Tag Archives: Hemiptera: Coccidae

Kilifia Americana Ben-Dov | Soft Scale

California Pest Rating for
Kilifia americana Ben-Dov: Soft scale
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Kilifia americana was found recently in Monterey County in a nursery. It was intercepted earlier in 90’s and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Kilifia americana is member of the soft scale family Coccidae.  It has broadly oval body, triangular, and narrowly rounded head. Kilifia americana looks flat on leaves and it is pale green or yellow green in color without an obvious wax covering2.

Like other species in the genus Kilifia, it can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica); Apocynaceae: pinwheel flower (Tabernaemontana divaricata); Rubiaceae: coffee (Coffea arabica); Rutaceae: citrus (Citrus limon, Citrus maxima & Clausena lansium); Araceae: Dieffenbachia seguine; Arecaceae: Chamaedorea spp.; Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia spp. and gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) 3. Its recent finding at a Monterey nursery on orchids (Orchidaceae) constitutes a new host record for this species5.

Worldwide Distribution: Kilifia americana was described from Texas in the United States2 and it is also reported from China and Mexico2. It also has been intercepted on shipments coming from Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama and Puerto Rico2.

Official Control: Kilifia americana is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations7.  However, Arizona maintains a quarantine against all citrus surface pests5.

California Distribution: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Kilifia americana was found recently at a nursery in Monterey County (PDR 272P06144846)6. It was intercepted two times earlier in 1990’s3.

The risk Kilifia americana (Soft scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Kilifia americana are growing throughout California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kilifia americana has been reported to feed on plants of at least ten genera in eight families, mostly from the tropics1, and it is likely that this host range is much broader than presently known, considering that its closest relative, Kilifia acuminata, is known to feed on over 50 genera4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment. Kilifia americana receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower the crop yields. It might reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increase crop production costs in nurseries and orchards. It could also disrupt movement of citrus to Arizona5. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category. Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

3) Environmental Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. No hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kilifia americana (Soft scale):  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

It is likely that the host range of Kilifia americana is greater than presently known. It is possible that if introduced in California it could easily spread and become established in the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kilifia americana has never been found as established in California and might cause significant economic and environmental impacts if this pest were to become established in California. Currently, an “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Ben-Dov., 1979. A taxonomic study of the soft-scale genus Kilifia (Coccidae). Systematic Entomology 4: 311-324.
  1. Scale insects: Kilifia americana. Accessed on 2-6-17  http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6890
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Kilifia%20americana/
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/kilifia%20acuminata/
  1. Summary of Exterior Quarantines.    Arizona Department of Agriculture.  Accessed on 2-6-17. http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/summaries/arizona.pdf
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 2-6-17  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 1, 2017 – April 15, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

 

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock: Florida Wax Scale

California Pest Rating for
Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock: Florida Wax Scale
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ceroplastes floridensis is regularly intercepted by CDFA and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating.

History & Status:

Background: Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants. Females have a reddish brown body coated with a thick layer of pinkish-white wax (11). Males are not known in this species (5). Eggs are laid under the female’s wax covering. Females feed and develop through three immature stages before becoming adult, producing eggs and dying (1). Three generations occur in Florida, but two generations per year are common throughout its global range. Each generation lasts about three to four months. Florida wax scales overwinter as newly mature females (11). The species is highly polyphagous feeding on plants of more than 150 genera (9). In Florida, this scale is considered a major pest of Citrus. It has also been recorded from species of holly, Elm, crepe myrtle, oaks, loblolly pine, deodar cedar, and other hardwoods and soft woods (4). In Texas, infestations have been observed on elephant ear, golden euonymus, honeysuckle, pomegranate, winged elm and Virginia creeper. Adult scales that colonize the underside of leaves, twigs and branches are difficult to spot, protected from heavy rains and foliar insecticides do not reach them easily (1).

Worldwide Distribution: Ceroplastes floridensis is thought to have originated from northern Neotropics, but they now occurs throughout the world. It has been found in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Pacific islands, Central America, the Caribbean, Europe, North America and South America (11).

US Distribution: Ceroplastes floridensis occurs from New York to Florida and west to New Mexico (7).

US Interceptions: Ceroplastes floridensis was intercepted 108 times on a variety of hosts at ports of entry between 1995 and 2012 (10).

Official Control: Ceroplastes floridensis has been reported as a harmful organism in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea (12).

California DistributionCeroplastes floridensis has never been found in the natural environment of California (6).

California InterceptionsCeroplastes floridensis has been intercepted 58 times between January 1, 2000 and November 2016 by CDFA’s high risk inspections, dog teams and nursery inspection programs (8).

The risk Ceroplastes floridensis (Florida Wax Scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Ceroplastes floridensis are grown throughout California. The climate is ideal to grow its hosts like Citrus, Almond, Quince, Apple, Fig, Japan Plum, Myrtle, Ferns, Oleander, Mango, Red Bay, Pomegranate, Ilex glabra, Anona reticulate, Andromeda and Anthurium (4). This species is likely to establish wherever these hosts are grown in the state. Florida wax scale receives a High (3) in this Category

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ceroplastes sp. attacks over 150 genera from 60 plant families from all geographic regions (9). Ceroplastes floridensis has been reported infesting a wide range of host plants including shrubs, trees and several herbaceous plant species (1). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: A female of Ceroplastes floridensis produces about 75-100 eggs during its life time (4). There are 2-3 generations per year and each generation lasts about 3-4 months. Crawlers emerge from underneath the female, disperse and settle on leaves. Older nymphs move around with in same plant to search for new flushes of growth (11) .The colonization of scales on upper leaves makes them vulnerable to heavy rain and other environmental factors, reducing their ability to survive and disperse (1). From a quarantine perspective, dispersal of any stage of Ceroplastes floridensis can occur through the transport of host plant material. The fact that this species has been intercepted many times at ports of entry, indicates that there is high likelihood of risk of introduction and spread in California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Ceroplastes floridensis were to enter and become established in California, it is likely to cause heavy infestations of host plants. These infestations could cause discoloration of leaves, pre-mature leaf drop, branch dieback and even plant death. The crop losses could be significant in hosts like citrus and almond that are major crops in California and ornamentals such as crape myrtle, oleander and bay laurel that are widely distributed. To add to these losses, the sticky honeydew secreted by this scale could vector sooty mold fungus that can significantly reduce photosynthesis and the aesthetic value of host plants (11). It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural use

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Ceroplastes floridensis in California would likely impact cultural practices and ornamental plantings. Infested plants would need to be pruned off and pest resistant varieties would need to be planted. Sanitation and planting practices are likely to be impacted in the state if this scale were to spread in ornamental and horticultural plantings (11). Florida wax scale infestations could also trigger additional treatments, especially the use of systemic insecticides and foliar sprays (1). The application of broad spectrum insecticides is likely to disrupt local natural enemies including beneficial predators and parasites. (2). It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ceroplastes floridensis: High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ceroplastes floridensis has never been found in the natural environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Ceroplastes floridensis has been intercepted multiple times at ports of entry, border stations and through regulatory pathways in California. Therefore the likelihood of introduction risk of this species is high. The four Ceroplastes species already present in California are found on similar hosts like citrus, oleander and gardenia. There have not been any formal surveys of Ceroplastes floridensis in California. It is possible that this species might be present in some areas of the California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ceroplastes floridensis has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:
  1. Drees, Bastian M, Reinert James and William, Michaels. 2006. Florida Wax Scale: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees. Texas A & M University, Department of Entomology http://landscapeipm.tamu.edu/ipm-for-ornamentals/florida-wax-scales/
  1. Dreistadt, S.H. and Kabashima, J.N. UC Statewide IPM Program Davis, Scales. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape professionals. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnscales.pdf 
  2. Essig, E.O. 1915. Injurious and Beneficial Insects of California. Comstock Memorial Library of Entomology. Host Index of Injurious insects Described or Cited. P 112-113       https://books.google.com/books?id=fBRDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR8&lpg=PR8&dq=hosts+of+ceroplastes+floridensis+in+california&source=bl&ots=X1otK7Bpd9&sig=26PJwmeUF3U5LmS4dPSdwulIu1Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj1sJGj8fTQAhVMwWMKHWdbAdQQ6AEIHzAB#v=onepage&q=hosts%20of%20ceroplastes%20floridensis%20in%20california&f=false
  3. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 1983. Forest Health Publications. Bulletin No. 196-A, Florida Wax Scale http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Florida-Forest-Service/Our-Forests/Forest-Health/Forest-Health-Publications/Insects-and-Diseases/Florida-Wax-Scale
  1. Futch SH, McCoy Jr CW, Childers CC. (April 2009). A guide to scale insect identification. EDIS. .
  1. Gill, Raymond J. 1988. The Soft Scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). California Department of Food and Agriculture https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/Technical_Series_01.pdf
  1. Hamon AB, Williams ML. 1984. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas, Vol. 2. Florida Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
  2. Pest and Damage Record Database, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. Scale net database: Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock) http://scalenet.info/catalogue/ceroplastes%20floridensis/
  1. Scalenet: Identification Tools for Species of quarantine significance, Edition 2. Ceroplastes floridensis Fact Sheet http://www.idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6876
  1. Sharma Shweta and Buss, Eileen. Florida Wax Scale. University of Florida- Entomology and Plant Pathology. Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/florida_wax_scale.htm
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ViewPExD.jsp

Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/17/2017 – 3/3/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Mango Shield Scale | Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green)

5508173-soft-scale-milviscutulus-mangiferae-byAllesandraRung
California Pest Rating for
Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green): Mango Shield Scale
Hemiptera:  Coccidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Since 1991 Milviscutulus mangiferae has been regularly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  This scale insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundMilviscutulus mangiferae is a highly polyphagous scale insect that feeds on a wide variety of plants.  Known hosts include:  Anacardiaceae: Campnosperma brevipetiolata1, Gluta turtur1, mango (Mangifera indica1, Mangifera sp.1); Annonaceae: susung-kalabaw (Uvaria rufa1); Apocynaceae: Adenium sp.2, Alstonia spectabilis1, Alyxia sp.2, Plumeria sp.1, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana1); Araceae: elephant ear (Caladium sp.1), Colocasia sp.2, Diffenbachia sp.2, Epipremnum sp.1; Araliaceae: Meryta macrophylla1, Schefflera sp.1; Arecaceae: Chamaedorea sp.2, coconut (Cocos nucifera1), fruit salad plant (Monstera deliciosa1); Asparagaceae: ti (Cordyline terminalis1), Cordyline fruticosa1; Dracaena sp.2; Asteraceae: Wedelia biflora1; BignoniaceaeSpathodea sp.2; Bixaceae: achiote (Bixa orellana1); Boraginaceae: Cordia myxa1; Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas sp.1); Caricaceae: papaya (Carica papaya1); Combretaceae: Terminalia complanata1, Terminalia brassii1,  tropical almond (Terminalia catappa1); Convolvulaceae: woodrose (Merremia sp.1); Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus sp.1; Euphorbiaceae: Breynia cernua1, croton (Codiaeum variegatum1); Pimelodendron amboinicum1; Fabaceae: Gliricidia sp.1; Flagellariaceae: Flagellaria sp.1; Gnetaceae: paddy oats (Gnetum gnemon1); Lauraceae: cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.1); Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia1), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanica1), Laurus sp.2, Litsea zeylanica1, avocado (Persea americana1); Malpighiaceae: wild crapemyrtle (Malpighia glabra1); Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.1; Meliaceae: Lansium sp.2; Moraceae: jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia1), Artocarpus sp.1, breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis1), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus1), Artocarpus integra1, Hauli tree (Ficus septica1), Ficus sp.1; Ficus gibbosa1, Ficus glandulifera1, Ficus theophrastoides1, dye fig (Ficus tinctoria1), lechechiva (Pseudolmedia havanensis1); Musaceae: banana (Musa sp.2); Myristicaceae: Gymnacranthera sp.1, nutmeg (Myristica moschata1); Myrtaceae: Callistemon sp.2, Decaspermum sp.1, lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora1), rainbow eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta1), malay apple (Eugenia malaccensis1), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata1), rotra (Eugenia jambolona1), jambos (Eugenia jambos1), Eugenia parkeri1, Eugenia sp.1, rose apple (Eugenia aquea1), white stopper (Eugenia axillaris1), Jambosa sp.1, myrtle (Myrtus sp.2), common guava (Psidium guajava1), costa rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum1), rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa1); Oleaceae: Jasminum trifoliatum1; Opiliaceae: false olive (Champereia manillana1); Orchidaceae: alien orchid (Dendrobium spectabile1), vanilla (Vanilla sp.1); Phyllanthaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica1); Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.2; Primulaceae: Parathesis cubana1, Rapanea quianensis1; Rhizophoraceae: Gynotroches axilaris1, Rhizophora apiculata1, red mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata1); RosaceaeRosa sp.2; Rubiaceae: Bouvardia sp.2, Gardenia florida1, jungle geranium (Ixora coccinea1), noni (Morinda citrifolia1), Platanocephalus chinensis1, Platanocephalus morindaefolius1, Psychotria elyptica1, Psychotria rubra1, Timonius sp.1; Rutaceae: lemon (Citrus limon1), orange (Citrus sinensis1); Sapindaceae: ackee (Blighia sapida1), Dimocarpus sp.2, Guioa sp.1; Sapotaceae: Palaquium formosanum1, Pometia pinnata1; Solanaceae: Cuban raintree (Brunfelsia nitida1); Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Vitex pubescens1; Zingiberaceae: ginger (Zingiber sp.).  Milviscutulus mangiferae may spread long distances on infested plants and plant material from this extensive host list.

Worldwide Distribution: Milviscutulus mangiferae is widespread in the Australasian, Afrotropical, Oriental, and Neotropical regions1.  It has also been found in Israel1, Japan1, and Hawaii1.  In North America the scale has been found in Mexico, Florida, and Texas1.

Official Control:  Milviscutulus mangiferae is considered a quarantine pest by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution:  Milviscutulus mangiferae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Milviscutulus mangiferae has been regularly intercepted by CDFA since 1991, most commonly on shipments of mango (Mangifera indica) and ti leaves (Cordyline terminalis) from Florida and Hawaii.  The scale insect was found on Schefflera sp. plants at a nursery in Oxnard (Ventura County) in 2003 (PDR 1266877).  It was found on mango and cherimoya plants at a nursery in Bonita (San Diego County) in October 2013 (PDRs 370P06143908, 370P06143909, 370P06144251, 370P06144252, 370P06144253) and again May 2014 (PDRs 370P06228020, 370P06228022).

The risk Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of Milviscutulus mangiferae is primarily tropical. However, it is found in at least one nation with a Mediterranean climate similar to that of California (Israel1).  Host plants are commonly grown in the warmer parts of California and the scale insect is likely to establish in these areas.  Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Milviscutulus mangiferae feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 44 plant families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Milviscutulus mangiferae has a high reproductive rate and three generations per year1.  Scales may be moved long distances in commerce of infested plants or plant parts and may be dispersed locally by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.  Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Milviscutulus mangiferae can damage fruit by contaminating it with honeydew, leading to the growth of sooty mold4.  Heavy infestations may reduce plant vigor and leaf size, causing yellowing of leaves, leaf drop, and dieback4.  This damage could reduce fruit yields.  The presence of this scale may increase production costs in orchards and nurseries as some growers are likely to treat.  The scale insect also has the potential to disrupt markets by disfiguring citrus and avocado fruit as well as nursery stock.  Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Milviscutulus mangiferae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on the endangered small-leave rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional private treatment programs by fruit production and nursery industries and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Milviscutulus mangiferae feeds on a wide variety of plants that are grown as ornamentals and, in the absence of its natural enemies, may have a significant impact on them.  The scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Milviscutulus mangiferae has never been detected in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(14)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that this insect will be managed by existing management practices in fruit production and nursery industries.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Milviscutulus mangiferae has not been found in the environment of California.  Its entry into the environment of the state may have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Milviscutulus%20mangiferae/

2SEL Catalog.

http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6894

3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4Grimshaw, Judy F. and John F. Donaldson.  2007.  New records of mango shield scale Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in north Queensland.  Australian Journal of Entomology 46: 96-98.  http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/grimshaw-donaldson2007.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016 – 11/7/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls