Tag Archives: Coleoptera Curculionidae

Ambrosia Beetle | Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)

California Pest Rating for
Ambrosia Beetle |  Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The United States Department of Agriculture’s Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Lab has proposed changing the status of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus amputatus from actionable to nonactionable1.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine the impacts that this proposed change might have on California and to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Xylosandrus amputatus is a small fungus-feeding ambrosia beetle1.  Female beetles carry a symbiotic fungus and inoculate host trees1.  Adults and larvae then feed on the fungus1.  In its native range this beetle has been collected from trees in the families Anacardiaceae, Ebenaceae, Geraniaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapindaceae, Styracaceae, and Theaceae2.  Reported hosts include maple (Acer sp.)1, sumac (Rhus trichocarpa)1, Diospyros morrisiana1, zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum)1, Actinodaphne lanciflora1 (possibly lancifolia), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora)1, Cinnamomum mairei1, Cinnamomum osmophloeum1, Machilus sp.1, Persea (Machilus) thubergii1, fig (Ficus carica)1, jujube (Ziziphus jujube)1, snowbell (Styrax suberifolium)1, and Stewartia monoderpha1 (possibly monodelpha).  The beetles can be rapidly transported long distances when infested wood products such as firewood are moved.

Worldwide Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus is native to Asia (China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan)1,2.  The beetle is only known to have invaded Florida and Georgia1.

Official Control Xylosandrus amputatus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been intercepted by CDFA or the County Agricultural Commissioners.

The risk Xylosandrus amputatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:   

1) Climate/Host Interaction:  Xylosandrus amputatus is likely able to establish throughout USDA Plant Hardiness zones 7 through 101. This is a climatic match for most of California.  Suitable host plants are grown throughout this region as well.  The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range:  Xylosandrus amputatus is known to feed on at least 314 species of plants in 9 plant families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In Florida, Xylosandrus amputatus has spread 200 miles in 7 years, demonstrating a high dispersal potential1.  The beetle could be spread through the movement of infested wood, including firewood.  Ambrosia beetles also have high reproductive potential.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: In Florida and Georgia, where Xylosandrus amputatus has become established, it has not been found attacking healthy, stressed, or dying trees1.  It has only been found in traps.  Until more information about its biology in Florida or Georgia is known, it is appropriate to consider impacts that the beetles could have on all known hosts.  Fig and jujube are both known hosts that are grown commercially in California.  If Xylosandrus amputatus were to become established in the state the beetle could lower crop yields and increase crop production costs.  Female beetles also vector a fungal symbiont, Ambrosiella beaveri1.  However, it is not known if this fungus is pestiferous1Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Xylosandrus amputatus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The beetle is not expected to feed on any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The species might trigger new treatment programs in fig and jujube orchards, however it is not likely to significantly impact cultural practices or home/urban gardens.  However, known host trees are common ornamental plants in California and may be susceptible to attack, especially if trees that are stressed due to drought.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xylosandrus amputatus:  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Although Xylosandrus amputatus is well established throughout most of Florida and part of Georgia, however the beetles are only known from traps.  There is no information as to what host plants the beetles are feeding on in these states or if host trees are healthy or stressed.  There is a possibility that they are feeding on additional host tree species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in California.  If it were to enter the state, it is likely to have significant impacts on ornamental trees and fig and jujube production.  An “A”-rating is justified.


References:

Note:  If links do not work please copy and paste URLs into your browser.

1PPQ. 2017. DEEP report for Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, North Carolina. 4 pp.  To request a copy of this report please contact USDA.

2 Cognato, Anthony I., Rachel O. Olson, and Robert J. Rabaglia. 2011. An Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini), Discovered in Florida, U.S.A. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(1): 43-45.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony_Cognato/publication/232681964_An_Asian_Ambrosia_Beetle_Xylosandrus_amputatus_Blandford_Curculionidae_Scolytinae_Xyleborini_Discovered_in_Florida_USA/links/55b7632508ae9289a08be3a5.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

 

Sri Lankan Weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus

California Pest Rating for
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus: Sri Lankan weevil
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus has been rated A by CDFA. Due to recent interceptions in California, a pest rating proposal is required.

History & Status:

Background: Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, the Sri Lankan weevil, is a plant pest with a wide range of hosts. This weevil spread from Sri Lanka into India and then to Pakistan where it is considered a pest of more than 20 crops. In the United States, the Sri Lankan weevil was first identified on citrus sp. in Pompano Beach a city in Broward County Florida1.

Adult Sri Lankan weevils vary in length from approximately 6.0 to 8.5 mm; the female weevil is slightly larger than the male by 1.0 to 2.0 mm. In this genus, 336 species recognized are from Southeast Asia. These weevils can feed on more than 80 different plants species. These include, citrus, cotton, sweet potato, fig, loquat, plum, mango and mahogany3.

Worldwide Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is native to southern India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It has been reported from Southeast Asia (including China and Japan), Africa, the Palearctic, Indonesia, Australia and the United States (Florida)3.

Official Control: The Sri Lankan weevil is listed as a harmful organism in the Republic of Korea5.

California Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is not reported in California; however, there have not been any recent surveys to confirm this.

California Interceptions: The Sri Lankan weevil was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and March, 2017, this insect was intercepted six times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida4.

The risk Sri Lankan weevil would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The Sri Lankan weevil can feed on a variety of field crops, nursery stocks, and fruits of California. The Sri Lankan weevil may establish in larger, but limited, warm agricultural and metropolitan areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The Sri Lankan weevil has a wide range of hosts and it can feed on almost 80 different kinds of plant species3.  Since, host species are grown throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Myllocerus may lay up to 360 eggs over a 24-day period, and larvae emerge in 3-5 days. The Sri Lankan weevil eggs are laid directly on organic material at the soil surface, a common substrate in California. Eggs are less than 0.5 mm, ovoid and usually laid in clusters of 3-5. The eggs are white or cream-colored at first, then gradually turn brown when they are close to hatching1. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is well-known for causing significant damage to agricultural crops and fruits products, especially young plants. Leaf-feeding adults damage the foliage of ornamental plants, fruit trees, and vegetables, whereas the larvae injure root systems; this decreases crop value and yield. Peach growers in Florida are reported to be having a difficult time managing damage from the weevil. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control infestations. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The Sri Lankan weevil receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Sri Lankan weevil: High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The Sri Lankan weevil has never been found in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not Established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The Sri Lankan weevil is intercepted six times in California. There have not been any detection surveys conducted recently to confirm its presence. The environment of California is highly favorable for the Sri Lankan weevil therefore, the uncertainty about this species is high.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:  

The Sri Lankan weevil is not established in California, it would be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Anita Neal 2013.  University of Florida.   Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/sri_lankan_weevil.htm

  1. Charles W. O’Brien, Muhammad Haseeb, Michael C. Thomas. Pest weevil from Indian Subcontinent. Florida  Dept. Of Agricultural. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/10795/141061/ent412.pdf

  1. Pest Alert. Florida dept. Of Agriculture & consumer services. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.famu.edu/cesta/iframeapps/Invasive_Weevil_Species/Desktop/Myllocerus_undatus_Marshall_-_Sri_Lanka_Weevil_or_Asian_Grey_Weevil.htm

  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.

http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 3-20-17.

https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

July 7, 2017 – August 21, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)

California Pest Rating for
Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 18, 2016 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a sample of bark beetles obtained from an olive tree at a grape vineyard in Riverside County as Phloeotribus scarabaeoides, the olive bark beetle (OBB).  This is the first record of OBB in the Western Hemisphere and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  OBB is a bark beetle that is a well-known pest of olive1.  The species is widely distributed around the Mediterranean basin1,3 (including Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia).  Adult females bore through bark and excavate a transverse tunnel on either side of the entry point1.  Inside the twig/branch, the female lays up to 60 eggs and as larvae hatch each larva bores up or down from the entrance tunnel underneath the bark1.  This feeding causes partial to complete girdling1 of the twig/branch; thereby structurally weakening it as well as damaging vasculature.  Larvae pupate inside the feeding galleries1. OBB has 2-4 generations per year1.  Spring and early summer adults tend to lay eggs in prunings and olive wood stacked as firewood rather than living trees1.  In addition to olive, OBB also feeds on oleander (Nerium oleander) and occasionally ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris)1.  OBB may be transported long distances when infested olive wood or living plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: OBB is native to the Mediterranean basin.  Thus far, it is not known to have invaded any other regions.

Official Control: OBB is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, Paraguay, and Peru2.

California Distribution:  OBB has been found at the grape vineyard as well as a residence and 3 nurseries, all in Riverside County.  Surveys of olive trees at nurseries in other counties have not found any OBB.

California Interceptions OBB has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.  However, the beetles have been found in trees at three nurseries and might have been spreading through the nursery trade for an indefinite time period.

The risk Phloeotribus scarabaeoides [olive bark beetle (OBB)] would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Olive and oleander are grown throughout California and OBB is likely to establish throughout these areas. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: OBB feeds primarily on olive, secondarily on oleander, and occasionally on ash and lilac.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Score: 1

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: OBB has three to four generations per year and each female lays up to 60 eggs.  Adult beetles can fly and all life stages can be transported long distances when olive wood or infested plants are moved.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Score:  3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: OBB is considered a serious pest of olive that can cause heavy losses of young shoots, flowers, and fruit1.  The beetle can be expected to increase crop production costs for olive growers as they implement management strategies.  In regions with established OBB populations, growers are forced to alter cultural practices by moving olive prunings and wood far away from groves to reduce damage.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: OBB is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  OBB is likely to trigger new official and private treatment programs.  Olive and oleander are widespread ornamentals and are likely to be significantly impacted by this pest.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Olive bark beetle (OBB)):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: OBB has only been found in Riverside County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty: 

OBB might have a widespread distribution in California.  The beetles have been found in olive trees in several nurseries and it is possible that the beetles could have been spreading through the nursery industry for several years.  Secondly, there is a native bark beetle (Hylesinus californicus) that sometimes attacks stressed olive trees and was originally called the olive bark beetle in California.  However, the common name was changed to western ash bark beetle to reflect its typical host.  It is possible that OBB could be more widespread in California and its damage attributed to Hylesinus californicus.  However, adults of Phloeotribus are extremely characteristic amongst all weevils in possessing elongate terminal antennomeres and would be recognized as something new by any coleopterist.  Thirdly, the olive trees at the original detection site had been moved from San Diego County.  It is possible the beetles could be established in San Diego County, although none have been found at the origin.  This evidence suggests the possibility OBB could have a widespread distribution within southern California and possibly the entire State.

Before the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) arrived in California in 2008 the State was the source of 11% of the world’s table olives.  Most of these were produced by small growers with less than 40 acres.  These growers did not make enough profit to pay for treatment costs for olive fly and many of them have switched to less profitable olive oil.  The presence of OBB in California could be especially disastrous for the many small olive growers in the State.  This might lead growers to switch to more water intensive crops, exacerbating the effects of the State’s drought.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California’s olive industry and ornamental plantings of oleander and olive throughout the State.  However, it is established and abundant in Riverside County, is not under official control, and has likely been spreading through the nursery trade.  There are no approved treatments or survey tools for this pest and there are no plans for an interior quarantine.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Alvord, D.V. 2014.  Pests of Fruit Crops: A Color Handbook.  CRC Press.  462pp.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Knížek, M. 2011. Subfamily Scolytinae. pgs. 204-250. In Lobl, I and A. Smetana (Eds.), Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Volume 7. Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 372pp.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/19/2017 – 3/5/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston): Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Dactylotrypes longicollis dorsal Collected off of Trithrinax brasiliensis (Image Citation: Steven Valley, Oregon Dept of Ag, Bugwood.org)
Dactylotrypes longicollis dorsal Collected off of Trithrinax brasiliensis
(Image Citation: Steven Valley, Oregon Dept of Ag, Bugwood.org)
Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston): Beetle
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 13, 2015 Dr. Andrew Cline identified two beetles collected from a Lindgren funnel trap as Dactylotrypes longicollis.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundDactylotrypes longicollis feeds on the seeds of palms including wooly jelly palm (Butia eriospatha), Mediterranean fan palm (Chamaerops humilis), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), Senegal date palm (Phoenix reclinata), Brazilian needle palm (Trithrinax brasiliensis), and lady palm (Rhapis excelsa)1.  The beetle may be transported long distances when infested palm seeds or plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Dactylotrypes longicollis is native to the Canary Islands and Madeira1.  From there it has spread to France, Italy, mainland Spain, and the Slovak Republic1.

Official Control: Dactylotrypes longicollis is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.  Dactylotrypes spp. are listed as harmful organisms by Peru2.

California DistributionDactylotrypes longicollis has only been found in Fullerton (Orange County), San Marino (Los Angeles County), and Carpinteria (Santa Barbara County).

California InterceptionsDactylotrypes longicollis has not been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Dactylotrypes longicollis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The known hosts and natural geographic range of Dactylotrypes longicollis indicate that the beetle is likely to be limited to southern California1.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dactylotrypes longicollis is only known to feed on the seeds of seven species of palms.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The biology of Dactylotrypes longicollis has not been well documented.  It is assumed to have a high reproductive rate and to be capable of dispersing long distances when infested palm fruit or plants are moved.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The California date industry produces over 40 million pounds of dates annually and employees 2,500 people.  Dactylotrypes longicollis is not known to be established in major date producing nations and it is uncertain if the industry will be affected.  It is possible that the beetle could reduce crop yield or increase crop production costs.  The beetle is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: In California Dactylotrypes longicollis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It could trigger new treatment programs in the date industry.  It is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Dactylotrypes longicollis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dactylotrypes longicollis: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dactylotrypes longicollis is known to be established in Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties. It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

We do not know how effective the Lindgren funnel is at detecting Dactylotrypes longicollis.  It is quite possible that the beetle is much more widespread in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dactylotrypes longicollis has been established across much of southern California since before 2009.  No economic or environmental impacts have been attributed to the beetle.  A “C” rating is justified.

References:

1 LaBonte, James R. and Curtis Y. Takahashi. 2012. Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): an exotic bark beetle new to California and North America.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 88(2): 222-230 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3956/2012-18.1

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday, October 21, 2015 and closed on December 5, 2015.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls