop production costs can be expected to increase if cherry bark tortrix establishes in California as growers are likely to use insecticides, mating disruption, or biological control agents to control moth populations.   The presence of the moth in the State may also trigger lost markets for large nursery stock plants and host firewood.  Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Enarmonia formosana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth can be expected to trigger additional official or private treatment programs.  A survey found that 75-80% of host trees were infested with cherry bark tortrix in the Bellingham, WA area.  This indicates that the pest can be expected to significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix):  High(15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(15)

Uncertainty:

There is a report that high temperatures above 90˚F might be lethal to eggs5.  High temperatures could therefore limit populations of the moth in some areas of the state.  It is also possible that existing IPM programs might manage cherry bark tortrix populations in some circumstances.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Enarmonia formosana is present in the Pacific Northwest where it is a significant pest of rosaceous trees.  From Canada, the moth rapidly spread south through western Washington.  However, a quarantine in Oregon has effectively slowed its spread.  Nevertheless, cherry bark tortrix is likely to spread to California in the future, most likely in infested firewood.  When it arrives it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts in the state and may trigger official treatments.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Dang, P.T. and D.J. Parker.  1990.  First records of Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) in North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Journal of the Entomological Society of British Colombia.  87:3-6. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/655

2Murray, Todd.  Garden Friends & Foes:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  Washington State University.  http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/homehort/pest/e_formosana.htm

http://jenny.tfrec.wsu.edu/opm/displaySpecies.php?pn=570 

3Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/rules/oars_600/oar_603/603_052.html

4Cherry bark tortrix moths found in Oregon.  The Seattle Times.  August 7, 2000.  http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000807&slug=4035429

5Westcott, R.L. and J.D. DeAngelis.  1993.  New Pest Alert:  Cherry Bark Tortrix Moth.  Oregon State University Extension Service and Oregon Department of Agriculture.   http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/19518/ec1409-e.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Flower Ant | Monomorium floricola (Jerdon)

California Pest Rating for
Monomorium floricola (Jerdon): Flower Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
 Initiating Event:

On February 21, 2017 Dr. Kevin Williams identified ants collected during inspections of beehives recently shipped into California from Florida as Q-rated Monomorium floricola.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Monomorium floricola is a widely distributed tropical arboreal ant1.  It is a generalist that feeds on honeydew, dead insects, and any other available protein and sugar sources.  It nests in trees, bushes, and structures such as beehives and can be transported long distances when those items are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Monomorium floricola is widespread in almost all of the tropical areas of the world1 and is widespread and abundant in both Florida and Hawaii.  It was first collected in Florida in 1887 and has not spread north of Putnam County, likely due to its tropical nature2.  Records of the ant from other continental states show that the ants are not able to establish there.  Records from Mississippi were collected on palm trees transported from Florida and planted in a warm coastal location4.  There are no records of the ants spreading from this location.  There is an old catalog record of the ants in Alabama but more recent comprehensive surveys of the ant fauna have not been able to find any of the ants6.  The only known collection of Monomorium floricola in Arizona occurred inside the Biosphere 2 greenhouse structure where plants had been imported from a large number of sources1,7.

Official Control: Monomorium floricola is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.  It is not listed on any nation’s harmful organism list3.

California Distribution:  Monomorium floricola has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2010 and February 23, 2017 Monomorium floricola was intercepted by CDFA 16 times.  In addition to the recent beehive interception mentioned above, recent interceptions have occurred on plants from Hawaii, firewood from Florida, guavas from Mexico, and other beehives from Florida.

The risk Monomorium floricola (flower ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: North of 35˚ latitude, Monomorium floricola has not been found to be established outdoors1.  There it has only been found in greenhouses and other heated buildings1.  35˚ latitude roughly corresponds with the Tehachapi Mountains in California.  Most of the records north of 30˚ latitude are also in heated buildings1 and/or associated with plants that have been moved from more southern locations.  The entire state of California is located north of 32˚.  It is therefore likely that this ant will only be able to establish in the warmest parts of California including greenhouses and heated buildings.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Monomorium floricola is a generalist forager that feeds on a wide variety of protein and sugar sources.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Monomorium floricola does not fly, giving it less local dispersal potential than many other ants.  However, it can be easily transported long distances when infested plants, firewood, or beehives are moved.  It has colonized most of the tropical areas of the world, demonstrating high long distance dispersal potential.  Monomorium floricola is abundant where it is found, indicating high reproductive potential.  The ant receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Monomorium floricola is not documented to be a pest outside of urban areas anywhere in the world.  The ant is not expected to lower any crop yields or values.  It is not expected to disrupt markets.  There are no reports of this ant changing cultural practices in agriculture anywhere in the world.  The ant is not known to vector other organisms or interfere with water supplies.  It is possible that it could harm biological control agents as it tends to honeydew producing insects.  However, there are already other ants in California that interfere with biological control such as argentine ant (Linepithema humile) so impacts will likely be minimal.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Invasive ants such as Monomorium floricola may cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have the potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Flower ant is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  In areas where it is abundant such as Florida, the ants are inconspicuous, difficult to find, and seldom observed.1 However, as a nuisance pest indoors they are a regular source of calls to pest control companies and do result in new treatment programs5.  The ants are slow-moving, unaggressive, and unlikely to sting and are therefore unlikely to have significant cultural impacts.  Monomorium floricola receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Monomorium floricola (Flower Ant):  Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Monomorium floricola is not known to be established in the environment of California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

There are already other invasive tramp ant species established in California.  These other ants may preclude some of the economic and environmental impacts of Monomorium floricola.  However, there is a lot of uncertainty with the introduction of tramp ants to California.  It is possible the ants could interact with well-irrigated crops in San Diego, Imperial, and Riverside counties causing unanticipated economic and environmental impacts unlike anything that has been previously experienced in other locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Monomorium floricola has never been found in the environment of California.  If it were to establish in the state, the ant is likely to have significant environmental impacts in greenhouses, heated buildings, and possibly outdoors in the warmest areas of southern California.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Wetterer, James K. 2010. Worldwide spread of the flower ant, Monomorium floricola (Hymeoptera: Formicidae).  Myrmecological News 13: 19-27.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/James_Wetterer/publication/256979598_Worldwide_spread_of_the_flower_ant_Monomorium_floricola_Hymenoptera_Formicidae/links/0c9605258d5c35ac5e000000.pdf

2 AntWiki: Monomorium floricolahttp://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Monomorium_floricola

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 MacGown, J.A. and J.G. Hill. 2010. Two New Exotic Pest Ants, Pseudomyrmex gracilis and Monomorium floricola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Collected in Mississippi. Midsouth Entomologist.  http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_2_html_files/Vol3_2_007.html

5 Klotz, John H., John R. Mangold, Karen M. Vail, Lloyd R. Davis Jr., and Richard S. Patterson. 1995. A survey of the urban pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peninsular Florida. Florida Entomologist 78(1).  https://ag.tennessee.edu/EPP/Publications1/A%20Survey%20of%20the%20Urban%20Pest%20Ants%20of%20Peninsular%20Florida.pdf

6 Forster, Jason Allen. 2003. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of Auburn University.  https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/772/FORSTER_JASON_28.pdf?sequence=1

7 Wetterer, J.K., S.E. Miller, D.E. Wheeler, C.A. Olson, D.A. Polhemus, M. Pitts, I.W. Ashton, A.G. Himler, M.M. Yospin, K.R. Helms, E.L. Harken, J. Gallaher, C.E. Dunning, M. Nelson, J. Litsinger, A. Southern, and T.L. Burgess. 1999. Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Florida Entomologist 82(3): 381-388.  http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/59473/57152


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

3/24/2017 – 5/8/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Seed Bugs | Nysius spp.

 California Pest Rating for
Nysius spp.  : (Seed Bugs)
Hemiptera: Lygaeidae
Pest  Rating: NR

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Nysius spp. (Seed Bugs) are frequently intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs and at border stations. These have a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to evaluate their pest risk.

History & Status:

Background: The insects of the Nysius spp. commonly known as seed bugs or ground bugs and these are found on every continent except Antarctica2. The Lygaeidae is a very successful family of true bugs found worldwide. Several species of this family are well-known as major economic pests of a variety of crops. Some members of genus Nysius spp. are very useful for insect studies especially, insect physiology and evolutionary ecology.2

The insects of Nysius spp. are small insect commonly found within grassy or weedy fields, pastures, and foothills. Each spring, once the plants in these areas dry up, these insects migrates to find new places to feed. This becomes a nuisance for homeowners when these bugs migrate into their landscapes and homes and can cause problems for gardeners and farmers. The problems are most serious in the year with wet and cool springs.1

Nysius species are polyphagous insects that feed on a large number of crops, fruits & weeds5. The members of this genus have been associated with both endemic and introduced plant species from sea level to over 13,000 feet3. Crops attacked by these insects include: cabbage, rape, turnip, clover, lucerne, cucumber, carrots, potato, beets, cotton, sorghum, tomatoes and all types of squash, barley, wheat and many more crops. Many fruits plants were attacked by the insects of this genus, especially soft skin fruit like strawberries, kiwifruit and apple are seriously injured. Several weeds are reservoir hosts of these bugs, particularly those belonging to the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Portulacaceae families.4, 5

Worldwide Distribution: The insects of Nysius spp. are considered among the most successful insects on earth; they are found on every continent except Antarctica.2

Official Control: Nysius spp. are listed as harmful organisms by New Zealand, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Canada and Taiwan.8

California Distribution: Nysius spp. are distributed all over California, but there are no official surveys done for these insects to confirm their presence. There are 106 described species in the genus Nysius and many of these have never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Nysius spp. have been intercepted multiple times through border station inspections, dog teams and high risk pest exclusion activities. Between January 2000 and December 2016, they have been intercepted 990 times. Many of these specimen were submitted by homeowners from all over the state.

The risk Nysius spp. (Seed bugs) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Nysius spp. are commonly grown in California and these species are expected to be established wherever the hosts are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The insects of Nysius are highly polyphagous that can feed on variety of field crop and wild plants. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The female of Nysius spp. generally lay eggs in clutches, which can range in size from 10 to over 100 eggs and may lay many clutches in their lifetime. The adults travel short distance in search of food and overwintering sites. They may move longer distances as result of hitchhiking on infested planting material or field equipment. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Some species of Nysius considered pests of seedlings and in severe infestations they can damage young almond, pistachio, pomegranate, and citrus trees. Nysius huttoni feed on wheat grain in the milk-ripe stage with sucking mouthparts, which pierce through the glumes into the developing grain. It inject saliva that contains an enzyme, which bring changes in the flour protein makes it runny dough unsuitable for baking.4, 5  Most of the species are viewed as agricultural pests.  It might reduce the crop yield and increase crop production costs for farmers. It is not expected to change cultural practice vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. Depending on the species they could receive a Low (-1) to Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1-2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The insects of Nysius spp. are not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It may effect sensitive species of Brassicaceae such as Caperfruit tropidocarpum (Tropidocarpum capparideum), Santa Cruz Wallflower (Erysimum teretifolium), Tiburon jewel flower (Streptanthus niger) and Metcalf canyon jewel flower (Streptanthus albidus ssp. Albidus). However, no significant documented impact occurs from native species on sensitive species. It would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats. If pest species were established then would it very likely trigger new treatment programs by farmers and residents who find infested plants unsightly. Depending on species  it would a receive Low (-1)  to  High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score:  1-3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nysius spp. (Seed bugs): Low -High (11-14)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: There are 106 described species of Nysius and many of them are established in California. They receive a High (-3) in this category.   Nysius not established in California receive a Not established (0) in this category.

This genus receives a Not Established (0) to High Established (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8) to High (14).

Uncertainty:  

Uncertainty is high as the species are hard to identify and they vary substantially in their current status and risk to CA.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

There are many species of Nysius that have not been found in the environment of California.  New species could have significant economic and environmental impacts. Examples of species of Nysius that are not found in California and would be likely to have significant impacts here include Nysius nemorivagus from Hawaii3 and Nysius vinitor from Australia.  While on the other hand there are lot more species which are commonly found in California and are not expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California. Example of these species are Nysius raphanus Howard & Nysius tenellus Barber.

It is not possible combine pest rating all 106 species in one proposal. Pest ratings can be lawfully proposed for each individual species versus the whole genus. Non-native Nysius species can have significant impact on California agriculture whereas native species are already present in the state and are being monitored for spread and growth. Considering these facts, a “NR” rating is justified this genus.

References:
  1. R. Haviland, W. J. Bentley, 2016   UC IPM.   Accessed on 2-08-17. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74153.html
  2. R. Burdfield – Steel, David M Shuker. 2014. The evolutionary ecology of the Lygaeidae.  On line NCBI.  Accessed on 2-08-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201440/
  3. Jayma L. M. Kessing, Ronal F.L. Mau. 1993. Crop knowledge master Hawaii.    Accessed on 2-08-17. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/nysius.htm
  4. Brambila. 2007.  USDA- APHIS – PPQ   Invasive Arthropod workshop. Accessed on Feb, 6 2017. https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/9865/135458/pdf_brambila_heteroptera_spdn2007-small.pdf
  5. Baker, R. Cannon. 2006.  CSL pest risk analysis for Nysius huttoni Accessed on 2-08-17. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/downloadExternalPra.cfm?id=3865
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. Pest Information wiki. Online   Accessed on 1-31-17. http://wiki.pestinfo.org/wiki/Nysius_vinitor
  8. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 1-31-17.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

 


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 14, 2017 – April 28, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest  Rating: NR


Posted by ls

Rose Thrips | Thrips fuscipennis

California Pest Rating for
Thrips fuscipennis: Rose Thrips
Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In November 13, 2016, five thrips were intercepted at Needles inspection station from a truck coming from New Jersey heading to Los Angeles on a load of kiwi (Shipment size: 40,000 lbs) originating from Italy and were identified as Thrips fuscipennis. Previously, this species had been intercepted twice in 2012 through CDFA border stations and high risk pest exclusion inspections. A temporary rating of “Q” has been assigned. This pest rating proposal was prepared to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Thripini is the most phylogenetically diverse tribe in the family Thripidae, and Thrips is a highly evolved genus in subfamily Thripinae. Thrips fuscipennis is one of the commonly intercepted thrips in at U.S. ports of entry from Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean. It is a polyphagous species characterized by the presence of ctenidia on abdominal tergites (4). The body length is 1.2-1.4mm, antennae are seven segmented and head is broader relative to most other thrips (5). Life stages consist of an egg, a first and a second larval stage, the propupal and pupal stage, and the adult stage. Reproduction is sexual or parthenogenetic. Eggs are laid in slits cut with the ovipositor into the host plant. Fertilized eggs produce females and unfertilized eggs produce males. One generation is completed in about one month. Thrips overwinter normally as a second stage larva or an adult female in bark crevices or plant debris (4). Hosts plants that Thrips fuscipennis can damage include roses, strawberries, bell pepper and white clover (3). Adult thrips are poor fliers but their feathery wings allow them to be readily carried by winds (6).

Worldwide Distribution: Thrips fuscipennis is native to England and present in Europe. It is currently distributed in Asia: China;  Europe: Albania, Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sardinia, Scotland, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Trancaucasia, Turkey, Wales, and the former Yugoslavia. North America Canada (British Columbia, Quebec) (5).

US Distribution: The first record of Thrips fuscipennis in North America was made by Hood based on his identification of a female collected in Ithaca, New York in July, 1926, on Angelica atropurpurea. This was later identified as Thrips fallaciosus. The first verified record of Thrips fuscipennis was reported from North America by Chaisson in 1986 in British Columbia. The various records of this species from Canada and the United States were misidentification of Thrips fallaciosus, which is widely distributed from Alaska and Labrador south to Utah, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, and New York but has not been recorded from California to date(4).

Official Control:  Thrips fuscipennis is listed as harmful organism by Costa Rica, Japan, Republic of Korea and Taiwan (9).

California DistributionThrips fuscipennis has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Thrips fuscipennis has been intercepted three times through CDFA’s border stations and high risk pest exclusion programs (7).

The risk Thrips fuscipennis (rose thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Thrips fuscipennis is polyphagous and its hosts are grown throughout the state. This species can become established in areas of the state with warm spring and summers. Rain can wash thrips larvae from the hosts but if host plants are stressed due to drought, thrips infestations and populations can increase (4). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Thrips fuscipennis has a wide host range including ornamentals, fruit crops, legumes, cucumber, bind weed, meadowsweet (1). Common hosts include Roses (Rosa), Strawberry (Fragaria), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and white clover (Trifolium repens) and canola (Brassica napus (3). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Reproduction of thrips is sexual or parthenogenetic. Each female lays about 100 eggs in its life time. Fertilized eggs produce females and males are produced from unfertilized eggs. One generation is completed in a month, but this can vary depending upon temperature. Adults are poor fliers but their feathery wings allow them to be readily carried by air currents (4, 6). Eggs concealed in plant tissue can easily be transported long distances when infested plants or cuttings are moved. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Thrips fuscipennis is reported as a serious pest of deciduous trees and shrubs in ornamental nurseries in central and southern Poland. This was the main species encountered on plum and apple twigs in nurseries, mother apple plantations and in young orchards (2). This species can also cause fruit bronzing in strawberries resulting in lower fruit quality (1). If this species were to enter California, it would be likely to impact fruit crops and ornamental plantings. Since Thrips fuscipennis is commonly intercepted at US ports of entry, this species is likely to trigger quarantine for California commodities. Thrips can also be vectors of bacteria, fungi and viruses. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, C, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

5) Environmental Impact: Thrips fuscipennis is not expected to lower biodiversity or change ecosystem processes. However, it is likely to have impacts on Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx), showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum) and pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), listed as state and federally endangered species in California (8). The establishment of Thrips fuscipennis is also likely to trigger additional treatments programs at orchards, ornamental nurseries and home gardens. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thrips fuscipennis (rose thrips): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Thrips fuscipennis has never been found in the environment and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Current ongoing integrated pest management programs against western flower thrips and other thrips species may be beneficial against Thrips fuiscipennis. It is not known how many native and wild Trifolium and other species can be impacted if Thrips fuscipennis were to get established in the state. There have been no surveys done within California nurseries and orchard planting so this species might be present in certain areas of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Rose thrips (Thrips fuscipennis) has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and somewhat environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:
  1. Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board, United Kingdom: Thrips fuscipennis A ‘new’ pest of Strawberry – AHDB Horticulture, Accessed 02/03/2017  https://horticulture.ahdb.org.uk/sites/default/files/4%20Jude%20Bennison%20-%20Thrips%20fuscipennis.pdf | https://horticulture.ahdb.org.uk/…/4%20Jude%20Bennison%20-%20Thrips%20fuscip
  1. Czubik, Teresa Badowska and Olszak Remigiusz W. 2006. Thripidae in Polish plum and apple nurseries and orchards. Journal of fruit and ornamental plant research. Vol. 14 ( Suppl.3)
    http://www.inhort.pl/files/journal_pdf/Suppl_3_2006/Suppl_3_full_15_2006.pdf
  1. CABI 2016. Thrips fuscipennis http://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/53734
  1. Nakahara, Sueo 1994. The Genus Thrips Linnaeus (Thysanopetera: Thripidae) of the New World. USDA ARS Technical Bulletin: 1822, July 1994 https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=CAT11137035&content=PDF
  1. A. David: Commonly intercepted Thrips at U.S. Ports-of-entry from Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean. Ill. THE Genus Thrips Linnaeus, 1758 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Jan 2008: Vol. 110, Issue 1, pg(s) 165-185 https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/10094/PDF
  1. Ministry of Agriculture, British Columbia. Thrips- Biology and Control in Floriculture Crops http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/farming-natural-resources-and-industry/agriculture-and-seafood/animal-and-crops/plant-health/thrips-floriculture.pdf
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Accessed: 02/03/2017 http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. State of California Natural Diversity Database 2012. State and federally listed Endangered, Threatened and Rare plants of California, Resource Management and Planning Division, Biogeographic Data Branch. CA Department of Fish and Game.

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed: 02/03/2017.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

3/10/2017 – 4/24/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Dendrothrips howei Mound | Lord Howe Island Thrips

California Pest Rating for
Dendrothrips howei Mound: Lord Howe Island Thrips
Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Dendrothripinae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Dendrothrips howei has been recently found in Contra Costa County in a sample submitted by a property manager in Concord, California. This species was first found in 2010 in nurseries at Los Angeles and Riverside counties and outdoors in 2012 in Riverside and Orange counties. Currently, this pest has a temporary Q rating. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating for this species.

History & Status:

Background:  The subfamily Dendrothripinae is characterized by the thoracic structure and jumping abilities of the adults and it comprises a world fauna of 10 genera and more than 90 species. Members of Dendrothripinae differ from other Thripidae by the possession of lyre shaped spurs extending from the thorax (1, 3). All of these species live on young leaves, and they are usually small and jump when disturbed (2).

There are 52 species listed in genus Dendrothrips, none of which is native to any part of United States. Most of these species are known from Africa and Asia. Nine species are endemic to Europe and four from Australia. Dendrothrips howei is native to eastern Australia (4). The metamorphosis of thrips species is intermediate between simple and complete. Main hosts associated with this species include Xylosma species, Smilax australis and Trophis scandens. Eggs are laid in plant tissue or in crevices or under bark. Dendrothrips howei breeds in leaves but it is not known to vector viruses in its host plants.

Worldwide Distribution:  Dendrothrips howei is native to eastern Australia and was first recorded in Long Howe Island in 1999 (4).

Official Control: Dendrothrips howei is not known to be under official control by any other states or nations. However, in Japan, all Thripidae are listed as harmful organisms (6).

California Distribution: Dendrothrips howei was first found in a nursery in Los Angeles in 2010 and by 2012, it was considered established and causing damage to its host plants (5). It has been confirmed in the environment of San Jacinto (Riverside County – PDR 1590230), Anaheim (Orange County – PDR 300P06040111), and Concord (Contra Costa County – PDR 070P06224306).

California Interceptions:  There have been 18 records of Dendrothrips howei by CDFA through nursery regulatory activities and border station pathways between 2010 and 2016 (5).

The risk Dendrothrips howei would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Xylosma species, the main hosts of Dendrothrips howei, is grown as ornamental shrub in California. Xylosma is propagated in California nurseries and is sold as a pot plants at retail centers. Lord Howe island thrips will receive a High (3) in this category

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dendrothrips species are commonly associated with members of Oleaceae family (3).  However, Dendrothrips howei is known to feed mainly on Xylosma maiden and Xylosma congestum (Salicaceae). Adults have also been recorded on Trophis scandens (Moraceae) and Smilax australis. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 1

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips have a rapid reproduction rate as one generation is completed in 15-28 days depending on the host and thrips species (7). Members of sub family Dendrothripinae are often highly active, and may jump readily when even slightly disturbed. Dendrothrips howei  has become established in California feeding on leaves of Xylosma (Salicaceae). It has a high dispersal potential. The horticultural trade of its host plants continues to be a major pathway for dispersal of various thrips species (4). It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Dendrothripinae are all leaf feeding insects, commonly associated with young leaves. Dendrothrips howei feeds on leaves and can cause distortion of new growth of host plants. This species is however not known to vector any viruses. This species may lower the quality and value of nursery grown Xylosma species by feeding on new growth and disfiguring plants. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural use

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Dendrothrips howei in California nurseries and landscapes is likely to trigger additional chemical treatments. Since Xylosma species are used as an ornamental plant in urban and residential areas, the establishment of Dendrothrips howei may impact cultural practices in homes and urban gardening plantings. Residents can be expected to treat or prune off distorted new growth on host plants. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dendrothrips howei (Lord Howe Island Thrips): Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dendrothrips howei has been confirmed from the environment of Riverside and Orange counties, and recently at a non-contiguous area in Contra Costa County. It is likely to have become established in these areas and appears to have a widespread distribution in the state. It receives a High (-3) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 3

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.   

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

Dendrothrips howei has been found first in nursery regulatory inspections and then outdoors in certain areas of California. Most of the interceptions have been reported on containerized Xylosma plants. There have been no formal surveys done for the presence of this species in the state. Since Xylosma species are commonly used as ornamental plants in the state, it is likely that Dendrothrips howei is more widespread in California than currently recorded.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Impacts of Dendrothrips howei are likely to be limited to Xylosma species in California. As this species expands its distribution in California, cultural practices and possible chemical treatments would have significant environmental impacts. A “B” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Hoddle MS, Mound LA & Paris DL. 2012. Thrips of California 2012.  CBIT Publishing, Queensland, Australia.  http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/thrips_of_california/Thrips_of_California.html.
  1. Hoddle MS, Mound LA and Nakahara S. Thysanoptera Recorded from California, USA: A Check List. Florida Entomologist 87 (3): 317-323. 2004  http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/0015-4040(2004)087%5B0317%3ATRFCUA%5D2.0.CO%3B2
  1. Mound LA (1999), Saltatorial leaf-feeding Thysanoptera (Thripidae, Dendrothripinae) in Australia and New Caledonia, with newly recorded pests of ferns, figs and mulberries. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 257–273 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1440-6055.1999.00112.x/full
  1. World Thysanoptera. Identifying Thrips. Dendrothrips howei: Recognition Data. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) http://anic.ento.csiro.au/thrips/identifying_thrips/Dendrothrips_howei.htm
  1. Pest and Damage Records, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed: 01/04/2017 http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  1. Featured Creatures: University of Florida. Entomology and Nematology  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/
Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

3/3/2017 – 4/17/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Kilifia Americana Ben-Dov | Soft Scale

California Pest Rating for
Kilifia americana Ben-Dov: Soft scale
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Kilifia americana was found recently in Monterey County in a nursery. It was intercepted earlier in 90’s and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Kilifia americana is member of the soft scale family Coccidae.  It has broadly oval body, triangular, and narrowly rounded head. Kilifia americana looks flat on leaves and it is pale green or yellow green in color without an obvious wax covering2.

Like other species in the genus Kilifia, it can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica); Apocynaceae: pinwheel flower (Tabernaemontana divaricata); Rubiaceae: coffee (Coffea arabica); Rutaceae: citrus (Citrus limon, Citrus maxima & Clausena lansium); Araceae: Dieffenbachia seguine; Arecaceae: Chamaedorea spp.; Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia spp. and gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) 3. Its recent finding at a Monterey nursery on orchids (Orchidaceae) constitutes a new host record for this species5.

Worldwide Distribution: Kilifia americana was described from Texas in the United States2 and it is also reported from China and Mexico2. It also has been intercepted on shipments coming from Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama and Puerto Rico2.

Official Control: Kilifia americana is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations7.  However, Arizona maintains a quarantine against all citrus surface pests5.

California Distribution: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Kilifia americana was found recently at a nursery in Monterey County (PDR 272P06144846)6. It was intercepted two times earlier in 1990’s3.

The risk Kilifia americana (Soft scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Kilifia americana are growing throughout California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kilifia americana has been reported to feed on plants of at least ten genera in eight families, mostly from the tropics1, and it is likely that this host range is much broader than presently known, considering that its closest relative, Kilifia acuminata, is known to feed on over 50 genera4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment. Kilifia americana receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower the crop yields. It might reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increase crop production costs in nurseries and orchards. It could also disrupt movement of citrus to Arizona5. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category. Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

3) Environmental Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. No hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kilifia americana (Soft scale):  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

It is likely that the host range of Kilifia americana is greater than presently known. It is possible that if introduced in California it could easily spread and become established in the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kilifia americana has never been found as established in California and might cause significant economic and environmental impacts if this pest were to become established in California. Currently, an “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Ben-Dov., 1979. A taxonomic study of the soft-scale genus Kilifia (Coccidae). Systematic Entomology 4: 311-324.
  1. Scale insects: Kilifia americana. Accessed on 2-6-17  http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6890
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Kilifia%20americana/
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/kilifia%20acuminata/
  1. Summary of Exterior Quarantines.    Arizona Department of Agriculture.  Accessed on 2-6-17. http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/summaries/arizona.pdf
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 2-6-17  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 1, 2017 – April 15, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

 

Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti)

California Pest Rating for
Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti)
Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Biltothrips minutus was collected on December 8, 2016 from the head of a cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in Hawaii. This was the first interception of this species in the United States. The insect is currently unrated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Biltothrips minutus is a member of the Scirtothrips genus-group and it was originally described within the genus Sericothrips. The Scirtothrips genus-group lineage is comprised of 11 genera. Only two (Scirtothrips and Anascirtothrips) are widespread globally, whereas the remaining nine genera are restricted in their distributions. The members of this group breed on a wide range of plants, but they appear to prefer tissues of the youngest leaves and fruitlets. Some species of this lineage are considered major pests1.

Biltothrips minutus was described from West Bengal in India and has subsequently been reported from Thailand, Malaysia and the Society Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Biltothrips minutus lacks ocellar setae pair I, which is unique within this genus2. No literature is available concerning its biology and host plants.

Worldwide Distribution: Biltothrips minutus was described from India and has been reported in Malaysia and Thailand1. It was recently intercepted in Hawaii.

Official Control:  Biltothrips minutus is not known to be under official control by any state or nation except for Japan where all Thripidae are listed as harmful organisms4.

California Distribution: Biltothrips minutus has never been found in the environment of California3.

California Interceptions: Biltothrips minutus has not been intercepted in any regulatory situation in California3.

The risk Biltothrips minutus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Biltothrips minutus is reported in areas with climate similar to California and is expected to encounter suitable host material throughout much of state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

 Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The host range for Biltothrips minutus is unknown, but being the members of Scirtothrips lineage they probably can feed on a variety of plants growing throughout.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips are famous for their high reproductive rates. They may spread long distances when infested plants are moved. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although there is no information available about Biltothrips minutus species as a significant economic pest, it could feed on young growth and lower crop yields. This species may lower the quality and value of nursery plants. It may also increase crop production costs by triggering additional management activities. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact:  A B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Biltothrips minutus were to become established in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. The presence of Biltothrips minutus in California may trigger additional chemical treatments in nurseries and agricultural production. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

 Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: (2)

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Biltothrips minutus: High (14)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Biltothrips minutus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Biltothrips minutus was recently intercepted in the United States for the first time and nothing much is known about its habitat and host range. Nevertheless, the environment of California is highly favorable for thrips species. Therefore, the uncertainty about this species is high.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Biltothrips minutus has never been found in the environment of California and its entry to the State has potentially significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Ng, Y.F. and Mound, L.A. 2015. Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia. Zootaxa 4021 (2): 387-394.   Accessed on 1-13 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283194234_Genera_of_the_Scirtothrips_genus-group_Thysanoptera_Thripidae_with_a_new_species_of_Siamothrips_from_Malaysia
  2. Ng, Y.F. and Mound, L.A. 2016. Two new species of Scirtothrips genus-group (Thripidae) of Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 4088 (1): 141-145.
  3. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  4. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

2/6/2017 – 3/23/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)

California Pest Rating for
Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 18, 2016 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a sample of bark beetles obtained from an olive tree at a grape vineyard in Riverside County as Phloeotribus scarabaeoides, the olive bark beetle (OBB).  This is the first record of OBB in the Western Hemisphere and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  OBB is a bark beetle that is a well-known pest of olive1.  The species is widely distributed around the Mediterranean basin1,3 (including Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia).  Adult females bore through bark and excavate a transverse tunnel on either side of the entry point1.  Inside the twig/branch, the female lays up to 60 eggs and as larvae hatch each larva bores up or down from the entrance tunnel underneath the bark1.  This feeding causes partial to complete girdling1 of the twig/branch; thereby structurally weakening it as well as damaging vasculature.  Larvae pupate inside the feeding galleries1. OBB has 2-4 generations per year1.  Spring and early summer adults tend to lay eggs in prunings and olive wood stacked as firewood rather than living trees1.  In addition to olive, OBB also feeds on oleander (Nerium oleander) and occasionally ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris)1.  OBB may be transported long distances when infested olive wood or living plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: OBB is native to the Mediterranean basin.  Thus far, it is not known to have invaded any other regions.

Official Control: OBB is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, Paraguay, and Peru2.

California Distribution:  OBB has been found at the grape vineyard as well as a residence and 3 nurseries, all in Riverside County.  Surveys of olive trees at nurseries in other counties have not found any OBB.

California Interceptions OBB has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.  However, the beetles have been found in trees at three nurseries and might have been spreading through the nursery trade for an indefinite time period.

The risk Phloeotribus scarabaeoides [olive bark beetle (OBB)] would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Olive and oleander are grown throughout California and OBB is likely to establish throughout these areas. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: OBB feeds primarily on olive, secondarily on oleander, and occasionally on ash and lilac.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Score: 1

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: OBB has three to four generations per year and each female lays up to 60 eggs.  Adult beetles can fly and all life stages can be transported long distances when olive wood or infested plants are moved.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Score:  3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: OBB is considered a serious pest of olive that can cause heavy losses of young shoots, flowers, and fruit1.  The beetle can be expected to increase crop production costs for olive growers as they implement management strategies.  In regions with established OBB populations, growers are forced to alter cultural practices by moving olive prunings and wood far away from groves to reduce damage.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: OBB is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  OBB is likely to trigger new official and private treatment programs.  Olive and oleander are widespread ornamentals and are likely to be significantly impacted by this pest.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Olive bark beetle (OBB)):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: OBB has only been found in Riverside County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty: 

OBB might have a widespread distribution in California.  The beetles have been found in olive trees in several nurseries and it is possible that the beetles could have been spreading through the nursery industry for several years.  Secondly, there is a native bark beetle (Hylesinus californicus) that sometimes attacks stressed olive trees and was originally called the olive bark beetle in California.  However, the common name was changed to western ash bark beetle to reflect its typical host.  It is possible that OBB could be more widespread in California and its damage attributed to Hylesinus californicus.  However, adults of Phloeotribus are extremely characteristic amongst all weevils in possessing elongate terminal antennomeres and would be recognized as something new by any coleopterist.  Thirdly, the olive trees at the original detection site had been moved from San Diego County.  It is possible the beetles could be established in San Diego County, although none have been found at the origin.  This evidence suggests the possibility OBB could have a widespread distribution within southern California and possibly the entire State.

Before the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) arrived in California in 2008 the State was the source of 11% of the world’s table olives.  Most of these were produced by small growers with less than 40 acres.  These growers did not make enough profit to pay for treatment costs for olive fly and many of them have switched to less profitable olive oil.  The presence of OBB in California could be especially disastrous for the many small olive growers in the State.  This might lead growers to switch to more water intensive crops, exacerbating the effects of the State’s drought.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California’s olive industry and ornamental plantings of oleander and olive throughout the State.  However, it is established and abundant in Riverside County, is not under official control, and has likely been spreading through the nursery trade.  There are no approved treatments or survey tools for this pest and there are no plans for an interior quarantine.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Alvord, D.V. 2014.  Pests of Fruit Crops: A Color Handbook.  CRC Press.  462pp.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Knížek, M. 2011. Subfamily Scolytinae. pgs. 204-250. In Lobl, I and A. Smetana (Eds.), Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Volume 7. Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 372pp.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/19/2017 – 3/5/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls