Category Archives: Hemiptera

Ripersiella hibisci (Kawai & Takagi): Root Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Ripersiella hibisci
Ripersiella hibisci.
Photo credit: Alessandra Rung, Scale Insects, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org
Ripersiella hibisci (Kawai & Takagi): Root Mealybug
Hemiptera: Rhizoecidae
Pest Rating:  A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ripersiella hibisci is frequently intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Ripersiella hibisci is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds exclusively on the roots of plants1,2.  This mealybug inhabits the rootball or the area between the rootball and the plant container where it is difficult to detect1.  Heavily infested plants show poor growth, wilt, and turn yellow or grey1.  Plants may be prevented from flowering and eventually die1.  Known hosts include:  Amaryllidaceae: Crinum asiaticum2; Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander2; Araceae: Dieffenbachia spp.2; Arecaceae: Areca spp.2, Butia capitata (PDR 1316475), Caryota sp. (1075104), Chambeyronia macrocarpa (1316833), Dypsis decaryi (1253915), Gronophyllum spp.2, Ptychosperma macarthurii (1075011), Phoenix roebellenii2, Phoenix canariensis2, Ravenea rivularis (1075143), Rhapis excelsa (1040975), Rhapis multifida (1308317), Rhapis spp.2, Sabal spp.2, Syragus romanzoffiana (1122973), Wodyetia bifurcata (1317460); Bromeliaceae: Cryptanthus spp.2; Commelinaceae: Dichorisandra thyrsiflora2; Cyperaceae: Carex spp.2; Ericaceae: Rhododendron sp.1; Geraniaceae: Pelargonium spp.2; Lythraceae: Cuphea hyssopifolia2, Punica granatum1; Malvaceae: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis2; Marantaceae: Calathea sp.1; Moraceae: Ficus benjamina (1230171), Ficus sp.1; Oleaceae: Ligustrum ovalifolium1; Poaceae: Hakonechloa macra2; Rhamnaceae: Sageretia theezans1; Rubiaceae: Serissa foetida1, Serissa spp.2; Solanaceae: bell pepper (Capsicum annuum (58665)); Ulmaceae: Ulmus parvifolia1, Zelkova serrata1, Zelkova spp.2; Zingiberaceae: Zingiber sp. (1188341).  Ripersiella hibisci may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Ripersiella hibisci is probably native to China or Japan.  From there it has spread to Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico2.

Official Control: Ripersiella hibisci is listed as a quarantine pest by the European Union1.

California Distribution Ripersiella hibisci has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Ripersiella hibisci has been intercepted 275 times by CDFA on plants from Hawaii, Florida, Texas, and Arizona.  Most interceptions have occurred on palms.

The risk Ripersiella hibisci (root mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants for Ripersiella hibisci are grown throughout most of California. As it feeds on roots below ground, the mealybug has some protection from temperature extremes.  Root mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ripersiella hibisci is known to feed on at least 40 species of plants in 20 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  Ripersiella hibisci may also disperse locally by the crawlers being flushed out of plant pots when the plants are watered, then crawling into adjacent plant pots through drainage holes in their bases; also through wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals1.  Its cryptic habits mean that root mealybug may easily be dispersed by trade in infested plants without being detected.  Ripersiella hibisci receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ripersiella hibisci is likely to lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants or reducing plant quality.  It is also likely to increase production costs of nursery stock.  Root mealybug may also disrupt markets.  Ripersiella hibisci receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ripersiella hibisci is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened or endangered plants such as white sedge (Carex albida) and Tompkins’s sedge (Carex tompkinsii).  Root mealybug is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger treatment programs in the nursery industry and urban areas.  Host plants of Ripersiella hibisci are widely grown as ornamentals in California and may be significantly impacted.  The mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ripersiella hibisci (root mealybug):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ripersiella hibisci has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Interceptions of Ripersiella hibisci by both California and Europe have yielded many new host records.  It is likely that the host range of this mealybug will continue to expand.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ripersiella hibisci has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 MacLeod, A. 2005.  Rhizoecus hibisci. Data sheets on quarantine pests. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.  http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Rhizoecus_hibisci/DS_Rhizoecus_hibisci.pdf

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Ripersiella/hibisci/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green): Trilobe Scale

California Pest Rating for
Psuedaonidia trilobitiformis (Green)
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green): Trilobe Scale
Photo Credit: National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR)
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green):  Trilobe Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is commonly intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaonidia trilobitiformis is a polyphagous, widespread armored scale insect.  Known hosts include:  Agavaceae: Agave mexicana1, Cordyline sp.1, Cordyline neo-caledonyca1, Dracaena sp.1; Anacardiaceae: Anacardium sp.1, Anacardium occidentale1, Mangifera sp.1, Mangifera indica1, Nothopegia colebrookiana1, Schinus molle1, Schinus terebinthifolius1, Sclerocarya caffra1; Annonaceae: Annona sp.1, Annona reticulata1, Annona squamosa1, Cananga odoratum1; Apocynaceae: Acocanthera abessinica1, Carissa carandas1, Carissa madagascariensis1, Carissophyllum sp.1, Catharanthus roseus1, Cerbera oppositifolia1, Echites sp.1, Nerium sp.1, Nerium indicum1, Nerium oleander1, Ochrosia oppositifolia1, Plumeria acutifolia1, Plumeria rubra1, Thevetia sp.1, Thevetia peruviana1, Trachelospermum foetidum1; Araceae: Monstera deliciosa1, Philodendrom sp.1, Pothos aureus1; Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera1, Dictyosperma alba1, Elaeis guineensis1, Hyphaene thebaica1; Bignoniaceae: Crescentia cujete1, Pyrostegia venusta1; Boraginaceae: Cordia myxa1; Bromeliaceae: Ananas sativa1; Caricaceae: Carica papaya1; Combretaceae: Terminalia arjuna1, Terminalia catappa1; Corylaceae: Corylus sp.1; Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.1, Diospyros eriantha1, Diospyros kaki1; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites sp.1, Aleurites fordi1, Aleurites moluccana1, Aleurites montana1, Codiaeum sp.1, Gelonium lanceolatum1, Hura crepitans1, Jatropha curcas1; Fabaceae: Acacia simplicifolia1, Acacia spirorbis1, Bauhinia sp.1, Bauhinia monandra1, Bauhinia variegata1, Cassia sp.1, Cassia siamea1, Cassia spectabilis1, Clitoria terneata1, Crotalaria sp.1, Dalbergia sp.1, Dalbergia championii1, Derris indica1, Mucuna bennettii1, Pithecolobium unguis-cati1; Fagaceae: Quercus sp.1; Flacourtiaceae: Flacourtia ramontchi1, Hydnocarpus wightiana1, Scolopia oldhamii1; Fumariaceae: Fumaria sp.1; Guttiferae: Calophyllum inophyllum1; Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp.1; Lauraceae: Cinnamomum zeylanicum1, Laurus nobilis1, Machilus sp.1, Persea sp.1, Persea americana1, Persea gratissima1; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia asiatica1; Liliaceae: Taetsia neocaledonica1; Magnoliaceae: Michelia champaca1; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.1; Marantaceae: Maranta sp.1; Meliaceae: Xylocarpus obovatus1; Moraceae: Artocarpus sp.1, Artocarpus altilis1, Artocarpus communis1, Artocarpus heterophyllus1, Artocarpus incisa1, Artocarpus integrifolius1, Brosimum utile1, Cudrania cochinchinensis1, Ficus sp.1, Ficus awkeotsang1, Ficus benghalensis1, Ficus elastica1, Ficus pumila1, Ficus religiosa1, Ficus repens1, Ficus retusa1, Ficus scandens1, Ficus swinhoei1, Ficus thonningii1, Ficus trichoclada1, Ficus wightiana japonica1; Myrtaceae Eugenia sp.1, Eugenia jaboticaba1, Myrtus sp.1, Psidium sp.1, Psidium cattleianum1, Psidium guajava1; Naucleaceae: Cephalanthus sp.1; Nyctaginaceae: Bouganvillea sp.1; Oleaceae: Jasminum sp.1; Passifloraceae: Passiflora sp.1, Passiflora edulis1, Passiflora laurifolia1, Passiflora quadrangularis1; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.1; Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera1; Punicaceae: Punica granatum1; Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus sp.1, Ziziphus spina-christi1; Rosaceae: Eriobotrya japonica1, Mespilus germanica1, Prunus domestica1, Pyrus sp.1, Rosa sp.1; Rubiaceae: Coffea sp.1, Coffea arabica1, Coffea liberica1, Ixora sp.1, Ixora coccinia1; Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1, Citrus aurantium1, Citrus aurantium bigaradia1, Citrus bergamia1, Citrus decumana1, Citrus grandis1, Citrus histrix1, Citrus limetta1, Citrus limon1, Citrus maxima1, Citrus nobilis unchiu1, Citrus sinensis1, Murraya exotica1; Santalaceae: Santalum austro-caledonicum1; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa1, Euphoria longana1, Litchi sinensis1; Sapotaceae: Achras sapota1, Mimusops sp.1, Mimusops elengi1; Solanaceae: Capsicum sp.1, Capsicum annuum1, Capsicum frutescens1; Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao1; Theaceae: Camellia sp.1, Camellia japonica1, Eurya japonica1, Thea japonica1; Thymelaeaceae: Peddiea africana1; Tiliaceae: Grewia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Premna sp.1, Tectona grandis1; Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera1.

Worldwide Distribution: Although it was first found in Sri Lanka, the native range of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is uncertain.  From its origin it has spread through much of Africa, Asia, Australia, the Pacific, South America, and Central America1.  In the continental United States the scale is known to be present in Florida1.

Official Control: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand2.

California Distribution:  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis was intercepted by CDFA’s dog teams, border stations, and high risk programs 139 times.  These interceptions have occurred on a wide variety of commodities from Hawaii, Florida, Mexico, and many other countries in Central and South America.  Many of the interceptions are on mango.

The risk Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (trilobe scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis are grown throughout California as agricultural crops and ornamentals.  The scale insect is likely to establish wherever these plants are grown.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is highly polyphagous.  The scale insect is known to feed on more than 174 plant species in 50 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The biology of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is not well documented.  However, scale insects have high reproductive rates.  They are capable of moving long distances through commerce in infested plants and plant parts.  Trilobe scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trilobe scale is known to feed on many plants that are economically important in California including citrus, avocado, and grapes.  However, despite its polyphagous nature and widespread distribution, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is not well-documented to be a plant pest and is therefore not expected to lower crop yields.  It may increase crop production costs as growers may treat to control scale populations for quarantine purposes.  Trilobe scale is listed as a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners.  The presence of this scale in California may have significant impacts on California fresh fruit exports.  Trilobe scale is not expected to change normal cultural practices, vector other pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis were to enter California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may directly affect threatened or endangered species, such as Rosa minutifolia (small-leaved rose), by feeding on them.  It is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional private treatment programs in fruit production and nursery industries.  Since it is not well-documented as a pest in other locations, trilobe scale is not expected significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Trilobe Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Although it is not well-documented as a pest in other localities, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis could have a more significant impact in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in California and would be likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 SEL Catalog Query Results.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pseudaonidiatrilobitiformis.htm

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudaonidia%20trilobitiformis/

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Planococcus minor (Maskell): Pacific Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Planococcus minor (Maskell): Pacific Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Planococcus minor is frequently intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Planococcus minor is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of valuable agricultural crops and ornamental plants.  Infestations may cause reduced yield, lower plant or fruit quality, stunted growth, discoloration, and leaf loss1.  The mealybugs also excrete large volumes of honeydew that reduces photosynthetic activity and attracts ants as it builds up on leaves and fruit1.  The mealybug can be an economic pest at low population densities by vectoring viruses that kill plants1.  However, it has not emerged as a serious economic pest in much of its range presumably due to the presence of predators and parasitoids1.  Known hosts include:  Acanthaceae: Aphelandra sp.2, Graptophyllum sp.2, Justica carnea2, Odontonema sp.2, Pachystachys coecinea2; Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus sp.2; Anacardiaceae: cashew (Anacardium occidentale2), mango (Mangifera indica2), Rhus sp.2, ambarella (Spondias dulcis2); Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona reticulata2), sugar apple (Annona squamosa2), soursop (Annona muricata2), ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata2); Apiaceae: celery (Apium graveolens2); Apocynaceae: Araujia sericofera2, Hoya sp.2, Plumeria rubra2; Araceae: Aglaonema sp.2, Alocasia sp.2, giant taro (Alocasia macrorhiza2), taro (Colocasia esculenta2), giant swamp taro (Cryptosperma chamissonis2), Dieffenbachia sp.2, centipede tongavine (Epipremnum pinnatum2), Philodendron fonzii2, water cabbage (Pistia stratioites2), Rhaphidophora vitiensis2, arrowleaf elephant ear (Xanthosoma sagittifolium2), Xanthosoma nigrum2; Araliaceae: Aralia sp.2, ivy (Hedera helix2), Polyscias guilfoylei2, umbrella tree (Schefflera actinphylla2); Arecaceae: betel tree (Areca catechu2), Balaka seemanni2, Chrysalidocarpus sp.2, coconut tree (Cocos nucifera2), Kentia palm (Howeia forsteriana2); Asparagaceae: Dracaena sp.2; Asteraceae: black-jack (Bidens pilosa2), endive (Cichorium endivia2), Dahlia sp.2, lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia2), Helianthus sp.2, climbing hempvine (Mikania scandens2), sweetscent (Pluchea odorata2), node weed (Synedrella nodiflora2), French marigold (Tagetes patula2), Tithonia sp.2, beach sunflower (Wedelia biflora2), common zinnia (Zinnia elegans2); Balsaminaceae: garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina2), Impatiens sultani2; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia sp.2; Boraginaceae: Spanish elm (Cordia alliodora2), Tournefortia argentata2; Brassicaceae: broccoli etc (Brassica oleracea2), Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis2), radish (Raphanus sativus2); Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas comosus2); Burseraceae: java almond (Canarium indicum2), santa cruz nut (Canarium harveyi2); Cactaceae: higo chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis2); Casuarinaceae: Casuarina equisetifolia2; Clusiaceae: Alexandrian laurel balltree (Calophyllum inophyllum2); Combretaceae: Lumnitzera coccinea2, tropical almond (Terminalia catappa2), Commelinaceae: Commelina sp.2, Tradescantia sp.2, Convolvulaceae: beach morning-glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae2), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas2), Merremia peltata2; Corynocarpaceae: Corynocarpus sp.2; Cucurbitaceae: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus2), cucumber (Cucumis sativus2), muskmelon (Cucumis melo2), squash (Cucurbita moschata2), squash (Cucurbita maxima2), squash (Cucurbita pepo2), chayote (Sechium edule2); Cyperaceae: coco-grass (Cyperus rotundus2); Dioscoreaceae: purple yam (Dioscorea alata2); Euphorbiaceae: chenille plant (Acalypha hispida2) , copperleaf (Acalypha godseffiana2), Acalypha tricolor2, candlenut (Aleurites moluccana2), Antidesma sp.2, garden croton (Codiaeum variegatum2), Croton sp.2, poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae pulcherrima2), fireplant (Euphorbiaceae heterophylla2), Euphorbiaceae geniculata2, Euphorbiaceae atoto2, river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha2), Glochidion ramiflorum2, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis2), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas2), Macaranga aleuritoides2, blush macaranga (Macaranga tanarius2), Macaranga macrophylla2, Macaranga harveyana2, food wrapper plant (Mallotus japonicus2), cassava (Manihot esculenta2), stonebreaker (Phyllanthus niruri2), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis2); Fabaceae: Acacia spirobis2, soapbush wattle (Acacia holosericea2), needle bush (Acacia farnesiana2), Formosan Koa (Acacia confusa2), saga tree (Adenanthera pavonina2), peanut (Arachis hypogaea2), Napoleon’s plume (Bauhinia monandra2), Cajanus indicus2, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan2), Calliandra houstoniana2, candle bush (Cassia alata2), Cassia imperialis2, butterfly pea (Centrosema pubescens2), Erythrina sp.2, Flemingia sp.2, Gliricidia maculata2, Gliricidia sepium2, soybean (Glycine max2), Tahitian chestnut (Inocarpus fagifer2), white leadtree (Leucaena glauca2), white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala2), sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica2), giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra2), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus2), siratro (Phaseolus atropurpureus2), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris2), Wisteria sp.2; Geraniaceae: Pelargonium sp.2; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia aurantiaca2; Iridaceae: Gladiolus sp.2; Lamiaceae: painted nettle (Coleus blumei2), Epimeredi indicum2, comb bushmint (Hyptis pectinata2), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum2), sage (Salvia officinalis2); Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana2); Lecythidaceae: fish poison tree (Barringtonia asiatica2); Liliaceae: common asparagus fern (Asparagus plumosus2), pale grass lily (Caesia parviflora2), spider lily (Crinum asiaticum2); Loganiaceae: false coffee tree (Fagraea racemosa2); Lythraceae: crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica2), Pemphis acidula2; Magnoliaceae: banana shrub (Michelia figo2); Malvaceae: Abutilon sp.2, Gossypium sp.2, sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus2), sunset muskmallow (Hibiscus manihot2), Kleinhovia hospita2, Pavonia sp.2, Theobroma cacao2, Chinese bur (Triumfetta rhomboidea2); Marantaceae: Maranta sp.2; Moraceae: breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis2), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus2), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera2), panama rubber tree (Castilloa elastica2), Ficus opositica2, fig (Ficus carica2), Ficus congesta2, weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2), white mulberry (Morus alba2); Musaceae: pink velvet banana (Musa velutina2), latundan banana (Musa sapientum2); Myristicaceae: Myristica macrantha2; Myrtaceae: rainbow eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta2), jambolan (Eugenia cumini2), mountain apple (Eugenia malaccensis2), common guava (Psidium guajava2); Oleaceae: Jasminum sp.2, Onagraceae: primrose willow (Ludwigia octovalis2); Orchidaceae: Dendrobium veratrifolium2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus edulis2, Pandanus foetida2, Pandanus maliformis2, Pandanus odoratissimus2; Passifloraceae: passion fruit (Passiflora edulis2); Phyllanthaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica2); Piperaceae: Piper puberulum2, kava (Piper methysticum2), matico (Piper aduncum2); Poaceae: sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum2), corn (Zea mays2); Proteaceae: macadamia nut (Macadamia tetraphylla2); Rhamnaceae: Alphitonia zizyphoides2; Rosaceae: Asian pear (Pyrus serotina2), china rose (Rosa chinensis2); Rubiaceae: Borreria laevis2, Liberian coffee (Coffea liberica2), arabica coffee (Coffea arabica2), robusta coffee (Coffea canephora2), gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides2), beach gardenia (Guettarda speciosa2), jungle geranium (Ixora coccinea2), great morinda (Morinda citrifolia2), Tahitian gardenia (Randia tahitensis2); Rutaceae: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium2), lemon (Citrus limon2), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi2), key lime (Citrus aurantifolia2), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata2), orange (Citrus sinensis2), pomelo (Citrus grandis2), Evodia hortensis2; Sapotaceae: sapodilla (Manilkara zapota2), taun (Pometia pinnata2); Scrophulariaceae: coral fountain (Russelia equisetiformis2); Solanaceae: raintree (Brunfelsia hispida2), chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens2), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum2), angel’s trumpet (Datura suaveolens2), devil’s trumpet (Datura metel2), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum2), turkey berry (Solanum torvum2), potato (Solanum tuberosum2), indian nightshade (Solanum indicum2), eggplant (Solanum melongena2), Theaceae: tea plant (Camellia sinensis2); Urticaceae: Boehmeria sp.2, Leucosyke sp.2, native mulberry (Pipturus argenteus2), Procris pedunculata2; Verbenaceae: pagoda flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum2), java glorybower (Clerodendrum fallax2), Clerodendrum disparifolium2, Premna taitensis2, Premna obtusifolia2, Stachytarpheta sp.2, teak (Tectona grandis2), Verbena sp.2, simpleleaf chastetree (Vitex trifolia2); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis vinifera2); Zingiberaceae: red ginger (Alpinia purpurata2), shellflower (Alpinia nutans2), green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum2), white ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium2), torch ginger (Nicolaia speciosa2), ginger (Zingiber officinale2).  Planococcus minor may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Planococcus minor is probably Asian in origin1.  From there it has invaded much of the Neotropical region spanning from Mexico south to Argentina1,2.  It was first found in Hawaii in 2009 and Florida in 2010.

Official Control: Planococcus minor is listed as a harmful organism by China, the Republic of Korea, and Japan3.

California Distribution Planococcus minor has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Planococcus minor has been intercepted 89 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations and dog teams.  Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts mostly from Hawaii, but also from Florida, Washington, and Pennsylvania.

The risk Planococcus minor (pacific mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Planococcus minor are widely grown throughout California as agricultural crops and ornamentals. The mealybug is likely to establish wherever suitable host material is found and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Planococcus minor feeds on more than 250 plants belonging to 66 families and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pacific mealybug can complete a generation in less than a month and each female lays between 206 and 270 eggs, indicating a high reproductive rate.  Mealybugs can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Planococcus minor may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and sooty mold.  It may also increase production costs for a wide variety of crops.  Several of California’s trading partners list pacific mealybug as a harmful organism, so exports of fresh fruit including citrus and grapes may be disrupted.  Pacific mealybug has been implicated in the transmission of virus diseases between plants1.  Furthermore, honeydew secreted by the mealybugs will attract ants, which may injure parasitic wasps, disrupting biological control programs for other pests.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Planococcus minor is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as Wiggins’ croton (Croton wigginsii) and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The mealybugs are not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  They may trigger new treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Pacific mealybug feeds on a wide variety of popular ornamental plants and plants common in home/urban gardens.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Planococcus minor (Pacific Mealybug): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Planococcus minor has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:  

Recent formal mealybug surveys in California have focused on Proteas and would have been unlikely to detect pacific mealybug.  It is possible that the mealybug could be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Planococcus minor has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Francis, Antonio W., Moses T.K. Kairo, and Amy L. Roda. 2012. Passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). University of Florida Extension.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN92000.pdf

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Planococcus/minor

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell): Longan Scale

California Pest Rating for
Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell): Longan Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

August 23, 2012 Ron Eng (CDFA) requested a permanent rating for longan scale (Thysanofiorinia nephelii) as follow-up to a find of the Q-rated pest on a longan tree in a nursery in Santa Ana.

History & Status:

Background:  Longan scale is an armored scale insect that is sometimes considered a pest of the tropical fruits longan (Dinocarps longan) and lychee (Litchi chinensis).  In addition to those primary hosts it has also been occasionally recorded on other hosts:  “Kentia sp.” (a palm), “Cassia” (a leguminous tree), Euphorbia longena (a spurge), and Indigofera sp. (a flowering plant) (SEL).  Longan scale may be spread long distances by the movement of infested plants and fruit.

Worldwide Distribution: Longan scale is believed to be native to mainland Asia (India to China) but has invaded Australia, Japan, Taiwan, the Northern Mariana Islands, Brazil, Cuba, Algeria, and Hawaii (sometime before 1932).  It was first detected in Florida, the nation’s leading producer of longan and lychee fruit, in 1996 and considered an emerging pest.  Although it had spread to seven counties by 2007, there were no reports of significant economic damage (Suh et.al. 2007).

Official Control:  Thysanofiorinia nephelii is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  The scale was downgraded to non-actionable by USDA in March 2011.

California Distribution:  Longan scale has never been collected in the environment in California.

California Interceptions This scale was found in regulatory situations by CDFA 164 times between 1992 and August 2012.  The majority of these were interceptions of crawlers (the 1st instar nymphs) on longan and lychee fruit purchased out of state.  The scale has also been found 5 times on trees in nurseries.

The risk Thysanofiorinia nephelii (longan scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Longan scale has not spread beyond southern Florida since it established there. Longan and lychee are only grown in limited areas of Southern California and the scale would probably be restricted to those areas if it were to enter the state.  Longan scale receives a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Longan scale feeds primarily on longan and lychee, two tropical sapindaceous fruit trees in two different genera.  However, it has also been reported on four other hosts in three different plant families.  Longan scale receives a Medium (2) for host range.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates.  Crawlers of longan scale have been intercepted on longan and lychee fruit many times and may be able to disperse through this pathway.  However, fruit would have to be disposed of in close proximity to a host tree.  Adult female longan scales have been detected on trees in nurseries.  This pathway is how the longan scale is thought to have spread within Florida (Suh et. al. 2007) and is the highest risk pathway for spread within California.  Due to its ability to move long distances through nursery stock longan scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California has approximately 23 ha of longan and lychee orchards (Crane et. al. 2005) worth an estimated $500,000 annually.  Additionally, there is a market for longan and lychee nursery stock in Southern California.  Furthermore, discussions on internet forums indicate there is interest among residents in growing more longan and lychee fruit in the state.  However, no major economic damage has been reported from the introduction of this scale to Florida’s industry.  Longan scale is not expected to lower yields on these trees but it could increase production costs in some cases by triggering chemical treatment.  It is presumed that the fruits grown in California are produced for domestic consumption so no export issues are considered.  Longan scale is not known to vector any pathogens, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Longan scale receives a Low (1) for economic impact.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Longan scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  There are no plants listed in California’s threatened and endangered plant list from the genera listed as hosts for the scale (Dinocarps, Litchi, Kentia, Euphorbia, Cassia, or Indigofera).  The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Although the scales are often controlled by natural enemies in Florida they do sometimes reach high populations that require additional treatment programs.  The scale is not expected to significantly change cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Longan scale receives a Medium (2) for environmental impact.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Longan Scale): Medium(9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Longan scale has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium(9)

Uncertainty:

A variety of ants that tend Homoptera, such as longan scale, are abundant in California.  Ants could protect the scales from natural enemies, causing them to reach higher populations more rapidly than in Florida, thereby triggering more chemical treatments.  The market for Asian fruit is expanding in the United States.  Although lychee and longan do not thrive in California at present, changes in technology or the environment could change this in the future.  If lychee and longan production were to expand in California in the future then longan scale may become a more damaging insect.  Furthermore, the possibility exists that longan scale could colonize additional host plants in California.

Longan scale was intercepted in regulatory situations 164 times between 1992 and 2012.  Presumably the scale enters California many additional times and is not intercepted.  Since it has never been found in our environment, it is possible that environmental conditions (such as the lack of humidity) preclude its establishment.  Alternatively, it is possible that the scale is already here and no one has looked for or noticed it.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Evidence suggests that the introduction of Longan Scale would be of low economic consequences to California.  Despite the scale’s invasive nature and ability to travel in international and domestic trade of longan and lychee fruit and nursery stock, there is only one scientific paper in the literature that mentions its pest potential.  It has not had major economic consequences since its detection in Florida in 1996.  The pest has a limited host range and would probably not affect the environment of California, with the exception of possible additional treatments by longan and lychee growers.

Evidence also suggests that the introduction of longan scale to California is highly likely to happen.  It has been detected in regulatory situations many times.  It is likely to survive post-harvest treatments and shipment to California.  Due to the small size of crawlers and immobility of adults it is likely to at least occasionally escape detection by inspectors.  It is capable of living on and spreading through nursery stock and is likely to be introduced to favorable environments for establishment through that pathway.

The scale has never been detected in the environment of California.  Additionally, rare fruit markets are expanding and we do have a small commercial longan and lychee fruit industry that may be affected by the pest.  Therefore, it is recommended that the permanent pest rating be set to “B”.

References:

Crane, J.H., Zee, F., Bender, G.S., Faber, B., Brunner, B. and Chia, C.L. 2005. COMMERCIAL

SAPINDACEOUS FRUIT PRODUCTION IN THE USA. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 665:93-104

http://www.actahort.org/books/665/665_11.htm

Suh, S.J., G. S. Hodges, and A. C. Hodges.  2007.  Notes on the Longan Scale, Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Florida.  Florida Entomologist 90(2): 407-409.  http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/75670/73328

SEL:   http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Thysanofiorinianephelii.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Lindingaspis floridana Ferris: Floridana Scale

California Pest Rating for
Lindingaspis floridana Ferris: Floridana Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Lindingaspis floridana was intercepted by a CDFA dog team in a parcel of mango fruit shipped from Florida to Sacramento.  This insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to support a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Lindingaspis floridana is an armored scale insect that feeds on the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica), fig (Ficus spp.), and olive (Olea spp.)1.  It may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Lindingaspis floridana is presumably native to Asia.  It was first found in Florida in 19212.  It has also spread to Haiti and Jamaica1.

Official Control: Lindingaspis floridana is listed as a harmful organism by Costa Rica, Japan, and Korea3.

California Distribution:  Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Lindingaspis floridana has been intercepted by CDFA’s dog teams and high risk programs 6 times since August 1, 2014.  It was also intercepted once on July 3, 2001.  All of the interceptions for which data was recorded occurred on mango fruit.

The risk Lindingaspis floridana (floridana scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Species of Ficus and Olea are commonly planted as ornamentals and crops throughout much of California. Mango plants are restricted to warmer parts of the state.  Lindingaspis floridana is likely capable of establishment everywhere suitable hosts are available.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Lindingaspis floridana is known to feed on three genera of plants in three plant families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Lindingaspis floridana receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Lindingaspis floridana feeds on economically important plants, it is not considered to be a pest2.  There is a closely related similar scale, Lindingaspis rossi, that is already present in California4,5. Lindingaspis rossi is highly polyphagous and feeds on the leaves of many plants including all of the hosts of Lindingaspis floridana5. Therefore if Lindingaspis floridana were to establish in California it is not expected to have major economic impacts.  It is not expected to lower crop yields, lower crop values, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  However, Costa Rica, Japan and Korea list Lindingaspis floridana on their harmful organism lists3.  Japan, Korea, and Vietnam list Lindingaspis rossi on their harmful organism lists3.  It is therefore possible that Lindingaspis floridana could affect exports to some markets such as Costa Rica.  Lindingaspis floridana receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Lindingaspis floridana were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is not likely to trigger new treatment programs or have significant impacts to cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Lindingaspis floridana receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Lindingaspis floridana (Floridana Scale):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Lindingaspis rossi is already present in California and feeds on the same hosts as Lindingaspis floridana as well as many other plants.  There have been no formal surveys to look for Lindingaspis floridana in California.  It is therefore possible that Lindingaspis floridana may already be present in some localities in California but has not been recognized as something new.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in California.  If it were to establish in the state it might have trade impacts.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Lindingaspis floridana Ferris.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Lindingaspisfloridana.htm

2 Miller, Douglass R., Gary L. Miller, Greg S. Hodges, and John A. Davidson. 2005. Introduced Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and Their Impact on U.S. Agriculture. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107(1):123-158.  http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/40540/PDF

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 McKenzie, Howard L. 1956. The Armored Scale Insects of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey Volume 5.  http://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis05.pdf

5 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell). http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Lindingaspisrossi.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi: Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly

California Pest Rating for
Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi: Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating:  A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On February 9, 2016 USDA announced that it had changed the status of Paraleyrodes bondari from actionable to non-actionable based on a recommendation from the National Plant Board1.  Stephen Brown subsequently requested a rating proposal for Paraleyrodes bondari.

History & Status:

BackgroundParaleyrodes bondari is a whitefly that feeds on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of a variety of plants2.  Infested plants develop a coating of sooty mold and strands of white wax2.  Known hosts include Annonaceae: sugar apple (Annona squamosa2); Arecaceae: coconut (Cocos nucifera2), Chamaedorea sp.2; Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana2), til (Ocotea foetens2), canary laurel (Apollonias barbujana2); Meliaceae: Trichilia sp.2; Malvaceae: Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis2); Moraceae: banyantree (Ficus benghalensis2), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2), curtain fig (Ficus microcarpa2); Myrtaceae: Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora2), guava (Psidium guajava2); Rutaceae: orange (Citrus sinensis5), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata5), lemon (Citrus limon5), Citrus spp.2  Paraleyrodes bondari may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Paraleyrodes bondari is Neotropical in origin2 with a known range from Brazil to Honduras.  From there it has spread to Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion, and Maderia2.  It was first found in southern Florida by Stephen Brown in 20112 and by 2012 had spread to six counties3.

Official Control: All citrus whiteflies are considered quarantine pests by the State of Arizona.  Paraleyrodes bondari is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, Bermuda and Jordan both list all whiteflies as harmful organisms4.

California Distribution Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California.

California Interceptions:  Paraleyrodes bondari has never been intercepted by CDFA.  However, unidentified species of Paraleyrodes were intercepted 39 times from 2001 to 2015 on plants and fresh plant parts from Hawaii and Florida.

The risk Paraleyrodes bondari (Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Paraleyrodes bondari are widespread in urban and rural residential areas of California and are important agricultural crops. The whitefly is likely to encounter suitable hosts through much of the state.  The present distribution of Paraleyrodes bondari corresponds with tropical climates.  It is likely that the whitefly will be limited to warmer parts of coastal and southern California.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Paraleyrodes bondari feeds on at least eighteen species of plants in eight families including important crops and ornamentals.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Whiteflies are capable of rapid reproduction and may be transported long distances by wind or when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Paraleyrodes bondari has not been documented reducing any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and sooty mold.  Arizona considers all citrus whiteflies to be quarantine pests and Paraleyrodes bondari has not been found in that state.  Its presence in California could disrupt markets.  Bondar’s nesting whitefly is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Paraleyrodes bondari were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in groves, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Hosts of the whitefly are popular as both ornamentals and in home/urban gardens and may be significantly affected.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Paraleyrodes bondari (Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The whitefly has not been documented to reduce crop yields.  However, populations in infested areas are suppressed by Encarsia variegata (Aphelinidae)2.  It is possible that this whitefly could be more damaging in California if it were to establish without this parasitoid.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Collins, Joe 2015.  Letter from National Plant Board to Ricardo Valdez.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/frsmp/downloads/non-reg-pests/pnr-12-21-15.pdf

2 Stocks, Ian C. 2012. Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari, a whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) New to Florida Attacking Ficus and Other Hosts.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Pest Alert DACS-P-01801.  http://www.fortlauderdale.gov/Home/ShowDocument?id=4794

3 Distribution of Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari. May 25, 2012.  http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/hodges/white_website/maps/Whitefly_Bondars_Nesting_Map_8X11.pdf

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 Martin, J.H. 1996. Neotropical whiteflies of the subfamily Aleurodicinae established in the western Palearctic (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Natural History 30: 1849-1859. http://www.eurekamag.com/002/002903436.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Radionaspis indica (Marlatt) | Mango Scale

California Pest Rating for
Radionaspis indica (Marlatt): Mango Scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Since 2005 Radionaspis indica has been regularly intercepted on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  This scale insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundRadionaspis indica is a monophagous scale insect that feeds on the trunk, branches, and buds of mango trees (Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae)).  Severe infestations can cause cracking of bark, exudation of sap, and decline of branches2Radionaspis indica may rapidly disperse long distances in the trade of infested mango fruit or nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution: Radionaspis indica may be native to India and is also found in Indonesia, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Cape Verde, Senegal, Cuba, the British Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Panama3.  In the United States the scale is found in Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico3.  Regular interceptions of the scale on mangos from Mexico suggest that it is established in that country.

Official Control: Radionaspis indica is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionRadionaspis indica has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 Radionaspis indica was intercepted 69 times on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  It was also intercepted once on papaya.

The risk Radionaspis indica (mango scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Mango trees require warm, dry weather to set fruit. In California the best locations are away from immediate marine influences in the deserts, foothills, and the warmest cove locations of the California Central Valley4,5, 6.  Mango trees are also sometimes grown as ornamental plants in urban environments and are present in the nursery industry.  Radionaspis indica is expected to be able to establish in all of these environments.  It receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Radionaspis indica only feeds on mango and receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Armored scales have high reproductive potential.  Mango fruit is not considered to be a good pathway for dispersal of Radionaspis indica due the limited mobility of female armored scales and crawlers and the species’ limited host range.  However, the scales have high dispersal potential because they are able to disperse long distances rapidly on nursery stock and are able to disperse to any nearby trees by crawling, by wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or other animals.  Radionaspis indica receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California growers produce between 250,000 and 4,000,000 pounds of mango annually6.  This is a high value commodity produced for local sales at specialty markets and demand is increasing6.  California grown mangos are generally produced organically5.  If Radionaspis indica were to enter California and become established in groves it could potentially reduce yields of this crop if heavy infestations cause branch dieback2.  Furthermore, the scale has potential to both lower crop value by disfiguring fruit and nursery stock with its presence and increase production costs by triggering new chemical treatments.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Radionaspis indica is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not expected to feed on any endangered or threatened species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is possible that its entry could trigger new treatment programs in orchards and nurseries and by residents who find infested trees unsightly.  The scale is not expected significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Radionaspis indica (mango scale): Medium(10).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Radionaspis indica has never been found in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium(10)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that sometimes the presence of Radionaspis indica on fruit is indicative of home-grown mangos that have not been produced under commercial phytosanitary safeguards.  Any failure to take action on Radionaspis indica infested fruit may increase the risk of introducing exotic fruit flies and other more damaging pests into California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The impacts of the entry of Radionaspis indica into California are expected to be limited to mango groves, nurseries, and scattered ornamental plantings.  Nevertheless, this scale insect may have significant economic and environmental impacts to this growing industry.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Litz, Richard E.  2009.  The Mango: Botany, Production, and Uses.  CABI.  680pp.  http://books.google.com/books?id=oloEhPYqE8QC&dq=Radionaspis+indica&source=gbs_navlinks_s

2 Peña, Jorge E.  1994.  Update on status of pests of tropical fruit crops in south Florida.  Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 107: 340-342.  http://fshs.org/proceedings-o/1994-vol-107/340-342%20%28PENA%29.pdf

3 Ben-Dov, Y. (2014) ScaleNet, Radionaspis indica. Accessible online at: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Radionaspisindica.htm

4 Grown in California website.  Mango fruit facts page.  http://www.grownincalifornia.com/fruit-facts/mango-facts.html

5 Marks, Michael. 2013.  Mango orchards in California?  San Jose Mercury News.  http://www.mercurynews.com/food-wine/ci_24089949/mango-orchards-california

6 Karp, David.  2014.  Mango madness.  Sunset.  http://www.sunset.com/travel/california/mango-madness


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) | Crapemyrtle Scale

California Pest Rating for
Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana): Crapemyrtle Scale
Synonym: Eriococcus lagerstroemiae
Hemiptera: Eriococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inquired about California’s position on deregulating Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae).  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae is a scale insect that feeds on the branches, twigs, trunk, stems, and leaves of its host-plants1.  It also feeds on the fruit of persimmon1.  Heavy infestations of the scale are not known to be fatal to trees but they do have significant aesthetic impacts that often lead to host removal1.  Layers of the scale on plants lead to extensive honeydew deposits, growth of sooty mold, dieback, decline, and decrease in the number and size of flowers1.   The sooty mold turns trunks, leaves, and twigs charcoal black1.  Known hosts of the scale include: Buxaceae: Korean boxwood (Buxus microphylla koreana2); Combretaceae: axlewood (Anogeiussus latifolia2), Anogeiussus sp.2; Ebenaceae: persimmon (Diospyros kaki2); Euphobiaceae: food wrapper plant (Mallotus japonicas2), needlebush (Glochidion puberum2); Fabaceae: Dalbergia sp.2, soybean (Glycine max2); Lythraceae: crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica2); Japanese crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia japonica2), giant crapemyrtle (Lagerstsoemia flosreginae2); Moraceae: fig (Ficus carica2); Myrtaceae: Myrtus sp.2; Oleaceae: border privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium2); Punicaceae: pomegranate (Punica granatum2); Rosaceae: paradise apple (Malus pumila2); Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sp.1); Rubus sp.; Ulmaceae: Chinese hackberry (Celtis sinensis). The primary hosts are considered to be crapemyrtle, persimmon, Chinese quince, and pomegranate1Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is native to China, India, Japan, South Korea, and possibly Mongolia1.  It was found in Texas in 2004.  Since then it has spread throughout eastern Texas and to four counties in Arkansas, seven in Louisiana, five in Oklahoma, one in Tennessee, one in Virginia, and one in Mississippi1.

Official Control: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.  However, the USDA proposal would keep the scale actionable in Hawaii1.

California DistributionAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae has never been found in California.

California InterceptionsAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Crapemyrtle scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is expected to establish throughout plant hardiness zones 6-101. This corresponds to almost all of California.  Host plants of the scale are grown throughout the state as ornamentals and crops.  Crapemyrtle scale is likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is known to feed on a variety of plants in twelve families, many of which are widely cultivated in California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has 2-4 generations per year and each adult female lays an average of 220 eggs1.  The scales may disperse long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: In Asia Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is the major pest of crapemyrtle trees, and is also a serious pest of pomegranate and persimmon trees.  If this scale insect were to establish in California it is expected to lower yields in pomegranate and persimmon groves.  It is also likely to lower the value of persimmon fruit and all host nursery stock.  Since the USDA has proposed to keep crapemyrtle scale actionable in Hawaii, this scale is also likely to disrupt markets for California fruit and nursery stock if it were to establish in the state.  Crapemyrtle scale is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is very likely to trigger new treatment programs in orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Crapemyrtle, pomegranate, and persimmon trees are common ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Many of the host trees have been removed from areas in Texas where the scale has established1.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Crapemyrtle Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has not been found in California.  The severe aesthetic impacts attributed to infestations of the scale and ease of detection since it is the only bark scale known to occur on crapemyrtle1 make it unlikely that this pest is present anywhere in California.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that this scale could colonize additional host plants in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has not been found in California and it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Leah. 2015. NPAG Report Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana: crapemyrtle scale.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG).

2 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana).  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/eriococc/Acanthococcuslagerstroemiae.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Macrohomotoma gladiata (Kuwayama) | Curtain Fig Psyllid

California Pest Rating for
Macrohomotoma gladiata (Kuwayama): Curtain Fig Psyllid
Hemiptera: Psyllidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On August 28, 2015 Dr. Alessandra Rung identified psyllids collected in a nursery in Orange County as Macrohomotoma cf. gladiata.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundMacrohomotoma gladiata is a psyllid that feeds on the new shoots of several varieties of ornamental Ficus trees1.  Adult psyllids lay eggs on new leaves of twigs and withered bracts1.  As the nymphs feed shoots become deformed, stop developing, and eventually die1.  Leaves become covered in white waxy secretions which facilitate the development of sooty-mold2.  The main hosts of the psyllid are curtain fig (Ficus microcarpa) and Cuban-laurel (Ficus retusa)1.  There are also questionable records from Indian banyan (Ficus benghalensis) and rusty-leaf fig (Ficus microphylla)1.

Worldwide Distribution: Macrohomotoma gladiata is native to China, Taiwan, and Japan where it is not considered to be a pest1.  It was first found in Europe in the Balearic Islands in 2009 where it emerged as a pest and has since spread to mainland Spain (2010) and Italy (2011)1.  It has not previously been found in North or South America.

Official Control: Macrohomotoma gladiata is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California DistributionMacrohomotoma gladiata has been found at several residential and commercial properties in Anaheim, Orange County feeding on curtain fig (Ficus microcarpa).

California InterceptionsMacrohomotoma gladiata has been found in four nurseries in Orange County feeding on Ficus microcarpa.

The risk Macrohomotoma gladiata (curtain fig psyllid) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ficus microcarpa is a popular ornamental that grows in USDA plant hardiness zones 9-11, corresponding with much of the San Joaquin Valley, Coastal, and Southern California. Macrohomotoma gladiata is expected to be able to establish throughout these regions wherever suitable host plants are found.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Macrohomotoma gladiata is only known to feed on several varieties of Ficus trees and receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Psyllids have high reproductive rates and can disperse locally by flying.  They may also be transported long distances when infested plants or leaves are moved or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Macrohomotoma gladiata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ficus microcarpa plants are a valuable component of the nursery industry.  If Macrohomotoma gladiata were to establish in the environment of California it is likely to lower nursery yields of these plants and increase production costs.  Due to the absence of this psyllid from the entirety of North America there could be disruptions to markets for California produced Ficus microcarpa nursery stock.  Macrohomotoma gladiata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Macrohomotoma gladiata were to establish in the environment of California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Its presence is likely to trigger new chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Ficus microcarpa trees are widely grown as ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly impacted by this pest.  Macrohomotoma gladiata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Macrohomotoma gladiata (Curtain Fig Psyllid):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Macrohomotoma gladiata has only been found in the environment of Orange County and receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys for this psyllid in California, so it may be more widespread.  Over the last three years many new Ficus pests have been found in southern California including Ficus whitefly (Singhiella simplex), ficus eye-spot midge (Horidiplosis ficifolii), and Cuban-laurel thrips (Gynaikothrips uzeli).  It is possible that new treatments that are already necessary for these other new pests will preclude some of the economic and environmental impacts from additional new pests such as Macrohomotoma gladiata.  Alternatively, the psyllid might have a larger host range in California than has been documented elsewhere.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Macrohomotoma gladiata has been found in the environment of Orange County and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts as it expands its range in the state.  A “B”-rating in justified.

References:

1 Pedata, Paolo Alfonso, Daniel Burckhardt, and Donato Mancini. 2012. Severe infestations of the jumping plant-louse Macrohomotoma gladiata, a new species for Italy in urban Ficus plantations.  Bulletin of Insectology 65(1): 95-98. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/pdfarticles/vol65-2012-095-098pedata.pdf

2 Mifsud, D. and F. Porcelli. 2012. The psyllid Macrohomotoma gladiata Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Homotomidae): a Ficus pest recently introduced in the EPPO region.  EPPO Bulletin 42(1): 161-164. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2012.02544.x/abstract


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura) | Taro Planthopper

California Pest Rating for
Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura): Taro Planthopper
Hemiptera: Delphacidae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:  

Tarophagus colocasiae is commonly intercepted by California’s high risk programs.  This planthopper is currently assigned a temporary rating of “Q” and is therefore in need of a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundTarophagus colocasiae is a planthopper that is considered a serious pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta)1.  The planthopper feeds by sucking sap and/or xylem from the plant tissue1.  Feeding produces honeydew, sooty mold, and necrotic areas on leaves and discoloration of bark on stems1.  Heavy infestations may cause stunting and/or wilting of the taro plants.  Taro planthopper is also reported to vector alomae and bobone diseases, which are caused by rhabdoviruses, between taro plants.  The planthopper may spread long distances by the movement of infested taro plants, leaves, or roots.

Worldwide Distribution: Tarophagus colocasiae is widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands1.  It has been present in Hawaii since at least 1930.  The planthopper was confirmed to be present in Florida in June 2015 and is likely established in both Jamaica and Cuba4.

Official Control: Tarophagus colocasiae is not listed as a quarantine pest by any other states or nations2.  However, Tarophagus proserpina is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan and Korea and that species may be a synonym of T. colocasiae.

California DistributionTarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and January 6, 2015, Tarophagus colocasiae was intercepted 133 times on consignments from Hawaii.  127 of the interceptions were on taro.  The remainder were on betel leaf (1), ginger (1), galanga (2), and sweet potato (2).

The risk Tarophagus colocasiae (taro planthopper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Taro grows in USDA plant hardiness zones 8 through 11 and is grown in gardens and small-scale commercial farms in Fresno and Sacramento California3. Tarophagus colocasiae is expected to be able to establish wherever these plants are grown.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Tarophagus colocasiae is only known to feed on taro and related aroids.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Taro planthoppers may be moved long distances when infested taro plants, leaves, or roots are moved.  However, their wings do not fully develop and they are not considered to be good fliers.  Planthoppers have high reproductive rates.  Tarophagus colocasiae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Tarophagus colocasiae were to establish in California it would be likely to lower the yield of commercial taro farms and gardens.  The planthopper would also be likely to increase crop production costs.  Taro leafhopper may also vector diseases between taro plants.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Tarophagus colocasiae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Taro planthopper is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The planthopper may trigger additional treatment programs by gardeners and growers of commercial taro.  The planthopper may also significantly impact taro plants in home/urban gardens.  Taro planthopper receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Tarophagus colocasiae (Taro Planthopper):  Medium(12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Tarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(12)

Uncertainty:

Tarophagus colocasiae is frequently intercepted.  Presumably, the planthopper sometimes escapes detection and enters California.  There have not been any formal surveys for the pest in the state, so it is possible that it may have established in some locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Tarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California.  However, if it were to enter the state economic and environmental impacts would be limited to taro plants in home gardens and small-scale commercial farms.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1CABI Plantwise Knowledge Bank.  http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=52786

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3Robinson, Ramona and Cara Allen.  2014.  Taro root (Colocasia escuelenta) reported naturalizing in California.  California Department of Parks and Recreation.  http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/pdf/2014/Poster2014_Robison.pdf

4 Halbert, Susan E. and Charles R. Bartlett. The taro planthopper, Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura), a new delphacid planthopper in Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Pest Alert.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Plant-Industry/Plant-Industry-Publications/Pest-Alerts/Tarophagus-colocasiae


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell): Agave scale

California Pest Rating for
Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell):  Agave scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On March 21, 2014, Dr. Gillian Watson identified the armored scale Acutaspis agavis from a sample collected from plants growing outdoors at a school in La Jolla, San Diego County.  A heavy infestation was reported at the site on the adaxial leaf surfaces of Agave tequilana.  Tissue dieback was reported on the most infested leaves and there was no evidence of parasitism or predation.  The insect is currently Q-rated, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundAcutaspis agavis is host specific to Agave spp.  The primary pathway for spread of the scale is likely the movement of infested agave plants.

Worldwide Distribution: Acutaspis agavis is probably native to Mexico.  It has also been reported from Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago.  In the United States it has been found in Arizona, Florida, and Texas.

Official Control: Acutaspis agavis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California DistributionAcutaspis agavis is only known from an incursion at a school in La Jolla.

California Interceptions:  The only instance of an Acutaspis agavis detection in a regulatory situation was in a nursery in El Cajon in 2012.

The risk Acutaspis agavis (Agave scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Agave are commonly grown as ornamental plants in California and the scale is expected to be able to establish wherever they are grown. Acutaspis agavis receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acutaspis agavis is specific to Agave  The scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evidence suggests that Acutaspis agavis has two generations per yearand each female is presumably capable of laying hundreds of eggs.  Adult female armored scales are immobile, but populations may be transported long distances through commerce in infested plants.  Acutaspis agavis receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Acutaspis agavis has the potential to increase production costs of Agave plants in the nursery industry.  The scale is not expected to lower crop yield, trigger lost markets, alter cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Agave scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Acutaspis agavis has the potential to trigger new chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Agave plants are popular and widely grown, especially in southern California.  In the absence of natural enemies agave scale has the potential to significantly impact these cultural practices.  Agave scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is also not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Agave scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acutaspis agavis (Agave scale):  Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acutaspis agavis is only known from an incursion at a school in La Jolla. It is unknown if the scale has spread to other agave plants in the area.  Agave scale receives a Low(-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(10)

Uncertainty:

Agave plants are popular landscape plants, especially in southern California.  There have been no surveys for Acutaspis agavis and it may be present in other locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Economic impacts of Acutaspis agavis should be limited to possible increases in production costs of agave plants in the nursery industry.  However, the entry of agave scale into California may have significant environmental impacts due to the popularity of the plant and the absence of its natural enemies.  A B-rating is justified.

References:

1Systematic Entomology Laboratory.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Acutaspisagavis.htm

2Salas-Araiza, M.D., R.W. Jones, G. Montesinos-Silva, E. Salazar-Solis, L.A. Parra-Negrete, O. Martinez-Jaime, R. Ramirez-Malagon, and S. Flores-Mejia.  2008.  Population dynamics of the agave scale, Acutaspis agavis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on Agave tequilana var. azul (Agavaceae) in Central Mexico.  Southwestern Entomologist 33(4):289-298.  http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3958/0147-1724-33.4.289


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell): Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell):  Mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  C

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

From 1953 to 2012, Ferrisia dasylirii was incorrectly considered a synonym of B-rated Ferrisia virgata.  A recent revision corrected this and resurrected F. dasylirii as a valid species1.  On August 28, 2014 Dr. Gillian Watson notified me that she had examined specimens in the California State Collection of Arthropods and confirmed that F. dasylirii is present in the state.  Because this mealybug is not on CDFA’s pest rating list, a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundFerrisia dasylirii is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of plants, including many ornamentals and some crops.  It may be spread long distances by commerce in infested plants or plant products.

Worldwide Distribution: Ferrisia dasylirii appears to be of Neotropical origin.  It is found from the United States south to Chile2.  It is also found in Hawaii and several Caribbean islands2.

Official Control: Ferrisia virgata is considered a quarantine pest by Israel, Japan, and New Zealand3.  It is likely that these trading partners will also consider the newly resurrected F. dasylirii as a quarantine pest if it is intercepted.

California Distribution:  Specimens of Ferrisia dasylirii in the state collection indicate that the mealybug is present in the environment of Alameda County (1962), Imperial County (1993, 2003), Los Angeles County (2000), San Bernardino County (1978, 1979, 1982), San Diego County (1978), and San Joaquin County (1980, 1995).

California Interceptions:  From August 19, 2014 to August 26, 2015 Ferrisia dasylirii was intercepted 24 times by California’s high risk programs and dog teams on fruit and plants shipped from Florida, Hawaii, Michigan, Mississippi, and within California.

The risk Ferrisia dasylirii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ferrisia dasylirii is polyphagous and suitable host plants are grown throughout California. It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ferrisia dasylirii feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 29 families2.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs reproduce rapidly and can spread locally by crawling or by wind.  They may move long distances rapidly by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment or by the movement of infested plants or plant products.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not emerged as a significant pest.  Several trading partners might consider this mealybug to be a quarantine pest and its presence on plants or plant products could have trade impacts.  No other economic impacts are expected.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not had significant economic impacts.  It receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ferrisia dasyliriiMedium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Records in the state collection indicate that Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment of California. The mealybug receives a High(-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(8)

Uncertainty:

There is significant genetic variability within Ferrisia dasylirii1.  It is possible that some lineages could be cryptic species that are not present in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment and is not having significant economic or environmental impacts.  A “C” rating is justified.  

References:

1Kaydan, M.B. and P.J. Gullan. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of eight new species and a new genus. Zootaxa 3543: 1-65.  http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2012/3543.html

2SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Ferrisiadasylirii.htm

 3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: C


Posted by ls