Tag Archives: Lepidoptera

Pandemis cerasana Hübner | Barred Fruit-tree tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2014 USDA’s New Pest Advisory Group distributed a report that proposed to change the status of Pandemis cerasana, barred fruit-tree tortrix, to non-actionable for the continental United States.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous leaf-rolling moth that feeds on shoots, leaves, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of a wide variety of hosts in 20 plant families.  Economically important hosts in California include apple, cherry, plum, peach, pear, blueberry, raspberry, and rose.  In these crops, feeding on flowers and fruit may result in crop losses and blemished fruit.  The most likely pathway for spread of Pandemis cerasana into California is as eggs, larvae, or pupae on nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana is native to Europe and Asia.  It was detected in British Columbia in 19653.  The moth was found in Washington in 1994 and has spread through the nine western counties.  It was first detected in Portland, Oregon in 2013.  It appears that the moth is established in Washington and is spreading naturally through the Pacific Northwest.

Official Control: Pandemis cerasana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, and South Africa2 and is considered a quarantine pest by Australia4.  It will also remain actionable in Hawaii under the NPAG report recommendations.

California Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana has never been detected in California.

California Interceptions Pandemis cerasana has never been intercepted in California or by USDA on imported fruit from Canada.

The risk Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants that grow in California and is expected to establish in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9.  It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants in 20 families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pandemis cerasana has moderate reproductive potential.  The moth has one or two generations per year3 and each female typically lays 40-90 eggs.  The moths can fly and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of undetected eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or plant material.  Pandemis cerasana receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pandemis cerasana has been reported as a minor pest defoliator of apple and pear trees in western Washington; it has not yet spread to the major fruit production areas of that state.  In Europe, management measures for the moth include chemical control, monitoring and control programs, and a regional forecasting model.  In Italy, up to 10-15% of fruit has been reported damaged.  Furthermore, there may be trade disruptions with Australia and Hawaii, where it is considered a quarantine pest.   Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pandemis cerasana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is likely to feed on endangered species that it encounters, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The moth is not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  Pandemis cerasana may trigger new treatments in orchards and in the nursery industry.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-Tree Tortrix):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pandemis cerasana has not been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

There are existing integrated pest management programs in orchards in California.  It is possible that these programs will also manage Pandemis cerasana.  There have not been any recent surveys for this moth in California.  It may already be established in some places.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pandemis cerasana is established in western Washington and has recently spread to Oregon.  It is likely to spread to California at some point in the future, either naturally or through movement of plant material.  When it enters the State, the moth may have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Millar, Leah 2014.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report on Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory.  Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Gilligan, T. M., and M. E. Epstein. 2012. Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI). Colorado State University and California Department of Food and Agriculture.  http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Pandemis_cerasana.htm

4 Plant Health Australia:  Cherry brown tortrix.  High priority pest of cherries. http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/cherry-brown-tortrix/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Operophtera brumata (L.) | Winter Moth

California Pest Rating for
Operophtera brumata (L.):  Winter Moth
Lepidoptera:  Geometridae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In January 2013 USDA announced that Operophtera brumata, winter moth, was under consideration for deregulation at our ports.  Stephen Brown (CDFA) recommended a rating proposal for the moth.

History & Status:

Background:  Winter moth is an invasive, polyphagous moth that feeds on flower and leaf buds and expanding leaf clusters of more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families3.  In Oregon, adult moths emerge from pupae in soil from early November through December1.  Females are unable to fly.  They climb trees, mate, and lay eggs in bark crevice.  Eggs hatch mid-March. First (1st) instar larvae may balloon by wind; closely related species have been documented dispersing 850m2.  By May larvae have completed development.  They then drop from trees and pupate 1-12 cm below the soil surface3.

Worldwide Distribution: Operophtera brumata is native to Palearctic region.  It was first detected in North America in Nova Scotia in 1949, but is believed to have been introduced before 19351.  It was found in British Columbia in 1976 and Oregon in 1978.  However, museum specimens from a natural history museum indicate that the moth was present in Oregon in 1958, but misidentified as the native moth Operophtera occidentalis.  Recently, winter moth has invaded Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York (Long Island).4

Official Control: United States Department of Agriculture has listed Operophtera brumata as an actionable pest.  It is unknown if winter moth is under official control anywhere else.

California Distribution:  Operophtera brumata has never been found in California.

California Interceptions Operophtera brumata has never been intercepted in California.

This risk winter moth would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Operophtera brumata is highly polyphagous and can be expected to find a plethora of suitable hosts in California. Temperatures above 27˚C (80.6˚F) are reportedly lethal to eggs6; therefore, winter moth may not be able to establish in portions of southern California where temperatures are warm between January and March.  Winter moth is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the cooler parts of California.  Winter moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Pest Host Range: Operophtera brumata feeds on more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: While adult winter moths have limited natural dispersal capabilities given their flightless females, wind-aided larval dispersal by ballooning is a valid concern.  Furthermore, the moth may be moved long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Female winter moths lay 150-350 eggs.  Operophtera brumata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Winter moth is considered a major pest of blueberries (an $82 million industry in California) and deciduous trees in Washington.  Hosts also include a number of other economically important crops, including almond5 ($3.9 billion), raspberries ($223 million), cherry5,7 ($197 million), pears ($98 million), and apple ($58 million).  Operophtera brumata has the potential to impact crops by consuming flower buds and defoliating trees, reducing crop yield.  The moth may also trigger additional treatment programs during prebloom and bloom stages, increasing crop production costs.  Chemical treatments during bloom have the potential to disrupt pollination services, negatively changing normal cultural practices.  The moth is therefore expected to have a significant economic impact on California.  Winter moth receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact:  As Operophtera brumata invades new areas, it can cause widespread defoliation4.  Forest trees can be defoliated and forced to grow a second set of flush.  When combined with other stressors, such as drought, this can kill trees.  Rosa is listed as a host of winter moth and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) is listed as an endangered species by the state of California.  However, winter moth is not expected to establish in warmer parts of the state where small-leaved rose is found.  Winter moth may also impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings by defoliating trees, reducing fruit yields, or triggering additional treatments by residents.  O. brumata receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score:

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Winter Moth:  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Operophtera brumata has never been collected in California.  Winter moth therefore receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and backed up by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one ecoarea (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous ecoareas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous ecoareas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High (14)

Uncertainty:  

The parasitoids Cyzenis albican (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Agrypon flaveolatum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been introduced to the United States and Canada as biological control agents to control winter moth populations.  In most areas they have been successful at limiting damage from the moth.  However, winter moth populations sometimes continue to reach outbreak levels after parasitoids are introduced3.  It is not certain if the parasitoids would be successful in California, or if resources would be available for mass-rearing programs.  It is also uncertain if O. brumata populations would be controlled by existing IPM programs in some agricultural ecosystems, mitigating economic damage.  Also, since there have been no recent surveys, it is possible that winter moth might be established in limited areas of the state and unnoticed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Winter moth (Operophtera brumata) has potential to cause significant economic and environmental damage to California.  An ‘A’ rating is justified.

References:

1Kimberling, D.N., J.C. Miller, and R.L. Penrose.  1986.  Distribution and parasitism of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepitoptera: Geometridae), in western Oregon.  Environmental Entomology 15: 1042-1046.

2Brown, C.E.  1962.  The life history and dispersal of the bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst.), Lepidoptera: Geometridae.  Can. Ent. 94:1103-1107.

3Horgan, F.G., J.H. Myers, and R. Van Meel. 1999.  Cyzenis albicans (Diptera: Tachinidae) does not prevent the outbreak of winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in birch stands and blueberry plots on the lower mainland of British Columbia.  Environ. Entomol. 28(1): 96-107.  https://academic.oup.com/ee/article-abstract/28/1/96/502294/Cyzenis-albicans-Diptera-Tachinidae-Does-Not?redirectedFrom=PDF

4Elkinton, J.S., G.H. Boettner, M. Sremac, R. Cwiazdowski, R.R. Hunkins, J. Callahan, S.B. Schuefele, C.P. Donahue, A.H. Porter, A. Khrimian, B.M. Whited, and N.K. Campbell.  2010.  Survey for winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northeastern North America with pheromone-baited traps and hybridization with the native bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 103(2): 135-145.

5Rajaei, H., M. Abaii, and A. Hausmann.  2010.  First record of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northern Iran.  Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6(2):63-68.  https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0ahUKEwjWgbGU3qnUAhUJxmMKHXHrA2IQFgg9MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fijab.um.ac.ir%2Findex.php%2Fbiosys%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F25213%2F4299&usg=AFQjCNGYV9wmYICCMDmP4ftvpf2sKx6plw&cad=rja

6Embree, D.G. 1970.  The diurnal and seasonal pattern of hatching winter moth eggs, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae: Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 102(6): 759-768.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8557345

7San, N.V. and K. Spitzer.  1993.  Isolated populations of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), their heavy metal content and parasitism.  Eur. J. Entomol. 90: 311-321.  http://www.eje.cz/pdfarticles/473/eje_090_3_311_VanSanSpit.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) | Cherry Bark Tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli):  Cherry Bark Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix) is established in the Pacific Northwest, where it is a significant pest of cherry and other Prunus species.  CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey includes trapping for this moth, which is currently unrated.  A pest rating proposal is needed before cherry bark tortrix is detected in California.

History & Status:

Background:  Enarmonia formosana is a wood boring moth whose larvae feed on the bark and sapwood of practically all rosaceous trees, including Prunus (cherry, almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, and plum), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Pyracantha (firethorne)1.  There is one generation per year2.  Adult moths fly and lay eggs from April to September2.  Eggs are laid in cracks, crevices, wounds, crotches, and lenticels of trees2.  Eggs hatch after a few weeks and larvae seek out openings in the bark through which they enter the tree2.  Larvae burrow deep into the cambium where they feed until the following spring2.  Feeding causes dieback and wilting of the tree canopy and the damage makes the tree susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases, frost damage, and other insect pests2.  This secondary damage can be fatal to the tree.  Because the moths usually attack mature trees, the most likely pathway for spread of cherry bark tortrix into California is through firewood of the host species.

Worldwide Distribution: Enarmonia formosana is native to the Palearctic region.  It is widespread in Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa1.  The first North American detection was in Richmond, British Colombia in May, 19891.  From there, it has been spreading to the south.  It was found just across the border in Whatcom county, Washington in 19912 and then in Oregon in 20004.  Although the moth is widespread in western Washington, it has not been found in eastern Washington, suggesting that the Cascades may be a barrier to natural spread of the moth.

Official Control: Oregon has established a quarantine against Enarmonia formosana regulating the entire state of Washington, the entire province of British Colombia, Multnomah and Clackamas counties in Oregon, and any other state, province, or territory where an established population of the moth is detected and not eradicated.  The quarantine covers all plants in the genera Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus and Sorbus, and unseasoned firewood derived from trees of these host plant genera.  Uninfested nursery stock plants of these genera that are less than two inches in diameter are exempted from the quarantine3.

California Distribution Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California.  Trapping for the moth is included in CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey and it has not been trapped, further supporting its absence from the State.

California Interceptions Enarmonia formosana has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk cherry bark tortrix (Enarmonia formosana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rosaceous plants are widely cultivated in California and Enarmonia formosana is likely to establish wherever they are grown. Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although cherry bark tortrix is only reported to feed on plants in one family (Rosaceae), these hosts include economically important fruit crops valued at billions of dollars annually.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cherry bark tortrix spread rapidly throughout western Washington in a decade, infesting 80% of host trees in some areas.  This indicates high reproductive and local dispersal potential.  The moths can spread long distances through the movement of infested firewood or large plants.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Enarmonia formosana is likely to lower the yield of infested host trees.  Crop production costs can be expected to increase if cherry bark tortrix establishes in California as growers are likely to use insecticides, mating disruption, or biological control agents to control moth populations.   The presence of the moth in the State may also trigger lost markets for large nursery stock plants and host firewood.  Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Enarmonia formosana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth can be expected to trigger additional official or private treatment programs.  A survey found that 75-80% of host trees were infested with cherry bark tortrix in the Bellingham, WA area.  This indicates that the pest can be expected to significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix):  High(15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(15)

Uncertainty:

There is a report that high temperatures above 90˚F might be lethal to eggs5.  High temperatures could therefore limit populations of the moth in some areas of the state.  It is also possible that existing IPM programs might manage cherry bark tortrix populations in some circumstances.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Enarmonia formosana is present in the Pacific Northwest where it is a significant pest of rosaceous trees.  From Canada, the moth rapidly spread south through western Washington.  However, a quarantine in Oregon has effectively slowed its spread.  Nevertheless, cherry bark tortrix is likely to spread to California in the future, most likely in infested firewood.  When it arrives it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts in the state and may trigger official treatments.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Dang, P.T. and D.J. Parker.  1990.  First records of Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) in North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Journal of the Entomological Society of British Colombia.  87:3-6. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/655

2Murray, Todd.  Garden Friends & Foes:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  Washington State University.  http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/homehort/pest/e_formosana.htm

http://jenny.tfrec.wsu.edu/opm/displaySpecies.php?pn=570 

3Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/rules/oars_600/oar_603/603_052.html

4Cherry bark tortrix moths found in Oregon.  The Seattle Times.  August 7, 2000.  http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000807&slug=4035429

5Westcott, R.L. and J.D. DeAngelis.  1993.  New Pest Alert:  Cherry Bark Tortrix Moth.  Oregon State University Extension Service and Oregon Department of Agriculture.   http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/19518/ec1409-e.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth

tomato-looper-by-Paolo-Mazzei-Bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

May 6, 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture’s New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) distributed a one-page notice highlighting the risk posed by Chrysodeixis chalcites.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundChrysodeixis chalcites is a highly polyphagous moth whose caterpillars primarily feed on foliage but may feed externally on fruit and internally in legumes1.  In many countries it is considered one of the most important Lepidopteran pests2.  It is an important pest of alfalfa, clover, corn, soybean, artichokes, tomato, sweet pepper, potato, other greenhouse and field fruits and vegetables, and ornamental plants2.  Eggs are typically deposited one or two at a time on the leaves of host plants1.  First instar larvae feed on the lower leaf surface1.  Later instars web leaves together and skeletonize them before consuming entire leaves1.  The last instar usually pupates on the underside of a leaf with folded edges but may pupate on fruit1 or in soil2.  Partial host lists have been compiled by NPAG, CAPS, and CABIChrysodeixis chalcites is capable of long migratory flights and may be transported when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Chrysodeixis chalcites is widespread in Africa, the Middle East, India, and the Mediterranean2.  Aided by wind it migrates to northern Europe2.  It has been present in Ontario, Canada since 2008.  The moth has also been found in greenhouses in Ohio, Colorado, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Oregon2.  CDFA’s interception records indicate the moth may also be present in Hawaii and New York.

Official Control: Chrysodeixis chalcites is listed as a harmful organism by Colombia, Costa Rica, Japan, and the Republic of Korea4.

California DistributionChrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsChrysodeixis chalcites has been intercepted by CDFA 84 times.  Interceptions have occurred on fresh herbs (oregano, basil, thyme, marjoram, saluyot, and ti leaves), cut flowers, and plants shipped from New York and Hawaii.  At least some of these consignments originated in Israel.  The moth was also found in one nursery inspection in Fresno County in 1990 (PDR 909394).

The risk Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:  

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Chrysodeixis chalcites has established and is widespread in latitudes between 45˚N and 35˚S. This encompasses all of California and the moth is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution in the state.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chrysodeixis chalcites is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Chrysodeixis chalcites can lay up to 1,060 eggs1.  The moths breed continuously throughout the year with 8 to 9 generations per year in Egypt1.  They are strong migratory fliers1 and may also spread long distances when infested plants, fruit, or soil are moved.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is likely to reduce crop yields in California.  The caterpillars feed on the leaves and fruit of tomato and may reduce yield 10-15%2.  It is expected to lower the value of fruit and nursery stock by feeding damage and contaminating it with its presence.  Several of California’s trading partners list the moth as a harmful organism so there could be disruptions to fresh fruit, cut flower, and nursery stock exports.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.  Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific Grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new chemical treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find defoliation unacceptable.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chrysodeixis chalcites (Golden Twin-Spot Moth):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chrysodeixis chalcites has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

 Differentiation of Chrysodeixis chalcites and Chrysodeixis eriosoma requires molecular analysis.  It is possible that Chrysodeixis chalcites could be established in some states where Chrysodeixis eriosoma is established.  There have been no recent surveys for this pest in California so it might be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it establishes in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Millar, Leah. 2013. NPAG Report Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Goldwn twin-spot moth, tomato looper.  http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/cphst/npag/downloads/Chrysodeixis_chalcitesNPAG_Report.pdf

2 CAPS Factsheet Chrysodeixis chalcites.  https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/webfm_send/2046

3 CABI Invasive Species Compendium.  Datasheet: Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth). http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/13243

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick): Tomato Leafminer

tomato-leafminer-5431766-photo-by-Marja-van-der-Straten-bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick): Tomato Leafminer
Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating for Tuta absoluta (tomato leafminer).

History & Status:

BackgroundTuta absoluta is a moth that feeds on the leaves and fruit of solanaceous plants.  Known hosts include: Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum (pepper), Datura ferox (long spined thorn apple), Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Lycium chilense (coralillo), Lycopersicum puberulum, Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Physalis angulata (gooseberry), Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry), Solanum americanum (American black nightshade), Solanum bonariense, Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), Solanum gracilius, Solanum hirtum, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Solanum muricatum (sweet cucumber), Solanum nigrum (black nightshade), Solanum melongena (eggplant), Solanum pseudo-capsicum (Jerusalem cherry), Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato)1.  Eggs are laid on all above ground parts of host plants1.  Young larvae mine leaves, stems, shoots, flowers, and developing fruit1.  Later instars may feed on mature fruit1.  Pupae can be found attached to all plant parts (leaves, stems, flowers, fruit) as well as in soil1Tuta absoluta can be transported long distances when infested plants, fruit, or reusable packing boxes are moved1.  Significant quantities of fresh host material from infested areas enters California by air through Los Angeles each year.  In 2008 570 tons of fresh tomatoes were flown into Los Angeles from the Netherlands as were 14 tons from Spain and 6 tons from Chile1.

Worldwide Distribution: Tuta absoluta is native to South America1.  Since 2008 it has invaded much of Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East1.

Official Control: Tuta absoluta is also listed as a harmful organism by Canada, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Georgia and the Russian Federation3.  It is also under official control in Mexico4.

California Distribution:  Tuta absoluta has never been found in California.

California Interceptions:  Tuta absoluta has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Tuta absoluta (tomato leafminer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Tuta absoluta is likely to establish throughout southern California, the central coast, and the San Joaquin valley. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Tuta absoluta is known to feed on 22 species of plants in one plant family.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Tuta absoluta has high reproductive potential.  It can complete 7-12 generations per year with each female laying up to 260 eggs1.  The moth can rapidly spread long distances when infested plants, fruit, or packing containers are moved.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Tuta absoluta reduces tomato yields by up to 100% and is considered one of the worst pests of processing tomatoes in Brazil1.  This moth has the potential to lower crop yields and increase production costs in California.  If Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it is also likely to disrupt markets for California fresh fruit and plants.  Tuta absoluta receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it is likely to trigger new treatment programs by growers and residents who find infested plants unacceptable.  Tomatoes are one of the most popular plants in home/urban gardens and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Tuta absoluta receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Tuta absoluta (Tomato Leafminer):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Tuta absoluta has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

A closely related Gelechiid species, Keiferia lycopersicella (the tomato pinworm) occupies the ecological niche of the tomato leafminer in the United States1,2.  It is possible that existing treatments for tomato pinworm will preclude economic and ecological impacts of Tuta absoluta.  Alternatively, it is possible that if Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it could displace our native moth, causing unknown ecological effects.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Tuta absoluta meets the threshold to likely cause unacceptable consequences of introduction and it has an overall likelihood of introduction risk rating above negligible.  The moth is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in California.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Bloem, Stephanie and Esther Spaltenstein. 2011. New Pest Response Guidelines: Tomato Leafminer (Tuta absoluta).  United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/Tuta-absoluta.pdf

2 Poe, S.L. 1999. Common name: tomato pinworm. Scientific name: Keiferia lycopersicella (Walshingham) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/tomato/tomato_pinworm.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 Dr. Julio Cesar Velázquez González. 2013. Operating instructions to implement the emergency device against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae) in Mexico.  Department of Plant Health Senasica.  https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://senasica.gob.mx/includes/asp/download.asp%3FIdDocumento%3D25489%26IdUrl%3D60944%26down%3Dtrue&prev=search


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Spodoptera eridania (Stoll): Southern Armyworm

southern-armyworm-1263059-photo-by-Central-Science-Laboratory-bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Spodoptera eridania (Stoll): Southern Armyworm
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Researchers recently applied for a USDA permit to import 60,000 eggs and larvae of Spodoptera eridania into California for field research.  Florida reports that this moth is already found in California and of no consequence here1.  A pest rating proposal is required to support the current pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundSpodoptera eridania is a polyphagous noctuid moth that feeds on the foliage, fruit, and flowers of a variety of plants1,2.  Adults and larvae are nocturnal.  Young larvae typically feed in groups on the undersides of leaves.  They often skeletonize leaves and can occasionally defoliate entire plants1,2.  As they mature they become solitary and readily bore into fruit1.  If food is scarce they will consume branches, stem tissue, and tubers near the surface of the soil1.  Agricultural crops that are damaged by the moth include avocado, beet, cabbage, carrot, citrus, collard, cowpea, eggplant, okra, peanut, pepper, potato, sunflower, sweet potato, tobacco, velvet bean, watermelon, and many ornamentals1.  The caterpillars also feed on many weeds but show a preference for pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) and pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)1.  Populations of the caterpillars sometimes build up in weedy areas then migrate to adjacent crops after favored weeds are consumed1.  The moth typically pupates in soil.  Spodoptera eridania is commonly intercepted in Europe on plants and tomato fruit2.  The moth is also a popular organism for research because it is easy to rear2 and has the potential to be spread long distances by researchers.

Worldwide Distribution: Spodoptera eridania is native to North, Central, and South America including the eastern United States as far north as Massachusets and as west as Texas1,2.  The only place it is known to have invaded is the Galapagos Islands2.

Official Control: Spodoptera eridania is listed as a harmful organism by Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Honduras, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom3.  The moth is listed as an A1 quarantine pest by the EPPO2.  In addition, all species of Spodoptera are listed as harmful organisms by Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, Japan, and Panama3.

California Distribution Spodoptera eridania has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Spodoptera eridania has only been intercepted four times by CDFA on bell peppers, cilantro, tree fern, and Asparagus sperengeri from Florida.  There have been 859 interceptions identified as Spodoptera sp.  Some of these interceptions could also be Spodoptera eridania.

The risk Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Spodoptera eridania is widespread across regions with a wide variety of climates. Southern armyworm would be likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Spodoptera eridania is a generalist feeder on a wide variety of plants and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Spodoptera eridania can complete a generation every 30-40 days under favorable conditions and each female lays a large number of eggs.  Adult moths may disperse locally by flying and caterpillars may crawl in large numbers to areas with better host plants.  Southern armyworm may also be transported long distances on infested plants or fresh plant parts or by scientists.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although it is usually only a minor pest, southern armyworm does sometimes have damaging infestations to crops, especially tomatoes2.  Southern armyworm caterpillars may disfigure nursery stock with feeding damage and pupate in the associated soil, reducing the value of nursery stock.  Infestations do sometimes trigger treatments, which increase crop production costs.  Spodoptera eridania is listed as a harmful organism and quarantine pest by many nations and has the potential to disrupt markets for California’s fresh fruit and nursery stock.  Southern armyworm receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Spodoptera eridania is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in agriculture and by residents.  It may also significantly affect many plants that are popular in home/urban gardens and ornamentals.  Southern armyworm receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Spodoptera eridania (Southern Armyworm): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Spodoptera eridania has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Unidentified life stages of Spodoptera are frequently intercepted by CDFA.  Presumably they go undetected at other times and enter the state.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for Spodoptera eridania in California and it could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Spodoptera eridania has not been found in California and it is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Capinera, John L. 2014. University of Florida Featured Creatures. Common name: southern armyworm. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/southern_armyworm.htm

2 EPPO Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests: Spodoptera eridania. http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Spodoptera_eridania/PRODER_ds.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Terastia meticulosalis Guenée: Erythrina Twigborer

California Pest Rating for
Terastia meticulosalis Guenée: Erythrina Twigborer
Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In October 2015 larvae collected from coral tree plants at a nursery in Oceanside (San Diego County) were confirmed by molecular diagnostics to be Terastia meticulosalis, Erythrina twigborer.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction on this pest.

History & Status:

BackgroundTerastia meticulosalis is a moth that feeds on coral trees (Erythrina spp.).  Early instar caterpillars are found inside the stems, leaf stalks, and seed pods1.  Their feeding can cause the tip of the host plant to die back and gradually kill off the upper part of the plant1.  Larvae typically exit the plant to pupate on the ground.  The damage attributed to this moth is reported to make the cultivation of Erythrina nearly impossible in Florida3.  This moth may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Terastia meticulosalis is native to Central and South America1.  The moth is known to occur in the southern United States from Florida and South Carolina west to Arizona1.  Populations of Terastia spp. in other areas are presently considered to be different species1.

Official Control: Terastia meticulosalis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution The only confirmed record of this moth from the environment of California was collected in November 2015 from the Los Angeles County Arboretum.  Unofficial records indicate that the moth may be more widespread (see Uncertainty section below).

California Interceptions:  Terastia meticulosalis has only been intercepted in two nurseries in San Diego County.

The risk Terastia meticulosalis (Erythrina twigborer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host InteractionErythrina are commonly grown as ornamentals in southern and coastal California and Terastia meticulosalis is expected to establish wherever suitable hosts are available. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Terastia meticulosalis is only known to feed on coral trees in the genus Erythrina.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Terastia meticulosalis is assumed to be capable of rapid reproduction and may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved.  The moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Terastia meticulosalis were to become established in California it is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of Erythrina nursery stock and increase production costs of those trees.  The moth is not expected to disrupt any markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Terastia meticulosalis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Terastia meticulosalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem practices.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who wish to save their coral trees.  Coral trees are grown as ornamentals in southern California and may be extirpated by Terastia meticulosalis.  Erythrina twigborer receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Terastia meticulosalis (Erythrina twigborer):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The only official sample of Terastia meticulosalis in California was collected from a site in Los Angeles County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:  

Unconfirmed sightings indicate that this moth could be much more widespread in California including Long Beach (September 21, 2015 – Los Angeles County), Mount Washington (October 25, 2015 – Los Angeles County), and Irvine (November 26, 2015 – Orange County)2.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for this moth in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Terastia meticulosalis is only known to be established in Los Angeles County.  However, if it were to establish a more widespread distribution in the state it is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts to coral trees in the nursery industry and California landscape.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Sourakov, Andrei. 2012. Common name: Erythrina moths. University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/shrubs/erythrina_moths.htm

2 What’s That Bug?  http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2015/10/25/erythrina-borer-visits-wtb-offices/

3 Sourakov, Andrei. 2011. Nice partitioning, co-evolution and life histories of Erythrina moths, Terastia meticulosalis and Agathodes designalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Trop. Lepid. Res. 21(2): 84-94. http://troplep.org/TLR/21-2/Sourakov-Niche-partitioning-erythrina-moths-TLR-21-2.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 8, 2016 and closed on April 22, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls