Category Archives: Lepidoptera

Cotton Bollworm | Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

California Pest Rating for
Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)Cotton bollworm
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Helicoverpa armigera was recently intercepted in a cut flower shipment in Los Angeles. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Helicoverpa armigera is a highly polyphagous pest of many economically significant crops in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe (King, 1994). Helicoverpa armigera pupae overwinter in the soil. Adults emerge in May – June and lay eggs, usually on or near flowers. The larvae primarily feed on reproductive parts of hosts (flowers and fruits), but they can also feed on foliage. There are from two to six generations/year, depending on the climate. This species has been reported to cause serious losses throughout its range, in particular to tomatoes, corn, and cotton (Lammers and Ma cLeod, 2007).

Worldwide Distribution:  Helicoverpa armigera is widely distributed. It has been reported from the following places: Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cocos Islands, Republic of Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and Yemen.

Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Ukraine.

Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Oceania: American Samoa, Australia, Belau, Christmas Island, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

South America: Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay (CABI, 2007; Fibiger and Skule, 2011; EPPO, 2012; Sugayama, 2013; Senave, 2013; Murúa et al., 2014).

Official Control: Helicoverpa armigera is listed as a harmful organism in Costa Rica, Bermuda, French Polynesia, Honduras, Paraguay, Turkey, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Monaco, San Marino, Uruguay, Colombia, European Union, Norway, and Serbia (USDA PCIT).

California Distribution: Helicoverpa armigera has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: There was only one specimen reported in the Pest and Damage Record Database by CDFA. This specimen was found (2017) in Los Angeles County on a cut flower shipment from India (California Department of Food and Agriculture).

The risk Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Helicoverpa armigera can feed on a wide variety of plants that grow in California. It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Helicoverpa armigera is a polyphagous moth and a major insect pest of both field and horticultural crops in many parts of the world (Fitt, 1989). It has been reported on over 180 species of plants, including many crops, in at least 45 plant families (Venette et al., 2003). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Helicoverpa armigera exhibits overlapping generations, typically two to five generations per year in subtropical and temperate regions. Up to 11 generations per year can occur under optimal conditions (Tripathi and Singh, 1991; King, 1994; Fowler and Lakin, 2001).  The female lays up to 1000 eggs in clusters or singly on fruits, stems, and growing points. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Helicoverpa armigera is considered to be among the most damaging agricultural pests in Australia, costing approximately $225.2 million per year to control (Clearly et al., 2006). This moth has the potential to lower crop yields and increase production costs in California. If Helicoverpa armigera were to establish in California it is also likely to disrupt markets for California fresh fruit and plants because this pest is regulated by many countries.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Helicoverpa armigera is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments by residents who find infestations in gardens. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Helicoverpa armigera (Cotton Bollworm):  High (14)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Helicoverpa armigera has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Only one interception record was found in CDFA database, there would be chances that it presumably enters the state undetected at other times. Therefore, it is possible that it may be present in some areas of California. There is little uncertainty that H. armigera could become widely established in California, as there are numerous host plants grown throughout the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Helicoverpa armigera has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it establishes in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:

CABI. 2018.  Helicoverpa armigera.  CAB International.  Accessed August 9, 2018:  https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/26757

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database. 2011. Aulacaspis tubercularis. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed August 9, 2018:  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Cleary, A. J., Cribb, B. W., and Murray, D. A. H. 2006. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner): can wheat stubble protect cotton from attack. Australian Journal of Entomology 45:10-15.

Fitt, G. P. 1989. The ecology of Heliothis spp. in relation to agroecosystems. Annual Review of Entomology 34:17-52.

Fowler, G. A. and Lakin, K. R. 2001. Risk Assessment: The Old-World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST-PERAL

Smith E. 2015.  Old World bollworm management program.  Environmental Assessment USDA. Accessed August 9, 2018:
https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/ea/downloads/2015/owb-pr-ea.pdf

King, A. B. S. 1994. Heliothis /Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pp. 39-106 in Matthews, G. A. and Tunstall, J. P. (eds.), Insect Pests of Cotton. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Lammers, J. W. and MacLeod, A. 2007. Report of a Pest Risk Analysis: Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1808). Plant Protection Service and Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory.

Sullivan, M. and Molet, T. 2007. CPHST Pest Datasheet for Helicoverpa armigera. USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST. Revised April 2014.  Accessed August 9, 2018:
http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/3068

Tripathi, S. and Singh, R. 1991. Population dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Insect Science Applications 12:367-374.

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT). Phytosanitary

Export Database (PExD). Harmful organism report: Helicoverpa armigera.
Accessed August 9, 2018: https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Author:

Javaid Iqbal, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@] cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:*CLOSED

11/29/2018 – 1/13/2019


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls 

Leek Moth | Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller)

California Pest Rating for 
Leek Moth | Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller)
Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

On July 3, 2018 USDA released a New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report proposing to change the status of Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth) to non-actionable within the continental United States.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Leek moth is a leaf-mining moth that feeds on plants in the genus Allium1. Preferred hosts of the moth are garlic, leek, and onion1. Over-wintering adults become active when temperatures reach 15ºC1.  Female moths lay eggs on leaves which larvae mine1.  Mature larvae emerge from the leaf tissue and pupate on the external surface of the plant1.  When adults emerge they either begin another generation or overwinter1, depending on the time of year.  Leek moth can rapidly spread long distances when infested plant material is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Leek moth is presumably native to Eurasia. It was first found in North America in Ontario in 19931.  Leek moth was first detected in the United States in New York in 2009 and has since spread to New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont1.

Official Control: Leek moth is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Polynesia, Honduras, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan3.

California Distribution:  Leek moth has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Leek moth has never been intercepted in California.

The risk Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Leek moth is expected to be able to establish a widespread distribution in California wherever Allium plants grow. Based on its current widespread distribution in Europe and northern Africa it is not expected to be limited by climate in California.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Leek moth is only known to feed on plants in the genus Allium.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Leek moth has a high reproductive rate with each female laying an average of 100 eggs and the population completing as many as 8 generations per year1, depending on climate.  The moth can rapidly spread long distances when eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or harvested plant parts are moved.  Adults can also fly.  Leek moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California is the largest producing state in the U.S. of garlic, onions, and green onions.  The state produces 90%+ of the commercial garlic, is the largest producer of processing onions, and is one of the top fresh market onion producers in the nation2.  Both garlic and onion crops are valued at $150-$300 million each annually2.  California also leads the nation in the production of green onions with a 2009 crop value of $28 million in Monterey and Riverside county alone4.  If leek moth were to establish in California it is expected to lower crop yields and increase production costs of these crops, especially on organic farms.  Leek moth causes damage of economic importance in Allium  Yield reductions can be as high as 50 percent and have the potential to reach 100 percent for organic growers who do not implement sufficient control measures1.  Its presence in the state would likely affect markets for fresh garlic and onions.  Growers in other places infested with leek moth have changed cultural practices including crop row netting, crop rotation, delayed planting, removal of old and infested leaves, destruction of pupae or larvae, early harvesting, avoidance of planting crops near known infestations, and destruction of plant debris following harvesting1.  The moth is not expected to vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Leek moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If leek moth were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is likely to affect threatened and endangered species such as Munz’s onion (Allium munzii) and Yosemite onion (Allium yosemitense).  Leek moth would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in agriculture and in residential gardens.  Species of Allium are grown in home/urban gardens and would be significantly affected by this pest.  Leek moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Leek moth has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Leek moth causes significant damage to plants in the genus Allium.  Its presence in California would rapidly come to the attention of garlic and onion growers, so there is little uncertainty regarding its absence from the state.  There is low uncertainty with this pest.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

If leek moth were to become established in California it would have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:

1 USDA New Pest Advisory Group:  NPAG Report Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller): Leek moth.  June 29, 2018.

2 California Garlic & Onion Research Advisory Board.  http://www.cagarlicandonion.com/

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 Smith, Richard, Michael Cahn, Marita Cantwell, Steven Koike, Eric Natwick, and Etaferahu Takele. 2011.  Green Onion Production in California.  UC Vegetable Research & Information Center Vegetable Production Series.  http://anrcatalog.ucanr.edu/pdf/7243.pdf


Author:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-0312, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

9/24/18 – 11/8/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Azalea Leafminer | Caloptilia azaleella (Brants)

California Pest Rating for
Caloptilia azaleella (Brants):  Azalea leafminer
Lepidopetera:  Gracillariidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Gracillariidae insects were recently intercepted by CDFA through high risk pest exclusion program on a shipment of azalea plants, originating from Kentucky. The most common Gracillariidae, intercepted on Azalea is Caloptilia azaleella. This insect has been previously rated C by CDFA. A pest rating proposal is required to evaluate the current rating for this species.

History & Status:

BackgroundCaloptilia azaleella are small, yellow moths with purplish markings on the wings. Leaf mining stage is a yellowish caterpillar about half inch long. Caloptilia azaleella is known to attack only azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) worldwide. The larvae mine the leaf tissue; as these mines age, they cause brown blisters on the leaves. The mature larvae emerge from leaf tissue, then roll and tie the edge of the leaves around themselves for protection. They can cause considerable damage to greenhouse grown azaleas in North Carolina (Frank, 2016). Maximum infestation in Florida nurseries was noted from early spring through summer (Dekle, 2007). In Oregon, where it has been  introduced, there are three generations per year.

Worldwide Distribution:

Caloptilia azaleella is endemic to Japan but has been introduced to all azalea growing parts of the world including Europe (southern Britain), New Zealand and eastern Australia (T.E.R.R.A.I.N, 2018).

In the North America, it has been found in the Unites States and Canada from Florida to Texas, Long Island, West Virginia and Ohio, California, Washington and British Colombia (Johnson and Lyon, 1994).

Official Control: Caloptilia azaleella has been listed as harmful organism in Chile (USDA -PCIT).

California DistributionCaloptilia azaleella was introduced to California in 1962 for the first time (Essig Museum Online Database, 2010) and more recently observed in Sonoma county (2017) and Shasta county (2014) (iNaturalist, 2016).

California InterceptionsCaloptilia azaleella has been intercepted through high risk pest exclusion and interior quarantine programs in California (Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Caloptilia azaleella ( azalea leaf miner) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rhododendron spp. grow best in filtered shade and prefer acidic soils with high organic content and excellent drainage (Pests in garden and Landscapes, 2017). This type of climate is found in northern California and extends down the coast to San Francisco Bay (American Rhododendron Society, 2018). Some of the maddenii-type rhododendron can grow in southern California as well. Since C. azaleella is already introduced and present in Northern CA, its introduction and spread to the rest of the state is likely. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Score: 2

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Caloptilia azaleella feeds only on Rhododendron spp. It receives a Low (1) in this category

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 1

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Caloptilia azaleella deposits 1-5 eggs on the undersurface of leaves during spring time. The life cycle is completed in one week. It overwinters as a last instar larva or pupa in a rolled leaf. Larva can be found on leaves all year around. There are three generations in western states and three to four generations in southern states. Because azaleella does not leave its host during the entire life cycle, it does not spread over large distances. However, movement of infected azalea nursery stock could likely disperse this species. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 2

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Caloptilia azaleella is a pest of container and field grown nursery stock but can also attack landscape grown plants. Heavy infestation may not kill the plant, especially if it can be controlled during early stages of growth but the damage is likely to affect the appearance and quality of the plant. Increased cost of pruning of infested branches and release of parasitoids can add to production costs and decrease the value of the crop (Dekle, 2007). It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Caloptilia azaleella is not likely to lower biodiversity and disrupt any natural habitats. It has also not been reported to affect any endangered species, either directly or indirectly. It could attack native rhododendron and native azaleas but unlikely to cause significant damage. The infestations of azaleas would likely trigger chemical treatments by homeowners. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Caloptilia azaleella (azalea leaf miner): Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here:

Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Caloptilia azaleella (azalea leafminer) has been found in the environment and receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: -1

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

Caloptilia azaleella is present in azalea growing areas in Northern California and has also been detected by CDFA from time to time. However, it is not widespread in the state, possibly due to its inability to attack any other host plants. There are some varieties of Rhododendron, being grown in Southern CA and it may be present in large azalea growing areas than is currently known

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Caloptilia azaleella has been reported in the environment of California. However, it is not likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts. A “C” rating is justified.


References:

 American Rhododendron Society (ARS): California Chapter, 2018. Plant Culture and Care. P.O. Box 214, Great River, NY 11739. Accessed 6/14/2018: http://www.rhododendron.org/climate.htm http://www.calchapterars.org/

Dekle, G.W. 2007. Azalea Leaf miner: Featured Creatures. Entomology and Plant Pathology. Publication # EENY-379, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, University of Florida. Accessed 6/14/2018:  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/shrubs/azalea_leafminer.htm

Essig Museum Online Database, 2010. California Moth Specimen Database. University of California, Berkeley. Accessed 6/21/2018  https://essigdb.berkeley.edu/calmoth.html

Frank, S. 2016. Azalea leafminer. Entomology Insect Notes. North Carolina State Extension Publications North Carolina State Extension. Accessed 6/14/2018:  https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/azalea-leafminer

iNaturalist, 2016. Online crowdsourced species identification system and an organism occurrence recording tool. Gracillariidae of California. Caloptilia azaleella  https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?locale=en-US&place_id=14&taxon_id=320764

Johnson WT and Lyon HH. 1994. Insects That Feed on Trees and Shrubs. 2nd ed. rev. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018. Caloptilia azaleella. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. California Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed 6/14/2018:  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Pests in gardens and landscapes, 2017. Azalea-Rhododendron spp. Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Accessed 6/15/2018: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/GARDEN/PLANTS/azalea.html

Reding, Tom. 2018. Caliptilia azaleella. Wikipedia- the free encyclopedia. Accessed 6/19/2018:  https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caloptilia_azaleella&oldid=825762750#References

Richers, K. 1996. California Moth Specimens Database. Caloptilia azaleella. University of California, Berkeley. Accessed 6/21/018. https://essigdb.berkeley.edu/calmoth_about.html

Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. (T.E.R.R.A.I.N.), 2018. “Caloptilia azaleella (Azalea leafminer moth)”. The MAIN trust GIS community project. Government of New Zealand. Accessed 6/14/2018: http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/moths/caloptilia-azaleella-moth-azalea-leafminer-caloptilia-azaleella.html

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Harmful organism report: Caloptilia azaleella. Accessed 6/14/2018.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Author:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 403-6617, plant. health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

7/30/18 – 9/13/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: C

 


Posted by ls 

Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica

California Pest Rating for
Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica (Saunders)
Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Diaphania indica is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Diaphania indica is a pest of cucurbit crops, including cucumber, melon, and watermelon.  It has also been reported to feed on plants in the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae (Arcaya et al., 2004; Ganehiarachchi, 1997; MacLeod, 2005).  Adults have a wingspan of 24-33 mm.  The hind and forewings have solid white centers and thick, brown margins (Evaratt et al., 2015).  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves.  The larvae feed on leaves as well as flowers and fruits (Ganehiarachchi, 1997; Kinjo and Arakaki, 2002).  This moth is mostly restricted to tropical and subtropical climates.  For example, in the United States, it is only found in Florida.  However, it has become a pest in greenhouses in Japan and Korea, and it may be capable of living in more temperate climates in these situations (Kinjo and Arakaki, 2002; MacLeod, 2008).

Worldwide Distribution:  Diaphania indica is native to the Old World tropics (Waterhouse, 1993).  It is reported from tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, Australia, the Middle East, Asia, Pacific islands, Central America, South America, and the southeastern United States (only in Florida) (Clavijo A., 1990).  There are a few records from Alabama and Texas, but these may not represent established populations (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

Official Control: Diaphania indica is considered reportable by the United States Department of Agriculture.

California Distribution:  Diaphania indica is not known to occur in California.

California Interceptions:  Diaphania indica has been intercepted on mango fruit from Florida (PDR # 430P06135915).

The risk Diaphania indica would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of Diaphania indica appears to be largely restricted to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate. It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California.  Therefore, Diaphania indica receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Diaphania indica feeds on a variety of crop plants in three families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Diaphania indica  Eggs or larvae could be moved with infested plants.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Diaphania indica feeds on a variety of crops in the family Cucurbitaceae, causing loss of fruit and plant mortality.  This species has achieved pest status both in fields as well as in greenhouses.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

 B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are native California plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. It is possible that, if established, Diaphania indica could disrupt natural communities where these plants occur.  Crop infestations could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Diaphania indica: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Diaphania indica is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There is no uncertainty regarding the potential of Diaphania indica to be a pest in the right environment.  However, there is significant uncertainty regarding its ability to become established in California, as this species is apparently restricted to tropical/subtropical climates (except for greenhouses).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Diaphania indica is a pest of cucurbit crops and it is not known to occur in California.  It is possible that it could become established over a limited portion of the state, and if this occurred, this species could have economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Arcaya S., E., Díaz B., F., and Paz L., R.  2004.  Primer registro de Diaphania indica (Saunders, 1851) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en el cultivo de pepino en Venezuela.  Bioagro.  16(1): 73-74.

Clavijo A., J.A.  1990.  Systematics of black and white species of the genus Diaphania Hubner (1818) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Pyraustinae).  Ph.D. thesis.  McGill University.  215 pp.

Evaratt, M., Korycinska, A., and C. Malumphy.  2015.  Plant pest factsheet; cucurbit moths; Diaphania species.  Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.

Ganehiarachchi, G.A.S.M.  1997.  Aspects of the biology of Diaphania indica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka.  25(4): 203-209.

Kinjo, K. and N. Arakaki.  2002.  Effect of temperature on development and reproductive characteristics of Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  Applied Entomology and Zoology.  37(1): 141-145.

MacLeod, A.  2005 (revised).  Pest risk analysis for Diaphania indica.  Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs: Central Science Laboratory.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN).  Accessed March 6, 2018. http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu

Waterhouse, D.F.  1993.  The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Distribution, Importance and Origin.  Australian Center for International Agricultural Research.  141 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Grey Tortrix | Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday

California Pest Rating for
an insect on leaf
Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday: Grey Tortrix
Lepidoptera: Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In August 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) distributed a New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report that proposed to establish a non-reportable/non-actionable policy for Cnephasia stephensiana1.  An updated version of the report was distributed in August 2017.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating to this pest.

History & Status:

Background:  Cnephasia stephensiana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on the leaves of more than 120 species of plants1.  First instar caterpillars mine leaves; later instars live externally within spun leaves1.  Caterpillars may also feed on flowers1.  As caterpillars identified as Cnephasia sp. have only been intercepted by USDA five times1, it is presumed that members of this genus are rarely moved in trade.  The moth is thought to disperse primarily through flight1.

Worldwide Distribution: Cnephasia stephensiana is native to Europe and Russia1.  It has been found in Japan1.  It was first found in Canada (in Nova Scotia) in 19542 and has since spread across that country1.  In the United States, it has been collected in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and the state of Washington1.

Official Control: Cnephasia stephensiana is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, Cnephasia jactatana is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and Korea and Cnephasia longana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Ecuador, Korea, and South Africa3.  The entire family Tortricidae is considered harmful by Japan3.

California Distribution Cnephasia stephensiana has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Cnephasia stephensiana has never been intercepted by CDFA or the County Agricultural Commissioners.

The risk Cnephasia stephensiana (grey tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present range of Cnephasia stephensiana overlaps with USDA plant hardiness zones 4-81. This corresponds with northern and high-elevation regions of California.  Due to its polyphagous nature, the moth is likely to encounter suitable host plants in California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Cnephasia stephensiana is polyphagous and known to feed on more than 120 species of plants.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Cnephasia stephensiana can lay 300-400 eggs, indicating a high reproductive rate.  It rarely moves in trade and disperses locally by flying.  Grey tortrix receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Cnephasia stephensiana is not considered to be a pest in locations where it is abundant and is therefore not expected to lower crop yields or reduce crop values.  The moth rarely moves in trade and is not under official control in any states or nations, indicating that trade disruptions should be minimal.  It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: None

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Cnephasia stephensiana were to establish in California, it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Due to its polyphagous nature, it is likely to feed on threatened or endangered species.  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats, nor is it expected to trigger new treatment programs.  It is also not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardens, or ornamental plants.  Cnephasia stephensiana receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey tortrix):

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Cnephasia stephensiana has not been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Because of its large host range, there is a lot of uncertainty with this moth in California.  It could encounter specialty crops in the state that it has not encountered in other states.  If this were to occur, there could be disruptions to markets for California’s fresh fruit exports, such as strawberries to Mexico.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for Cnephasia stephensiana in California.  It is possible that it is present in some localities in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Cnephasia stephensiana has never been found in California.  If it were to establish in the state, it is likely to have some economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Landry, Cynthia 2014.  NPAG Report Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday: Grey tortrix.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG). Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory. Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.  Contact npag@aphis.usda.gov for this report.

2 Mutuura, Akira. 1982. Cnephasia stephensiana, a species newly recorded from Canada and compared with the previously recorded C. interjectana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  The Canadian Entomologist 114(08):667-671.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8552795&fileId=S0008347X00039225

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/18/2017 – 11/2/2017*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


PEST RATING: A


Posted by ls

Pandemis cerasana Hübner | Barred Fruit-tree tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2014 USDA’s New Pest Advisory Group distributed a report that proposed to change the status of Pandemis cerasana, barred fruit-tree tortrix, to non-actionable for the continental United States.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous leaf-rolling moth that feeds on shoots, leaves, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of a wide variety of hosts in 20 plant families.  Economically important hosts in California include apple, cherry, plum, peach, pear, blueberry, raspberry, and rose.  In these crops, feeding on flowers and fruit may result in crop losses and blemished fruit.  The most likely pathway for spread of Pandemis cerasana into California is as eggs, larvae, or pupae on nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana is native to Europe and Asia.  It was detected in British Columbia in 19653.  The moth was found in Washington in 1994 and has spread through the nine western counties.  It was first detected in Portland, Oregon in 2013.  It appears that the moth is established in Washington and is spreading naturally through the Pacific Northwest.

Official Control: Pandemis cerasana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, and South Africa2 and is considered a quarantine pest by Australia4.  It will also remain actionable in Hawaii under the NPAG report recommendations.

California Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana has never been detected in California.

California Interceptions Pandemis cerasana has never been intercepted in California or by USDA on imported fruit from Canada.

The risk Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants that grow in California and is expected to establish in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9.  It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants in 20 families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pandemis cerasana has moderate reproductive potential.  The moth has one or two generations per year3 and each female typically lays 40-90 eggs.  The moths can fly and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of undetected eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or plant material.  Pandemis cerasana receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pandemis cerasana has been reported as a minor pest defoliator of apple and pear trees in western Washington; it has not yet spread to the major fruit production areas of that state.  In Europe, management measures for the moth include chemical control, monitoring and control programs, and a regional forecasting model.  In Italy, up to 10-15% of fruit has been reported damaged.  Furthermore, there may be trade disruptions with Australia and Hawaii, where it is considered a quarantine pest.   Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pandemis cerasana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is likely to feed on endangered species that it encounters, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The moth is not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  Pandemis cerasana may trigger new treatments in orchards and in the nursery industry.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-Tree Tortrix):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pandemis cerasana has not been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

There are existing integrated pest management programs in orchards in California.  It is possible that these programs will also manage Pandemis cerasana.  There have not been any recent surveys for this moth in California.  It may already be established in some places.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pandemis cerasana is established in western Washington and has recently spread to Oregon.  It is likely to spread to California at some point in the future, either naturally or through movement of plant material.  When it enters the State, the moth may have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Millar, Leah 2014.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report on Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory.  Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Gilligan, T. M., and M. E. Epstein. 2012. Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI). Colorado State University and California Department of Food and Agriculture.  http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Pandemis_cerasana.htm

4 Plant Health Australia:  Cherry brown tortrix.  High priority pest of cherries. http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/cherry-brown-tortrix/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Operophtera brumata (L.) | Winter Moth

California Pest Rating for
Operophtera brumata (L.):  Winter Moth
Lepidoptera:  Geometridae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In January 2013 USDA announced that Operophtera brumata, winter moth, was under consideration for deregulation at our ports.  Stephen Brown (CDFA) recommended a rating proposal for the moth.

History & Status:

Background:  Winter moth is an invasive, polyphagous moth that feeds on flower and leaf buds and expanding leaf clusters of more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families3.  In Oregon, adult moths emerge from pupae in soil from early November through December1.  Females are unable to fly.  They climb trees, mate, and lay eggs in bark crevice.  Eggs hatch mid-March. First (1st) instar larvae may balloon by wind; closely related species have been documented dispersing 850m2.  By May larvae have completed development.  They then drop from trees and pupate 1-12 cm below the soil surface3.

Worldwide Distribution: Operophtera brumata is native to Palearctic region.  It was first detected in North America in Nova Scotia in 1949, but is believed to have been introduced before 19351.  It was found in British Columbia in 1976 and Oregon in 1978.  However, museum specimens from a natural history museum indicate that the moth was present in Oregon in 1958, but misidentified as the native moth Operophtera occidentalis.  Recently, winter moth has invaded Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York (Long Island).4

Official Control: United States Department of Agriculture has listed Operophtera brumata as an actionable pest.  It is unknown if winter moth is under official control anywhere else.

California Distribution:  Operophtera brumata has never been found in California.

California Interceptions Operophtera brumata has never been intercepted in California.

This risk winter moth would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Operophtera brumata is highly polyphagous and can be expected to find a plethora of suitable hosts in California. Temperatures above 27˚C (80.6˚F) are reportedly lethal to eggs6; therefore, winter moth may not be able to establish in portions of southern California where temperatures are warm between January and March.  Winter moth is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the cooler parts of California.  Winter moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Pest Host Range: Operophtera brumata feeds on more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: While adult winter moths have limited natural dispersal capabilities given their flightless females, wind-aided larval dispersal by ballooning is a valid concern.  Furthermore, the moth may be moved long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Female winter moths lay 150-350 eggs.  Operophtera brumata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Winter moth is considered a major pest of blueberries (an $82 million industry in California) and deciduous trees in Washington.  Hosts also include a number of other economically important crops, including almond5 ($3.9 billion), raspberries ($223 million), cherry5,7 ($197 million), pears ($98 million), and apple ($58 million).  Operophtera brumata has the potential to impact crops by consuming flower buds and defoliating trees, reducing crop yield.  The moth may also trigger additional treatment programs during prebloom and bloom stages, increasing crop production costs.  Chemical treatments during bloom have the potential to disrupt pollination services, negatively changing normal cultural practices.  The moth is therefore expected to have a significant economic impact on California.  Winter moth receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact:  As Operophtera brumata invades new areas, it can cause widespread defoliation4.  Forest trees can be defoliated and forced to grow a second set of flush.  When combined with other stressors, such as drought, this can kill trees.  Rosa is listed as a host of winter moth and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) is listed as an endangered species by the state of California.  However, winter moth is not expected to establish in warmer parts of the state where small-leaved rose is found.  Winter moth may also impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings by defoliating trees, reducing fruit yields, or triggering additional treatments by residents.  O. brumata receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score:

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Winter Moth:  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Operophtera brumata has never been collected in California.  Winter moth therefore receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and backed up by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one ecoarea (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous ecoareas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous ecoareas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High (14)

Uncertainty:  

The parasitoids Cyzenis albican (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Agrypon flaveolatum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been introduced to the United States and Canada as biological control agents to control winter moth populations.  In most areas they have been successful at limiting damage from the moth.  However, winter moth populations sometimes continue to reach outbreak levels after parasitoids are introduced3.  It is not certain if the parasitoids would be successful in California, or if resources would be available for mass-rearing programs.  It is also uncertain if O. brumata populations would be controlled by existing IPM programs in some agricultural ecosystems, mitigating economic damage.  Also, since there have been no recent surveys, it is possible that winter moth might be established in limited areas of the state and unnoticed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Winter moth (Operophtera brumata) has potential to cause significant economic and environmental damage to California.  An ‘A’ rating is justified.

References:

1Kimberling, D.N., J.C. Miller, and R.L. Penrose.  1986.  Distribution and parasitism of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepitoptera: Geometridae), in western Oregon.  Environmental Entomology 15: 1042-1046.

2Brown, C.E.  1962.  The life history and dispersal of the bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst.), Lepidoptera: Geometridae.  Can. Ent. 94:1103-1107.

3Horgan, F.G., J.H. Myers, and R. Van Meel. 1999.  Cyzenis albicans (Diptera: Tachinidae) does not prevent the outbreak of winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in birch stands and blueberry plots on the lower mainland of British Columbia.  Environ. Entomol. 28(1): 96-107.  https://academic.oup.com/ee/article-abstract/28/1/96/502294/Cyzenis-albicans-Diptera-Tachinidae-Does-Not?redirectedFrom=PDF

4Elkinton, J.S., G.H. Boettner, M. Sremac, R. Cwiazdowski, R.R. Hunkins, J. Callahan, S.B. Schuefele, C.P. Donahue, A.H. Porter, A. Khrimian, B.M. Whited, and N.K. Campbell.  2010.  Survey for winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northeastern North America with pheromone-baited traps and hybridization with the native bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 103(2): 135-145.

5Rajaei, H., M. Abaii, and A. Hausmann.  2010.  First record of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northern Iran.  Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6(2):63-68.  https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0ahUKEwjWgbGU3qnUAhUJxmMKHXHrA2IQFgg9MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fijab.um.ac.ir%2Findex.php%2Fbiosys%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F25213%2F4299&usg=AFQjCNGYV9wmYICCMDmP4ftvpf2sKx6plw&cad=rja

6Embree, D.G. 1970.  The diurnal and seasonal pattern of hatching winter moth eggs, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae: Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 102(6): 759-768.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8557345

7San, N.V. and K. Spitzer.  1993.  Isolated populations of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), their heavy metal content and parasitism.  Eur. J. Entomol. 90: 311-321.  http://www.eje.cz/pdfarticles/473/eje_090_3_311_VanSanSpit.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) | Cherry Bark Tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli):  Cherry Bark Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix) is established in the Pacific Northwest, where it is a significant pest of cherry and other Prunus species.  CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey includes trapping for this moth, which is currently unrated.  A pest rating proposal is needed before cherry bark tortrix is detected in California.

History & Status:

Background:  Enarmonia formosana is a wood boring moth whose larvae feed on the bark and sapwood of practically all rosaceous trees, including Prunus (cherry, almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, and plum), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Pyracantha (firethorne)1.  There is one generation per year2.  Adult moths fly and lay eggs from April to September2.  Eggs are laid in cracks, crevices, wounds, crotches, and lenticels of trees2.  Eggs hatch after a few weeks and larvae seek out openings in the bark through which they enter the tree2.  Larvae burrow deep into the cambium where they feed until the following spring2.  Feeding causes dieback and wilting of the tree canopy and the damage makes the tree susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases, frost damage, and other insect pests2.  This secondary damage can be fatal to the tree.  Because the moths usually attack mature trees, the most likely pathway for spread of cherry bark tortrix into California is through firewood of the host species.

Worldwide Distribution: Enarmonia formosana is native to the Palearctic region.  It is widespread in Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa1.  The first North American detection was in Richmond, British Colombia in May, 19891.  From there, it has been spreading to the south.  It was found just across the border in Whatcom county, Washington in 19912 and then in Oregon in 20004.  Although the moth is widespread in western Washington, it has not been found in eastern Washington, suggesting that the Cascades may be a barrier to natural spread of the moth.

Official Control: Oregon has established a quarantine against Enarmonia formosana regulating the entire state of Washington, the entire province of British Colombia, Multnomah and Clackamas counties in Oregon, and any other state, province, or territory where an established population of the moth is detected and not eradicated.  The quarantine covers all plants in the genera Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus and Sorbus, and unseasoned firewood derived from trees of these host plant genera.  Uninfested nursery stock plants of these genera that are less than two inches in diameter are exempted from the quarantine3.

California Distribution Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California.  Trapping for the moth is included in CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey and it has not been trapped, further supporting its absence from the State.

California Interceptions Enarmonia formosana has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk cherry bark tortrix (Enarmonia formosana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rosaceous plants are widely cultivated in California and Enarmonia formosana is likely to establish wherever they are grown. Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although cherry bark tortrix is only reported to feed on plants in one family (Rosaceae), these hosts include economically important fruit crops valued at billions of dollars annually.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cherry bark tortrix spread rapidly throughout western Washington in a decade, infesting 80% of host trees in some areas.  This indicates high reproductive and local dispersal potential.  The moths can spread long distances through the movement of infested firewood or large plants.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Enarmonia formosana is likely to lower the yield of infested host trees.  Crop production costs can be expected to increase if cherry bark tortrix establishes in California as growers are likely to use insecticides, mating disruption, or biological control agents to control moth populations.   The presence of the moth in the State may also trigger lost markets for large nursery stock plants and host firewood.  Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Enarmonia formosana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth can be expected to trigger additional official or private treatment programs.  A survey found that 75-80% of host trees were infested with cherry bark tortrix in the Bellingham, WA area.  This indicates that the pest can be expected to significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix):  High(15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(15)

Uncertainty:

There is a report that high temperatures above 90˚F might be lethal to eggs5.  High temperatures could therefore limit populations of the moth in some areas of the state.  It is also possible that existing IPM programs might manage cherry bark tortrix populations in some circumstances.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Enarmonia formosana is present in the Pacific Northwest where it is a significant pest of rosaceous trees.  From Canada, the moth rapidly spread south through western Washington.  However, a quarantine in Oregon has effectively slowed its spread.  Nevertheless, cherry bark tortrix is likely to spread to California in the future, most likely in infested firewood.  When it arrives it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts in the state and may trigger official treatments.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Dang, P.T. and D.J. Parker.  1990.  First records of Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) in North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Journal of the Entomological Society of British Colombia.  87:3-6. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/655

2Murray, Todd.  Garden Friends & Foes:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  Washington State University.  http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/homehort/pest/e_formosana.htm

http://jenny.tfrec.wsu.edu/opm/displaySpecies.php?pn=570 

3Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/rules/oars_600/oar_603/603_052.html

4Cherry bark tortrix moths found in Oregon.  The Seattle Times.  August 7, 2000.  http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000807&slug=4035429

5Westcott, R.L. and J.D. DeAngelis.  1993.  New Pest Alert:  Cherry Bark Tortrix Moth.  Oregon State University Extension Service and Oregon Department of Agriculture.   http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/19518/ec1409-e.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Opogona sacchari (Bojer): Banana moth

California Pest Rating for
Opogona sacchari (Bojer):  Banana moth
Lepidoptera:  Tineidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Opogona sacchari, banana moth, from actionable to non-actionable for the United States.  The moth would remain actionable for the U.S. territories of the Pacific and Caribbean.  The insect is currently unrated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundOpogona sacchari is a polyphagous moth that feeds primarily on bananas, pineapples, bamboo, maize, and sorghum2.  It has also been found on a wide variety of ornamentals, especially Dracaena and Yucca2.  The moth larvae are borers in stems, leaves, and petioles; however, in banana it is the fruit that is affected.  The moth is rarely intercepted in trade, perhaps due to its concealed feeding behavior.  It has the potential to be transported inside a wide array of plant propagative material.

Worldwide Distribution: Opogona sacchari is native to humid tropical and subtropical regions of Africa2.  From there it has spread to China, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Bermuda, Barbados, and Honduras.  In the United States it has been found in Florida since 1963, Hawaii since 1990, and has been collected several times in California.

Official Control: Opogona sacchari is considered a quarantine pest in Europe2 and Iran3.  The DEEP report also proposes to keep the moth actionable in the U.S. territories of the Pacific and Caribbean.

California DistributionOpogona sacchari has been collected in Carmel and Manhattan Beach.

California Interceptions:  There are records of 17 interceptions since 1987 in the PDR database.  These include 14 records associated with nurseries (including at least one infestation in an outdoor situation) and 3 others on palm plants and pineapple fruit.

The risk Opogona sacchari (Banana moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Opogona sacchari corresponds to USDA plant hardiness zones 8-12, corresponding to most of California. The moth is also reported to be a greenhouse pest and may establish in these environments.  Opogona sacchari receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Opogona sacchari feeds on a variety of tropical plant hosts in 24 families and has also been reported to feed on mushrooms1.  The moth receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Opogona sacchari has a moderate reproductive rate.  Each female lays 50-200 eggs in crevasses in plant tissue and the life cycle lasts about 3 months2.  The moth can disperse a short distance by flight, but may be transported long distances in the trade of infested plant material.  Opogona sacchari receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Opogona sacchari is present in California and has not been reported to lower crop yield, reduce crop value, trigger lost markets, alter cultural practices, vector organisms, injure animals, or interfere with the supply of water.  The moth receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: 1

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Opogona sacchari is present in California and is not known to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is not known to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth is not known to have triggered treatment programs or impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Opogona sacchari receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Opogona sacchari (banana moth):  Medium(9).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Opogona sacchari has been collected in Carmel and Manhattan Beach.  An outdoor population was also found in the parking lot of a nursery in Grover Beach.  Opogona sacchari receives a Medium(-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(7)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that Opogona sacchari will not be able to establish as widespread of a distribution in California as predicted due to the drier climate.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Opogona sacchari is present in California and is not known to have any significant economic or environmental impacts.  A C-rating is justified.

References:

1Culliney, T.W. 2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Opogona sacchari (Bojer): Banana moth.

2European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO).  Data sheet on Opogona sacchari.  https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Opogona_sacchari/OPOGSC_ds.pdf

3Cheraghian, Ahmad.  2013.  A guide for detection and diagnosis of quarantine pests:  Banana moth Opogona sacchari Bojer.  Lepidoptera:  Tineidae.  Islamic Republic of Iran Ministry of Jihad -e- Agriculture Plant Protection Organization.  http://www.ppo.ir/Uploads/English/Articles/insect/Banana-moth-Opogona-sacchari.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday): Green Garden Looper

California Pest Rating for
Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday): Green Garden Looper
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundChrysodeixis eriosoma is a polyphagous moth whose caterpillars feed on a wide variety of agricultural and ornamental plants1.  The moth has continuous overlapping generations throughout the year1,2.  Eggs are deposited singly on the underside of leaves and hatch in about 6 days1.  The young larvae consume one side of the leaf1.  As they grow larger they chew holes through the leaf and feed on the leaf margin, flowers, and fruits1.  Some of the known hosts include: Acanthaceae: acanthus (Acanthus mollis2), black-eyed susan (Thunbergia alata2); Amaranthaceae: redroot (Amaranthus hybridus2), beet (Beta vulgaris2); Araliaceae: paper plant (Fatsia japonica2); Asteraceae: Ageratum sp.2, Aster sp.2, rangiora (Brachyglottis repanda2), Chrysanthemum sp.2, scotch thistle (Cirsium vulgare2), Dahlia sp.2, sunflower (Helianthus annuus2), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus2), lettuce (Lactuca sativa2), cineraria (Senecio cineraria2), Senecio petasitis2; Bignoniaceae: 3 kings vine (Tecomanthe speciosa2); Boraginaceae: borage (Borago officinalis2), Echium vulgare2, Chatham island lilies (Myosotidium hortensia2), forget-me-not (Myosotis spp.2); comfrey (Symphytum spp.2); Brassicaceae: horseradish (Armaracia rusticana2), cabbage and broccoli (Brassica oleracea2), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis2), turnip (Brassica rapa2), radish (Raphanus sativus2); Buddlejaceae: buddleja (Buddeia davidii2); Caricaceae: pawpaw (Carica pubescens2); Caryophyllaceae: carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus2); Chenopodiaceae: fathen (Chenopodium album2); Convulvulaceae: morning glory (Ipomoea acuminata2), kumara (Ipomoea batatas2); Cucurbitaceae: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus2), cucumber (Cucumis sativus2); rockmelon (Cucumis melo2), pumpkin and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo2); Fabaceae: lucerne (Medicago sativa2), beans (Phaseolus spp.2), pea (Pisum sativum2); Geraniaceae: geranium (Pelargonium sp.); Lamiaceae: coleus (Coleus x hybridus2), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis2), mint (Mentha spp.2), basil (Ocimum basilicum2), majoram (Origanum majorana2), sage (Salvia spp.2), thyme (Thymus vulgaris2); Liliaceae: Renga lilies (Arthropodium cirrhatum2); Malvaceae: hibiscus (Abelmoschus esculentus2), hollyhock (Althea rosea2); Mimosaceae: Acacia spp.2; Passifloraceae: passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis2), banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima); Plantaginaceae: plantain (Plantago sp.2); Poaceae: corn (Zea mays2); Polygonaceae: willow weed (Polygonum persicaria2), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum2); Scrophulariaceae: foxglove (Digitalis purpurea2), mullein (Verbascum thapsus2); Solanaceae: bell pepper (Capsicum annum2), tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea2), Datura candida2, tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum2), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum2), cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana2), poroporo (Solanum aviculare2), woolly nightshade (Solanum mauritianum2), eggplant (Solanum melongera2), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum2), potato (Solanum tuberosum2), blue potato vine (Solanum wendlandii2); Urticaceae: nettle (Urtica sp.2); Violaceae: Viola sp.2.  Eggs, caterpillars, or pupae of Chrysodeixis eriosoma may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is probably native to Australia or New Zealand.  It has spread through much of Asia, Africa, Southern Europe, and the Pacific1.  It was first found in Hawaii in 1877 and now occurs on all islands1.

Official Control: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is listed as a harmful organism by Costa Rica and Japan3.  All species of Chrysodeixis are listed as harmful by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California DistributionChrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsChrysodeixis eriosoma has been intercepted 507 times by CDFA’s high risk programs and dog teams.  Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts from Hawaii and Florida.

The risk Chrysodeixis eriosoma (green garden looper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Chrysodeixis eriosoma are widely grown in California and the moth may be expected to establish wherever suitable hosts are available. Green garden looper is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the state and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is polyphagous on a wide variety of plants in at least 27 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Chrysodeixis eriosoma can lay over 2000 eggs2 and can complete a generation in as little as 33-35 days1.  They are strong flyers and may be transported long distances on plants or fresh plant parts.  Green garden looper receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Chrysodeixis eriosoma may cause significant defoliation, it has never been documented to lower crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants while feeding.  Several of California’s trading partners list green garden looper as a harmful organism.  Also, the moth has a limited distribution in North and South America.  If the moth were to establish in California there could be disruptions of markets for Californian agricultural commodities.  Chrysodeixis eriosoma receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened or endangered plants including Ashland thistle (Cirsium ciliolatum), fountain thistle (Cirsium fontinale fontinale), chorro creek bog thistle (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense), suisun thistle (Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum), La Graciosa thistle (Cirsium loncholepis), surf thistle (Cirsium rhothophilum), and scott’s valley polygonum (Polygonum hickmanii). The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Green garden looper may trigger treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Chrysodeixis eriosoma is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Green Garden Looper):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  It presumably enters the state undetected at other times.  There have been no recent surveys for this moth.  It could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 University of Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master.  Chryssodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday).  Green Garden Looper.  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/chrysode.htm

2 Roberts, L.I.N. 1979. Biology of Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7(1):52-58.  http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources/research-curation/projects/chalcidoids/pdf_Y/Robert979.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner): (Carnation tortrix)

California Pest Rating for
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner): (Carnation tortrix)
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In October 2013, USDA released a DEEP report proposing to deregulate Cacoecimorpha pronubana (carnation tortrix).  The insect is currently “Q”-rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background Carnation tortrix is a highly polyphagous leaf-rolling tortricid moth.  First instar larvae mine leaves or buds and later instars roll or web leaves and terminals together2.  Larvae can damage fruit by webbing leaves to fruit or feeding between adjacent fruits2.  It has been documented feeding on more than 160 plant species in 42 families including many economically important crops such as grape, tomato, strawberry, cherry, citrus, pear, peach, apple, avocado, plum, blueberry, rose, and Brassicaceae.  The moth is most commonly encountered as a pest of flowers in greenhouses2.

Worldwide Distribution: Carnation tortrix is native to Northern Africa.  It is now widespread from western Europe through Asia.  It has been introduced into South Africa and the states of Oregon in 1964 and Washington in 19742.  There are also recent reports that the moths spread to a nursery in Colorado from which they infested the Denver Zoo.  There are also unconfirmed reports of the moth from a nursery in New York.

Official Control: Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest in Europe3, China4, Japan5, and presumably additional nations.

California Distribution Carnation tortrix has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Carnation tortrix has been intercepted twice in 2010 and 2011 on holly and winter daphne plants shipped from nurseries in Oregon to California (PDR 1609360 and 1480160).

The risk carnation tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of carnation tortrix indicates that it may establish in plant hardiness zones 7-9. The moth can be expected to establish throughout much of California, excluding high elevation and warm coastal areas of Southern California.  Carnation tortrix receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Carnation tortrix feeds on more than 160 species of plants in 42 families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In warmer regions carnation tortrix has 4-6 generations per year and each female lays an average of 430 eggs.  Adults can fly, larvae can balloon by wind, and eggs and larvae can be transported long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Carnation tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Carnation tortrix has not caused significant economic damage during the nearly 60 years that it has been present in the Pacific Northwest.  This may be due to the fact that the moth is likely managed by existing IPM programs in most commercial fruit production.  However, carnation tortrix is documented to have several additional generations per year in warmer climates and may have a more significant impact in California.  One impact could be to organic agriculture; for example, tortricid larvae can evade control beneath the calyx of organic strawberries.  In greenhouses the larvae can cause serious damage by penetrating flower buds and may require control3.  Floral products are a $487 million industry in California so the impact may be significant.  Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest by several nations and its presence in California could lead to a loss of markets, particularly for nursery stock and flowers.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Because there are already leaf-rolling moths with biologies similar to carnation tortrix in California, the moth is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  However, showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) are listed as threatened or endangered plants in California and are potential hosts that could be directly affected by carnation tortrix.  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Carnation tortix may trigger some additional private treatment programs.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Carnation tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Carnation Tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Carnation tortrix has never been found in the environment of California. The record present on the internet and mentioned in the DEEP report refers to an interception on nursery stock shipped from Oregon.  Carnation tortrix receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(14)

Uncertainty:

There have been no formal surveys for carnation tortrix in California.  It could be present in some locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Carnation tortrix is an emerging pest of the nursery industry in the United States and is not known to be present in California.  Although it is likely to be managed by existing IPM programs in most fruit production, it has the potential to cause losses and trigger treatment in organic production, nurseries, and the flower industry.  Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest in several nations and could lead to an interruption of markets for California agriculture.  The moth also has the potential to directly affect several threatened and endangered species and to trigger additional chemical treatments in some situations.  These economic environmental consequences justify an “A” rating for carnation tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana).

References:

1Landry, Cynthia.  2013.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Cacoecimorpha pronubana Hübner: Carnation Tortrix

2Gilligan, T.M. and M.E. Epstein. 2012.  Tortricids of Agricultural Importance: Cacoecimorpha pronubana. http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Cacoecimorpha_pronubana.htm

3http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Cacoecimorpha_pronubana/TORTPR_ds.pdf

4http://www.fas.usda.gov/ffpd/wto_sps_tbt_notifications/forest_products/CH97_pest_list.pdf

5 http://www.maff.go.jp/j/syouan/keneki/kikaku/pdf/qp_list.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/7/2016 – 1/21/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth

tomato-looper-by-Paolo-Mazzei-Bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

May 6, 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture’s New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) distributed a one-page notice highlighting the risk posed by Chrysodeixis chalcites.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundChrysodeixis chalcites is a highly polyphagous moth whose caterpillars primarily feed on foliage but may feed externally on fruit and internally in legumes1.  In many countries it is considered one of the most important Lepidopteran pests2.  It is an important pest of alfalfa, clover, corn, soybean, artichokes, tomato, sweet pepper, potato, other greenhouse and field fruits and vegetables, and ornamental plants2.  Eggs are typically deposited one or two at a time on the leaves of host plants1.  First instar larvae feed on the lower leaf surface1.  Later instars web leaves together and skeletonize them before consuming entire leaves1.  The last instar usually pupates on the underside of a leaf with folded edges but may pupate on fruit1 or in soil2.  Partial host lists have been compiled by NPAG, CAPS, and CABIChrysodeixis chalcites is capable of long migratory flights and may be transported when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Chrysodeixis chalcites is widespread in Africa, the Middle East, India, and the Mediterranean2.  Aided by wind it migrates to northern Europe2.  It has been present in Ontario, Canada since 2008.  The moth has also been found in greenhouses in Ohio, Colorado, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Oregon2.  CDFA’s interception records indicate the moth may also be present in Hawaii and New York.

Official Control: Chrysodeixis chalcites is listed as a harmful organism by Colombia, Costa Rica, Japan, and the Republic of Korea4.

California DistributionChrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsChrysodeixis chalcites has been intercepted by CDFA 84 times.  Interceptions have occurred on fresh herbs (oregano, basil, thyme, marjoram, saluyot, and ti leaves), cut flowers, and plants shipped from New York and Hawaii.  At least some of these consignments originated in Israel.  The moth was also found in one nursery inspection in Fresno County in 1990 (PDR 909394).

The risk Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:  

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Chrysodeixis chalcites has established and is widespread in latitudes between 45˚N and 35˚S. This encompasses all of California and the moth is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution in the state.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chrysodeixis chalcites is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Chrysodeixis chalcites can lay up to 1,060 eggs1.  The moths breed continuously throughout the year with 8 to 9 generations per year in Egypt1.  They are strong migratory fliers1 and may also spread long distances when infested plants, fruit, or soil are moved.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is likely to reduce crop yields in California.  The caterpillars feed on the leaves and fruit of tomato and may reduce yield 10-15%2.  It is expected to lower the value of fruit and nursery stock by feeding damage and contaminating it with its presence.  Several of California’s trading partners list the moth as a harmful organism so there could be disruptions to fresh fruit, cut flower, and nursery stock exports.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.  Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific Grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new chemical treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find defoliation unacceptable.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chrysodeixis chalcites (Golden Twin-Spot Moth):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chrysodeixis chalcites has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

 Differentiation of Chrysodeixis chalcites and Chrysodeixis eriosoma requires molecular analysis.  It is possible that Chrysodeixis chalcites could be established in some states where Chrysodeixis eriosoma is established.  There have been no recent surveys for this pest in California so it might be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it establishes in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Millar, Leah. 2013. NPAG Report Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Goldwn twin-spot moth, tomato looper.  http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/cphst/npag/downloads/Chrysodeixis_chalcitesNPAG_Report.pdf

2 CAPS Factsheet Chrysodeixis chalcites.  https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/webfm_send/2046

3 CABI Invasive Species Compendium.  Datasheet: Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth). http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/13243

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


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Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls