Category Archives: Coleoptera

Anthonomus rubi (Herbst): strawberry blossom weevil


California Pest Rating Proposal for

Anthonomus rubi (Herbst): strawberry blossom weevil
Current Rating: None
Proposed Rating: A


Comment Period: 09/15/2021 – 10/30/2021


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Posted by tn

Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann): velvet longhorn beetle


California Pest Rating Proposal for

Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann): velvet longhorn beetle
Pest Rating: B


Comment Period: CLOSED


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posted by tn

Xyleborus monographus (Fabricius): Mediterranean oak borer


California Pest Rating Proposal for

Xyleborus monographus (Fabricius): Mediterranean oak borer
Pest Rating: B

Comment Period: CLOSED


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posted by ta

Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston): Mediterranean pine engraver Coleoptera: Curculionidae


California Pest Rating Proposal for

Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston): Mediterranean pine engraver
Pest Rating: C

Comment Period: CLOSED


*NOTE:

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Comments & Responses:

Some comments were received from one outside party.  They suggested that this species may warrant a higher rating that the proposed C-rating.  They suggested that the reproductive and dispersal potential might be considered High (it was rated Medium in the present PRP).  In response, I have not seen information suggesting that the reproductive potential of this beetle is notably higher than other insect pests.  The dispersal capacity is considered high because this beetle flies and it is shown to travel with infested wood.  Therefore, the rating for this section is Medium (has either high reproductive or dispersal potential).

The commenter also pointed out that this beetle could be infesting native trees in California but that this could be underreported due to a number of reasons.  It could therefore be more widespread in the state than is currently known, it could be having unrecognized impacts on California’s forests, and it could continue to spread further into the state.  In response to this:

-Regarding host range, this beetle appears to be limited to one family of plants (the pine family).  I think a Low rating for host range is appropriate for this breadth of host.

-I agree that potential environmental impact may be underestimated in this proposal, so I have modified it by including under Environmental Impact A (the pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes).

-The original proposal recognized the potential for this beetle to continue to spread in the state and impact forests.

Orthotomicus erosus is already widespread in California and it does not appear to be under any form of control in the state.  A C-rating is appropriate for this species.

Posted by ka

Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger): a weevil coleoptera: apionidae


California Pest Rating Proposal for

Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger): a weevil
Current Rating: Q
Proposed Rating: D

Comment Period: CLOSED


*NOTE:

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Posted by ka

Twobanded Japanese Weevil | Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus

Twobanded Japanese Weevil
Figure 1: Pseudcneorhinus bifasciatus (Photo: Judy Gallagher)
California Pest Rating for
Name: Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs (twobanded Japanese weevil)
Synonym: Callirhopalus bifasciatus (Roelofs)
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is a stout, convex, and pear-shaped weevil with a short, blunt snout, and elytra much broader than its pronotum. It is approximately 5 mm long, and is covered with brown and grey scales that form two bands across the elytra (Thomas, 2005). The elytra are fused, and the hind wings are absent, so this weevil cannot fly. The adult weevils feed during the day on leaves.  They are easy to overlook due to their subdued brown coloration (Smith,1955).  They can cause significant damage to plants when they are abundant. This weevil is highly polyphagous and is known to feed on over 100 species of plants.  Recorded hosts include multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), rose, azalea (Rhododendron spp.), privet (Ligustrum spp.), azalea, forsythia, geranium, hemlock, mountain laurel, lilac, strawberry, flowering dogwood, and perennial phlox.  In the northeastern United States, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus has one generation per year with egg laying taking place from the middle of May through October (Gyeltshen and Hodges, 2016).  Eggs are laid on fallen leaves within leaf-folds, and the edges of the leaf is then sealed by the weevil to form a “pod” (Zepp, 1978).  An egg “pod” contains one to nine eggs (Zepp, 1978).  The eggs hatch in 14 to 18 days (Allen, 1959).  The newly hatched larvae leave the “pod” and burrow into the soil. The larvae live in the soil and feed on the roots of host plants, but the extent of damage from their feeding is not well documented.  Allen (1959) found as many as 150 larvae per square foot, at depths ranging from one to nine inches, underneath infested privet hedges in New Jersey.  Larvae were found at depths ranging from one to nine inches (Allen, 1959).  These larvae started to pupate by early May, and adults emerged in late June and early July (Allen, 1959).  Although the weevil has a wide range of hosts, the Rosaceae family may be particularly vulnerable to this pest.  For example, one study showed that this weevil had the greatest reproductive success when adults were fed on foliage of Rosa multiflora Thunb. (Rosaceae) compared with four other species of other ornamental plants in three other families (Maier, 1983).  Another study found larvae of this weevil to cause damage to the roots of peach trees in Georgia (peaches are in the family Rosaceae; Cottrell and Horton, 2013).

Worldwide Distribution:  Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is native to China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and eastern Siberia.  It has been established on the east coast of the United States for more than 100 years and it is currently known to occur there from New England south to northern Florida and west to Illinois and Indiana (Thomas, 2005).  It has also been found in Oklahoma, although the distribution of the weevil in that state is unknown (Rebek and Grantham, 2008).

Official Control: Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is not known to be under official control.

California Distribution:  Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus was intercepted in a West Sacramento postal facility in an out-of-state shipment of crabapple in August 2015 (CDFA, 2015).

The risk Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The weevil’s distribution extends from New England to Florida, indicating a wide temperature tolerance. It is not known if there are other climate limitations. This weevil is highly polyphagous, and it is presumed that suitable host plants are present throughout much of California.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus, has been reported to feed on more than 100 species of plants in more than 25 families. It is primarily known for damaging ornamental plants, but it has been found to also damage vegetable and field crops (Day, 2014; Thomas, 2005). Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus reproduces parthogenetically (Takenouchi et al, 1983).  This high reproductive capacity is offset by a limited dispersal potential.  The weevil’s wing covers are fused rendering it incapable of flight.  It could be dispersed through the movement of infected nursery stock (Wheeler and Boyd, 2005).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: As described previously, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus has a very wide range of hosts including field and vegetable crops (Thomas, 2005; Day, 2014).  The weevil has the potential of lowering the value of nursery crops and the yield of agricultural crops.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus became established in California, it could attack a wide variety of ornamental and garden plants. The impact of the infestation could trigger treatment programs.  This pest may also pose a threat to endangered species such as Rosa minutifolia and Potentilla hickmannii.  Therefore, this beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There is significant uncertainty regarding the suitability of the California climate and the ability of Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus to become established in California. It apparently can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, as shown by its broad distribution in the eastern United States, but the suitability of the drier climate of California is unknown.  The weevil has been found in a relatively dry western state (Oklahoma), but the extent of its incursion there is unknown (Rebek and Grantham, 2008).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus is a weevil that attacks a wide range of hosts.  If it can become established in California, it poses an economic and environmental threat to the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Allen, H.W. 1957.  A Japanese weevil abundant in the Philadelphia area.  Entomological News 68: 169-174.

Allen, H.W. 1959. The Japanese weevil Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs. Journal of Economic Entomology 52: 586-587.

CDFA.  2015.  Detector dogs do it again!  Planting Seeds – Food & Farming News from CDFA. Accessed:  May 4, 2018  http://plantingseedsblog.cdfa.ca.gov/wordpress/?p=9310

Cottrell, T.T. and Horton, D.L.  2013.  Emergence of root-feeding weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in central Georgia peach orchards.  Journal of Entomological Sciences 48: 184-194.

Day, E.R.  2014.  Japanese Weevil.  444-624 (ENTO-98NP).  VCE Publications. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

Gayeltshen, J. and Hodges, A.  2016.  Twobanded Japanese Weevil, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  EENY361.  Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida; IFAS Extension.

Maier, C.T.  1983.  Influence of host plants on the reproductive success of the parthenogenetic Two-Banded Japanese Weevil, Callirhopalus bifasciatus (Roelofs) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Environmental Entomology 12: 1197-1203.

Rebek, E.J., and Grantham, R.  2008.  New Oklahoma insect pest of woody ornamentals: Japanese weevil.  Plant Disease and Insect Advisory.  Oklahoma State University Extension. Vol. 7, No. 33.

Smith, F.F. 1955. Scientific Notes: Notes on the biology and control of Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus. Journal of Economic Entomology 48:628-629.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed May 22, 2018. http://scan-bugs.org/portal/taxa/index.php?taxon=Pseudocneorhinus+bifasciatus&formsubmit=Search+Terms

Takenouchi, Y., Suomalainen, E., Saura, A., and Lokki, J.  1983.  Genetic polymorphism and evolution in parthenogenetic animals.  XII.  Observations on Japanese polyploid Curculionidae (Coleoptera).  Japanese Journal of Genetics 58:153-157.

Thomas, M.C. 2005. Pest Alert: The twobanded Japanese weevil (Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs), an invasive pest new to Florida (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  DACS-P-01673.  Accessed: May 2, 2018.  https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/66258/1600078/Pseudocneorhinus_bifasciatus,_The_two_banded_Japanese_Weevil.pdf

Wheeler, A.G., Jr., and Boyd, D.W., Jr. 2005. Distribution of an invasive weevil, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs, in the southeastern United States. Journal of

Entomological Science 40: 25-30.

Zepp, D.B.  1978.  Egg pod formation by Callirhopalus (subg. Pseudocneorhinus) bifasciatus (Roelofs) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Eremninae).  Coleopterists Bulletin 32: 311-313.

Photo: By Judy Gallagher [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons


Author:

Karen Olmstead, Environmental Scientist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6879; plant.health@cdfa.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA  95833; (916) 654-1211; plant.health@cdfa.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

7/25/18 – 9/08/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

Longhorned Beetle | Plagionotus arcuatus (Linnaeus)

Longhorned Beetle | Plagionotus arcuatus
Giedrius Markevicius, Lithuanian Entomological Society, Bugwood.org

California Pest Rating for
Longhorned Beetle | Plagionotus arcuatus (Linnaeus)
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

 


 

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Plagionotus arcuatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult Plagionotus arcuatus (P. arcuatus) are 9-20 mm in length and black with yellow bands and spots (Lazarev, 2010). The biology of this species does not appear to be well-studied.  The larvae live in dead (reports suggest the wood has usually been dead for only several months) wood of deciduous trees, including Carpinus, Castanea, Fagus, Prunus, Robinia, Salix, and Quercus spp.  Reports suggest that this beetle attacks wood that is relatively fresh (i.e., dead, but recently-killed), perhaps several months old (Barševskis and Savenkov, 2013; Faggi et al., 2010; Ilić and Ćurčić, 2013; Jonsell, 2008; Sama et al., 2005; Vodka, 2007).  Escherich (1916) reported that this damage lowers the value of oak timber.  No evidence was found suggesting that P. arcuatus attacks living trees.  Other species of Plagionotus also appear to be restricted to dead trees, although Moraal and Hilszczanski (2000) suggested that one or more species in the genus may have contributed to the death of oak trees in Poland.

Worldwide Distribution:  Plagionotus arcuatus has been reported from northern Africa (including Libya), central Asia, the Caucasus (including Georgia and Armenia), Europe (including Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Spain, Serbia, and Sweden), Iran, Syria, and Turkey (Barševskis and Savenkov, 2013; Faggi et al., 2010; Georgiev and Hubenov, 2006; Ilić and Ćurčić, 2013; Jonsell, 2008; Keszthelyi, 2015; Özdikmen, 2014; Peña, 2002; Plewa et al., 2015).

Official Control: Plagionotus arcuatus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Plagionotus arcuatus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Plagionotus arcuatus was intercepted on dunnage that was suspected to have come from Europe in 1996 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Plagionotus arcuatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Plagionotus arcuatus is widely distributed and is found in areas with a range of temperate climates, including Mediterranean. The species feeds on a variety of deciduous trees, including the genera Prunus and Quercus, which are widely distributed in California.  The species is likely to become established over a large portion of California.  Therefore, arcuatus receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Plagionotus arcuatus is reported to feed on at least seven genera from five different families of deciduous trees. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Plagionotus arcuatus can presumably fly.  This beetle can also disperse through movement of firewood, as shown by the interception of multiple living adults in firewood on the island of Majorca (Díaz-Calafut et al., 2017).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Plagionotus arcuatus attacks recently-cut wood and was reported to reduce the quality of oak timber.  Avoiding damage from this beetle may require changes in the timing of timber harvest.  Forest product (including timber) sales in California totaled $1.4 billion in 2012 (McIver et al., 2015).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Plagionotus arcuatus became established in California, it could possibly compete with native beetles that live in and feed on recently-dead wood. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score:  2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Plagionotus arcuatus: Medium (11)

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Plagionotus arcuatus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

One report suggests that species in the genus Plagionotus may be capable of attacking living trees (Moraal and Hilszczanski, 2000).  If so, P. arcuatus may be capable of attacking living trees and the potential impacts of it in California would be greater than considered in this proposal.  However, if this species was capable of inflicting significant damage to living trees, it seems likely that this damage would have been recognized, considering its wide distribution and host range.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Plagionotus arcuatus is not known to be present in California.  Although it is only known to attack dead trees, it could lower the value of cut timber and thus poses a threat to the timber industry of California.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Barševskis A., and Savenkov, N.  2013.  Contribution to the knowledge of long-horned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Latvia.  Baltic Journal of Coleopterology 13:91-102.

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database.  2018.  Plagionotus arcuatus.  Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture.  Accessed March 19, 2018: https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Escherich, K.  1916.  Clytus arcuatus L. (Cerambycide) als schlimmer technischer Eichenschädling.  Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Land- und Forstwirtschaft 14:272-273.

Faggi, M., Nappini, S., and Biscaccianti, A. B.  2010.  Studies on longhorn beetles (Coleoptera Cerambycidae) of the Monte Ruffino Nature Reserve and Bosco del Sasseto Natural Monument (Lazio, Central Italy).  Journal of Zoology 93:31-45.

Georgiev, G., and Hubenov, Z.  2006.  Vertical Distribution and Zoogeographical Characteristics of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) Family in Bulgaria.  Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 58:315-343.

Ilić, N., and Ćurčić, S.  2013.  The longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Rtanj Mountain (Serbia).  Acta Entomologica Serbica 18:69-04.

Jonsell, M.  2008.  Saproxylic beetle species in logging residues: Which are they and which residues do they use?  Norwegian Journal of Entomology 55:109-122.

Keszthelyi, S.  2015.  Diversity and seasonal patterns of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Zselic region, Hungary. North-Western Journal of Zoology 11:62-69.

Lazarev, M. A.  2010.  New subspecies of Plagionotus arcuatus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Transcaucasia and Kyrgyzstan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  Studies and Reports, Taxonomical Series 6:149-164.

Moraal, L. G., and Hilszczanski, J.  2000.  The oak buprestid beetle, Agrilus biguttatus (F.) (Col., Buprestidae), a recent factor in oak decline in Europe.  Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde 73:134-138.

McIver, C. P., Meek, J. P., Scudder, M. G., Sorenson, C. B., Morgan, T. A., and Christensen, G. A.  2012.  California’s Forest Products Industry and Timber Harvest, 2012.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-908.

Özdikmen, H.  2014.  Turkish red list categories of longicorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Part VIII-Subfamily Cerambycinae: Anaglyptini and Clytini.  Munis Entomology & Zoology Journal 9:687-712.

Peña, C. F. G.  2002.  Catálogo de los Cerambícidos de Aragón.  Catalogus de la Entomofauna Aragonesa 27:3-43.

Plewa, R., Marczak, D., Borowski, J., Mokrzycki, T., Jakubowski, M., and Górski, P.  2015.  New Data on the Occurrence of Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the Republic of Macedonia.  Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 67:43-50.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 16, 2017: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

 


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

7/24/18 – 9/07/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Palmetto Weevil | Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Fabricius)

California Pest Rating  for
Palmetto weevil | Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Fabricius)
Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Rhynchophorus cruentatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult R. cruentatus are large weevils that measure 2.7 to 3.3 centimeters in length (Wattanapongsiri, 1966).  They are dull to shining and reddish-brown to black (or a pattern of both) in color (Giblin-Davis et al., 1994).  This species attacks palms.  Eggs are laid in petiole bases or wounds in the palm.  The larvae feed on the tissue internally and form a cocoon made from plant fiber, in which they pupate.  The feeding damage can compromise the structural integrity of the palm to the extent that the crown falls over (Giblin-Davis and Howard, 1988).  The larval feeding damage is cryptic because it occurs inside the palm, and it is often not apparent until death of the tree is inevitable (Hunsberger et al., 2000).  In the case of Sabal palmetto, which is native in the beetle’s area of distribution, R. cruentatus apparently only attacks stressed trees.  However, in the case of introduced palm species, including Phoenix canariensis, apparently healthy trees are attacked and killed, sometimes in large numbers.  For example, 97% of the Phoenix canariensis in one Florida nursery were killed; the damage was estimated at $285,000-$380,000 (Hunsberger et al., 2000).  Besides Phoenix and Sabal, other genera of palms reported to be attacked include Caryota, Cocos, Latania, Pritchardia, Roystonea, Thrinax, and Washingtonia (Hunsberger et al., 2000; Weissling and Broschat, 1999).  Other non-palm plants may also be utilized by this beetle, but little information is available regarding this (Wattanapongsiri, 1966).

Other Rhynchophorus species are important palm pests, for example R. ferrugineus and R. palmarumRhynchophorus palmarum is a vector of the nematode Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, which causes red ring disease of palms.  This nematode is not yet known to occur in the United States.  The disease affects Phoenix dactylifera and P. canariensis, which are important crop and ornamental trees in California (Hodel, 2016).  If this nematode was introduced to the United States, R. cruentatus could possibly vector it (Griffith, 1987).

Worldwide Distribution:  Rhynchophorus cruentatus is native to the southeastern United States and is found from South Carolina south to Florida (including the Florida Keys) and west to Texas.  The species has also been reported from the Bahamas (Andros Island), which may represent an introduction (Turnbow and Thomas, 2008; Wattanapongsiri, 1966).

Official Control: Rhynchophorus cruentatus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Rhynchophorus cruentatus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Rhynchophorus cruentatus was intercepted at a border station on palm fronds from Florida in 2011 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Rhynchophorus cruentatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Two other Rhynchophorus species that are native to the tropics, ferrugineus and R. vulneratus, have become established in areas that do not have tropical climates, including Mediterranean Europe and southern California. Rhynchophorus cruentatus is found in the temperate to subtropical southeastern United States.  Considering the climatic flexibility of other species in the genus, it seems likely that a significant portion of California could offer a suitable climate for R. cruentatus.  Regarding host plants, palms (including known host species, such as Phoenix canariensis) are planted widely in California.  Therefore, Rhynchophorus cruentatus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Rhynchophorus cruentatus is reported to feed on eight genera of palms. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Rhynchophorus cruentatus fly (Weissling et al., 1994).  The species could also possibly be moved with palms, both whole plants as well as fronds.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Rhynchophorus cruentatus attacks palms, including the genera Phoenix and Washingtonia.  If this beetle became established in California, it would threaten the date industry in southeastern California and (in a much larger area) ornamental palms.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California and date production in the state was approximately $47 million in 2016 (Hoddle).  By killing trees, cruentatus would lower yield in both industries.  As mentioned above, in Background, R. cruentatus could possibly vector the nematode that causes red ring disease in palms.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Rhynchophorus cruentatus is reported to attack Washingtonia Groves of the native W. filifera are present in the deserts of southern California, and they could be threatened by the establishment of R. cruentatus.  Palms that are known hosts of R. cruentatus, including Phoenix and Washingtonia species, are widely planted in California.  If R. cruentatus became established in the state, it could impact home and urban plantings of these trees, and this could trigger treatment programs.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Rhynchophorus cruentatus: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Rhynchophorus cruentatus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

The demonstrated ability for other Rhynchophorus species that are native to tropical areas to invade temperate areas (e.g., Europe) is considered to be evidence that R. cruentatus could possibly become established in California, even though this species is currently known to occur in areas with a subtropical or tropical climate.  Rhynchophorus cruentatus has not been proven to vector the nematode B. cocophilus.  The desert areas where the native groves of Washingtonia filifera occur may not have a suitable climate for the establishment of R. cruentatus.  If so, these native palm groves are not at risk from this beetle.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Rhynchophorus cruentatus feeds on and kills palm trees, and it is not known to be present in California.  This species poses a threat to the economy and environment of the state.  For these reasons, a “A” rating is justified.


References:

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database.  2018.  Rhynchophorus cruentatus.  Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture.  Accessed April 11, 2018: https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Giblin-Davis, R. M. and Howard, F. W.  1988.  Notes on the palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 101:101-107.

Giblin-Davis, R. M., Weissling, T. J., Oehlschlager, A. C., and Gonzalez, L. M.  1994.  Field response of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone and fermenting plant volatiles.  Florida Entomologist 77:164-172.

Griffith, R.  1987.  Red ring disease of coconut palm.  Plant Disease 71:193-196.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed November 17, 2017: http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Hodel, D. R., Marika, M. A., and Ohara, L. M.  2016.  The South American palm weevil.  PalmArbor 2016-3:1-27.

Hunsberger, A. G. B., Giblin-Davis, R. M., and Weissling, T. J.  2000.  Symptoms and population dynamics of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palms.  Florida Entomologist 83:290-303.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed April 11, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Turnbow, R. H. and Thomas, M. C.  2008.  An annotated checklist of the Coleoptera (Insecta) of the Bahamas.  Insecta Mundi 34:1-64.

Wattanapongsiri, A.  1966.  A Revision of the Genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Ph.D. thesis.  Oregon State University.

Weissling, T. J. and Broschat, T. K.  1999.  Integrated management of palm pests.  Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 112:247-250.

Weissling, T. J., Giblin-Davis, R. M., Center, B. J., and Hiyakawa, T.  1994.  Flight behavior and seasonal trapping of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87:641-647.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

7/3/18 – 8/17/18


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Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls