California Pest Rating for
Pandemis cerasana Hübner: Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix
Pest Rating: A
PEST RATING PROFILE
In July 2014 USDA’s New Pest Advisory Group distributed a report that proposed to change the status of Pandemis cerasana, barred fruit-tree tortrix, to non-actionable for the continental United States. A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.
History & Status:
Background: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous leaf-rolling moth that feeds on shoots, leaves, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of a wide variety of hosts in 20 plant families. Economically important hosts in California include apple, cherry, plum, peach, pear, blueberry, raspberry, and rose. In these crops, feeding on flowers and fruit may result in crop losses and blemished fruit. The most likely pathway for spread of Pandemis cerasana into California is as eggs, larvae, or pupae on nursery stock.
Worldwide Distribution: Pandemis cerasana is native to Europe and Asia. It was detected in British Columbia in 19653. The moth was found in Washington in 1994 and has spread through the nine western counties. It was first detected in Portland, Oregon in 2013. It appears that the moth is established in Washington and is spreading naturally through the Pacific Northwest.
Official Control: Pandemis cerasana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, and South Africa2 and is considered a quarantine pest by Australia4. It will also remain actionable in Hawaii under the NPAG report recommendations.
California Distribution: Pandemis cerasana has never been detected in California.
California Interceptions: Pandemis cerasana has never been intercepted in California or by USDA on imported fruit from Canada.
The risk Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants that grow in California and is expected to establish in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9. It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants in 20 families. It receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pandemis cerasana has moderate reproductive potential. The moth has one or two generations per year3 and each female typically lays 40-90 eggs. The moths can fly and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of undetected eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or plant material. Pandemis cerasana receives a Medium(2) in this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Pandemis cerasana has been reported as a minor pest defoliator of apple and pear trees in western Washington; it has not yet spread to the major fruit production areas of that state. In Europe, management measures for the moth include chemical control, monitoring and control programs, and a regional forecasting model. In Italy, up to 10-15% of fruit has been reported damaged. Furthermore, there may be trade disruptions with Australia and Hawaii, where it is considered a quarantine pest. Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
Economic Impact: A, B, C
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
Economic Impact Score: 3
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Pandemis cerasana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. The moth is likely to feed on endangered species that it encounters, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia). The moth is not likely to disrupt critical habitats. Pandemis cerasana may trigger new treatments in orchards and in the nursery industry. The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
Environmental Impact: B, D
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-Tree Tortrix): High(14)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pandemis cerasana has not been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)
There are existing integrated pest management programs in orchards in California. It is possible that these programs will also manage Pandemis cerasana. There have not been any recent surveys for this moth in California. It may already be established in some places.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Pandemis cerasana is established in western Washington and has recently spread to Oregon. It is likely to spread to California at some point in the future, either naturally or through movement of plant material. When it enters the State, the moth may have significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.
1Millar, Leah 2014. New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report on Pandemis cerasana Hübner: Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory. Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.
2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
3 Gilligan, T. M., and M. E. Epstein. 2012. Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI). Colorado State University and California Department of Food and Agriculture. http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Pandemis_cerasana.htm
4 Plant Health Australia: Cherry brown tortrix. High priority pest of cherries. http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/cherry-brown-tortrix/
Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
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Pest Rating: A
Posted by ls