California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Center for Analytical Chemistry (CAC) Food Safety Laboratory Senior Environmental Scientist Roland Carlson is published as a co-author in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry for the article, “Multilaboratory Collaborative Study of a Nontarget Data Acquisition for Target Analysis (nDATA) Workflow Using Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry for Pesticide Screening in Fruits and Vegetables.”
In this collaborative study conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 25 laboratories participated to prove the effectiveness of a new method to identify pesticides on high-moisture produce including apple, banana, broccoli, carrot, grape, lettuce, orange, potato, strawberry and tomato. While the study demonstrated method performance using a small set of pesticides, the nDATA workflow has the ability to screen for thousands of pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins and veterinary drug residue in a single rapid analysis.
Nontarget data acquisition for target analysis (nDATA) workflows using liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass (LC-HRAM) spectrometry, spectral screening software, and a compound database have generated interest because of their potential for screening of pesticides in foods. However, these procedures and particularly the instrument processing software need to be thoroughly evaluated before implementation in routine analysis. In this work, 25 laboratories participated in a collaborative study to evaluate an nDATA workflow on high moisture produce (apple, banana, broccoli, carrot, grape, lettuce, orange, potato, strawberry, and tomato). Samples were extracted in each laboratory by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS), and data were acquired by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a high-resolution quadrupole Orbitrap (QOrbitrap) or quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer operating in full-scan mass spectrometry (MS) data-independent tandem mass spectrometry (LC-FS MS/DIA MS/MS) acquisition mode. The nDATA workflow was evaluated using a restricted compound database with 51 pesticides and vendor processing software. Pesticide identifications were determined by retention time (tR, ±0.5 min relative to the reference retention times used in the compound database) and mass errors (δM) of the precursor (RTP, δM ≤ ±5 ppm) and product ions (RTPI, δM ≤ ±10 ppm). The elution profiles of all 51 pesticides were within ±0.5 min among 24 of the participating laboratories. Successful screening was determined by false positive and false negative rates of <5% in unfortified (pesticide-free) and fortified (10 and 100 μg/kg) produce matrices. Pesticide responses were dependent on the pesticide, matrix, and instrument. The false negative rates were 0.7 and 0.1% at 10 and 100 μg/kg, respectively, and the false positive rate was 1.1% from results of the participating LC-HRAM platforms. Further evaluation was achieved by providing produce samples spiked with pesticides at concentrations blinded to the laboratories. Twenty-two of the 25 laboratories were successful in identifying all fortified pesticides (0–7 pesticides ranging from 5 to 50 μg/kg) for each produce sample (99.7% detection rate). These studies provide convincing evidence that the nDATA comprehensive approach broadens the screening capabilities of pesticide analyses and provide a platform with the potential to be easily extended to a larger number of other chemical residues and contaminants in foods.
Wong, J., Wang, J., Chang, J., Chow, W., Carlson, R., et. al, “Multilaboratory Collaborative Study of a Nontarget Data Acquisition for Target Analysis (nDATA) Workflow Using Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry for Pesticide Screening in Fruits and Vegetables.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2021, 69, 44, 13200-13216; https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04437.