Tag Archives: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

Palm Mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum

image of Palm Mealybug and its damage
California Pest Rating for
Palm mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Palmicultor palmarum is currently Q-rated. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Palm mealybugs are slow moving, piercing-sucking insects that feed on plant sap and are usually found in clusters along leaf veins, on the undersides of leaves, and in hidden areas at joints. These insects exude honeydew that becomes infested by sooty mold and gives the leaves a dirty appearance. Ants may be attracted to the honeydew. Plants infested with mealybugs become weak and may eventually die3.

Known hosts include: Arecaceae: Areca catechu, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota mitis, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis lutescens, Elaeis guineensis, Hyophorbe indica, Phoenix roebelenii, Roystonea regia, Washingtonia filifera, Licuala spp. & Thrinax spp.; Pandanaceae: Freycinetia spp.; Fabaceae: Acacia asak; Poaceae: Phyllostachys spp.1, 5.

Worldwide Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum was described from Hawaii and has been introduced to many places in the world, including much of the Caribbean islands, the Bahamas, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Caledonia, Niue, China, Mexico, and Florida in the continental United States 1.

Official Control: Palmicultor palmarum is listed as a harmful organism by the Republic of Korea and Egypt6.

California Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Palmicultor palmarum was found in 2017 at a nursery in San Diego County (PDR 370P06678075 & 370P06678076). It has been intercepted 53 times since 19904.

The risk Palmicultor palmarum (palm mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Palmicultor palmarum are mostly palm trees, and this species appears to be restricted to areas with a tropical/subtropical climate; it is possible that it may become established in a limited portion of southern California. Therefore, Palmicultor palmarum receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Palmicultor palmarum has been reported to feed on plants of at least fifteen genera in four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. Palmicultor palmarum frequently moves long distances in the trade of infested palm trees. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Palmicultor palmarum could reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increasing crop production costs in nurseries. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Palmicultor palmarum is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Palmicultor palmarum  (Palm mealybug):  Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:  

There have not been any recent surveys for Palmicultor palmarum.  It is possible that it could be present in coastal parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Palmicultor palmarum is not known to be present in California. If it became established here, it could have a significant impact on the ornamental palm industry ($70 Million industry in California – Hoddle.) 2 Therefore, an “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. Scale Net: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.             http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Palmicultor%20palmarum/


  2. Hoddle, M. Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.  http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

  3. Missouri Botanical Garden. Online, Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/help-for-the-home-gardener/advice-tips-resources/pests-and-problems/insects/mealybugs/mealybugs-indoors.aspx

  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  5. Stocks, I.   19: Recent Adventive Scale Insects in Florida and the Caribbean Region. pp. 346-347.   CABI.  Accessed on 12/18/2017. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/FullTextPDF/2013/20133231104.pdf

  6. USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 12/18/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/16/18 – 4/30/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)

California Pest Rating for
Image of a Gray Sugarcane Mealybug. Click on image for photo citation.
Click on image for photo citation.
Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted on January 18, 2017 at a nursery in Los Angles during a regulatory inspection. This species has a temporary Q rating. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Trionymus boninsis, known as the gray sugarcane mealybug, is a mealybug species common on sugarcane growing areas of the world. It is generally found on the stem under the leaf blade and tended by various ant species. Trionymus boninsis is currently known to feed on plants of 11 families and 31 genera, and is found often on grasses other than sugarcane, including Sorghum and corn, but also on coconut, Ipomeas and Citrus among others (Williams & Granara de Willink 1992; Garcia Morales et al. 2016).

Worldwide Distribution: Trionymus boninsis is recorded to be present in ASIA, Bonin Islands, Formosa, Japan, AFRICA, Egypt, Mauritius, AUSTRALASIA and PACIFIC ISLANDS, Australia, CarolineIs. Hawaiian islands, Marianas. New Caledonia, New Guinea, NORTH AMERICA, Mexico, United States, CENTRAL AMERICA and WEST INDIES, Panama, West Indies, SOUTH AMERICA, Brazil, Surinam, Venezuela. (CABI 2016).

U.S. Distribution: Trionymus boninsis has been reported only in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi (Garcia Morales et al. 2016).

U.S. Quarantine Interceptions: Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted 13 times at United States ports of entry between 1995 and 2012. This species is commonly collected on sugarcane from every warm part of the world where sugarcane is grown. It is also reported from 10 families of host plants, predominantly species of grasses (Miller et al. 2014).

Official Control: Trionymus boninsis has been listed as a harmful organism by the republic of Korea (USDA APHIS- PCIT 2017).

California Distribution:  Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural environment in California.

California Interceptions:  Trionymus boninsis has been found multiple times by CDFA through border station inspections, dog team inspections, and high risk pest exclusion activities and nursery regulatory inspections. Between January 1990 and October 2017, it has been intercepted 10 times.

The risk Trionymus boninsis (gray sugarcane mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Sugarcane is not commonly grown in California. Grasses are common throughout the state. However Trionymus boninsis attacks grasses in temperate and warm areas. If this species were to get established in state it can attack grasses in deserts areas. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Trionymus boninsis is a common pest of Sugarcane but is also found on other plants in 11 families including many grasses, maize, sorghum and rice. It is also reported to occur on weeds especially Lactuca in the water canals around sugarcane farms (M. Moghaddam 2006).  There is a record of this species on Citrus sp. (Marotta 1987), and there is the chance that it could become established throughout Citrus growing areas in California. It receives a High (3) in this category as some of its potential hosts in California are staple crops.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs have high reproductive rate and can spread long distances by movement of infested plant parts. Sugarcane mealy bugs can survive for up to four months in the leaf sheaths attached to canes. Several species of ants can help spread the mealybugs from infested to healthy canes. Among other factors affecting the number of mealybugs include rainfall pattern tightness of leaf sheath and incidence of predators and parasites (Inkerman et al. 1986). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trionymus boninsis is a widespread pest in sugar cane growing areas of the world. This species also attacks grasses in warm and warm temperate areas. This species could significantly impact cultural practices in citrus, maize and rice growing areas of California. Currently, sugarcane is being planted on a small scale in the Imperial Valley for research (Western farm press, 2001). If boninsis were to establish, it could lower the quality and value of these crops. This species is capable of transmitting Sugarcane bacillifrom badnavirus (SCBV) through infected sugarcane setts. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Since mealybugs are spread by ants, chemical treatments for ant control may have detrimental environmental impacts because of their slow degradation (Kessing & Mau 2007). If this species were to establish in California, it may trigger new chemical treatments in areas where host grasses are present.

It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction of Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug into California:  High (14)

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

         -High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment of California. Therefore, it receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (14)

Uncertainty:

Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted many times by CDFA through regulatory pathways.  There have not been any recent surveys for Trionymus boninsis. If it goes undetected, there is a good possibility that it can spread in the state based on its rapid dispersal potential. Its main host is sugarcane and although it attacks citrus, maize and rice, it is not known how serious a pest it could be on these crops.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment in California. If this species were to become established in California, there could be significant economic and environmental impacts. Based on all the above evidence, an “A” rating is proposed at this time.


References:

CAB International 2016: Dysmicoccus boninsis. [Distribution map]  https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20056600116

García Morales M, Denno BD, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB. 2016.ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Trionymus%20boninsis/ Accessed 10/23/2017

Inkerman, P.A., N. J. Ashbolt, Mary Carver and D. J. Williams. 1986. Observation on the pink sugarcane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) in Australia (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  http://www.issct.org/pdf/proceedings/1986/1986%20Inkerman%20Observations%20on%20the%20Pink%20Sugarcane%20Mealybug%20in%20Australia.pdf

Kessing JLM, Mau RFL, 2007. Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley). Crop Knowledge Master.  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/d_neobre.htm

Marotta, S. 1987 An annotated list of the Italian mealybugs. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria ‘Filippo Silvestri’. Portici 43: (1986, Supplement): 107-116. 

Miller, D., A. Rung, G. Parikh, G. Venable, A.J. Redford, G.A. Evans, and R.J. Gill. 2014. Scale Insects, Edition 2. USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP). Fort Collins, CO. Accesed 10/23/2017 http://idtools.org/id/scales/

Moghaddam, M. 2006. The mealybugs of southern Iran (Hem.: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 26(1), 1-11.

Pest and Damage Report Database: Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture: Accessed 10/19/2017

Western farm press.  2001. Sugarcane: California’s triple threat? http://www.westernfarmpress.com/sugarcane-californias-triple-threat

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT): Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD), Accessed 10/19/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ReportFormat.jsp


Author:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916)403-6617, raj.randhawa@cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: * CLOSED

1/5/2018 – 2/19/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Odermatt Mealybug | Pseudococcus odermatti

California Pest Rating for
Pseudococcus odermatti – Odermatt mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus odermatti is frequently intercepted by CDFA. Currently it has a temporary rating of Q. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly known as odermatt mealybug. Like other species in the genus Pseudococcus, odermatt mealybug can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Annonaceae: Sugar apple (Annona squamosa); Araliaceae: Fetsia paper plant (Fatsia japonica), Araceae: Aglaonema spp., Rosaceae: Pyracantha spp., Ebenaceae: Diospros spp., Pittosporaceae: Japanese cheesewood (Pittosporum tobira), Rutaceae: (Citrus aurantium & Citrus latifolia) 1, 4.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti is established in Bahamas, Belize, China, Costa Rica, India and Japan. In the United States it is reported from Hawaii and Florida1.

Official Control:  There is no data available for Pseudococcus odermatti, but Pseudococcus spp. are listed as harmful organisms in Dominica, Grenada, Japan, Saint Luci, Taiwan and Panama 3.

California Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Pseudococcus odermatti is regularly found by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and November, 2016 this mealybug was intercepted 94 times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida and Hawaii2.

The risk Pseudococcus odermatti would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on a large variety of plants cultivated in California, especial widely planted citrus. It is likely to establish wherever host plants are grown and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: (3)

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on seven different families of plants which grown throughout in California1. It has a moderate host range. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: (2)

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Most species of Pseudococcus genus are famous for their high reproductive rates. They may spread long distances when host plants are moved. Furthermore, they may be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.

Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: (3)

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is considered an economic pest of several crops that are grown in California and may be expected to lower crop yields and increase crop production costs. If the scale were to enter the state, it may disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. It has the potential to trigger loss of markets. Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact:  A B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control its infestation. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: (2)

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Odermatt mealybug:  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly intercepted. There have been no formal surveys for this scale in the state. It is therefore possible that it could be present in some locations in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California and its entry to the state has potentially significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Miller & Williams 1997, Downie, D.A. Gullan, P.J. Scale Net. Accessed 12-19-16 http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudococcus%20odermatti/
  2. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  3. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).             https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  4. USDA,  APHIS, Identification Technology Program,  Fact sheet   Accessed on 12-19-16 http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=7011

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/12/17 – 10/27/17*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


PEST RATING:  A


Posted by ls

Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Paracoccus marginatus, papaya mealybug, from actionable to non-actionable for the entire United States.  The insect is currently unrated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundParacoccus marginatus is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on at least 55 plant species in at least 18 families1.  Although papaya is the preferred host, other hosts include economically important crops such as citrus, avocado, cotton, cherry, tomato, and a variety of ornamentals1,2,3.  Infestations of the mealybug are typically observed as cotton-like clusters on the above ground portions of plants2.  Feeding can result in chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early leaf and fruit drop, a heavy build-up of honeydew, and plant death2.   Paracoccus marginatus can move long distances through commerce in infested fruit, plants, or leaves.

Worldwide Distribution: Paracoccus marginatus is believed to be native to Mexico and Central America.  From there it has spread throughout the Caribbean, southern Asia, and to Benin, Ghana, Togo in Africa, and French Guiana in South America.  It was found in Florida in 1998, Puerto Rico in 2001, Guam in 2002, and Hawaii in 2004.   A greenhouse infestation in Illinois in 2001 was successfully controlled with biological control agents.

Official Control: Paracoccus marginatus is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California Distribution:  Paracoccus marginatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Paracoccus marginatus has been intercepted four times by California, on Plumeria rubra and betel from Hawaii, papaya from Mexico, and rambutan fruit from Honduras.  USDA has intercepted the mealybug nearly 650 times since 1994, mostly on fruit and other plant parts from Mexico destined for California1.

The risk Paracoccus marginatus (Papaya mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Paracoccus marginatus is limited to USDA plant hardiness zones 10+. In California this corresponds with portions of the southern part of the state as well as greenhouses.  Papaya mealybug receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Paracoccus marginatus is known to feed on 55 species of plants in at least 18 familes1.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs reproduce rapidly; Paracoccus marginatus is thought to lay 100-600 eggs each and have up to 15 generations per year.  Mealybugs may be dispersed long distances by wind, as hitchhikers on clothing or animals, and through commerce in infested plants and plant parts.  Papaya mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Paracoccus marginatus is not reported to cause economic damage in Florida and has been successfully controlled by biological control on several Caribbean islands.  Papaya mealybug is not expected to lower crop yield, change normal cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Although marginatus is not known to be listed as a quarantine pest by any nation, due to its limited worldwide distribution and frequent interceptions on fruit it is reasonable to conclude that it may disrupt some markets for fresh fruit exports.  It is also possible that the mealybug may increase crop production costs in the nursery and/or fruit industries by triggering additional treatments or disfiguring plants with their presence.  Papaya mealybug receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Paracoccus marginatus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila) is a potential host of the mealybug and is listed as an endangered species.  The mealybug is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Papaya mealybug may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry, fruit industry, and by some residents.  The mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Paracoccus marginatus (Papaya mealybug):  High(13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Paracoccus marginatus has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(13)

Uncertainty:

It is likely that incursions of Paracoccus marginatus into California may have already occurred based on the large number of interceptions by USDA.  It is possible that the mealybug may already be present in parts of southern California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The polyphagous nature and high frequency of Paracoccus marginatus interceptions make it likely that papaya mealybug will establish in southern California.  Economic impacts of the mealybug may include possible disruptions to fresh fruit exports as well as possible increased production costs in the nursery and fruit industries.  Potential environmental impacts include triggering new chemical treatments and direct feeding on endangered San Diego ambrosia.  An A-rating is justified.

References:

1Landry, Cynthia.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug.

2Walker, Alison, Marjorie Hoy, and Dale Meyerdirk.  2006.  Papaya mealybug.  University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/fruit/mealybugs/papaya_mealybug.htm

3Sakthivel, P., Karuppuchamy, P., Kalyanasundaram, M. & Srinivasan, T. 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal 99(7-9): 615-619.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi): Alazon Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi): Alazon Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Dysmicoccus grassii is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundDysmicoccus grassii is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on tropical and subtropical plants and where it is commonly found feeding around the peduncle of fruit1.  This feeding can cause yellowing and rot of green fruit1.  The mealybug is considered to be a pest of bananas in the Canary Islands and Nigeria1.  Known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica2) ; Annonaceae: sugar apple (Annona squamosa2); Asparagaceae: Mexican grass tree (Dasylirion longissimum2); Asteraceae: Eupatorium odoratum2; Bignoniaceae: calabash tree (Crescentia cujete2); Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas comosus2), Andrea inermis2; Caricaceae: papaya (Carica papaya2) ; Combretaceae: tropical almond (Terminalia catappa2); Cucurbitaceae: chayote (Sechium edule2); Euphorbiaceae: Codiaeum spp.2; Fabaceae: Acacia spp.2; Lauraceae: Persea spp.2; Liliaceae: Asparagus spp.; Lythraceae: pomegranate (Punica granatum2); Malvaceae: Theobroma cacao1,2; Melastomataceae: Melastoma spp.2; Moraceae: Artocarpus spp.2, weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2); Musaceae: Musa acuminata2, Musa sapientum2, Musa spp.2; Passifloraceae: passion fruit (Passiflora edulis2); Polygonaceae: sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera2); Rubiaceae: coffee (Coffea arabica2), robusta coffee (Coffea canephora1); Verbenaceae: teak (Tectona grandis2).  Dysmicoccus grassii may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Dysmicoccus grassii is considered to be native to Central and South America1.  From there it has spread to Malaysia, the Canary Islands, France, Italy, Sicily, and Nigeria2.

Official Control: Dysmicoccus grassii (including its synonym D. alazon) are listed as harmful organisms by China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Egypt3.

California DistributionDysmicoccus grassii has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Dysmicoccus grassii was intercepted by CDFA’s dog teams, border stations, and high risk programs 134 times.  These interceptions are typically on fruit or plants from Florida and Mexico.  It was also found in one nursery in Los Angeles County on plants imported from Florida.

The risk Dysmicoccus grassii (alazon mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Dysmicoccus grassii are commonly grown in California and the mealybug is expected to be able to establish wherever these are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 1

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dysmicoccus grassii is known to feed on at least 25 species of plants in 22 families.  However, many of these are tropical plants that are not commonly grown in California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Dysmicoccus grassii receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Dysmicoccus grassii can disfigure unripe fruit when it feeds and might lower crop yields.  It may reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  The presence of the mealybug may disrupt markets for California agricultural commodities as several of California’s trading partners consider it a harmful organism.  Dysmicoccus grassii receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. 

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Dysmicoccus grassii is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The mealybug could trigger additional private treatment programs in orchards, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants or fruit damage unacceptable.  Many of the host plants of Dysmicoccus grassii are commonly grown as ornamentals and in home/urban gardens in California and may be significantly impacted.  The mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dysmicoccus grassii (Alazon Mealybug):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dysmicoccus grassii has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Dysmicoccus grassii is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  Presumably, it enters California at other times undetected.  It is possible that it has been introduced and is established in some localities.  Alternatively, it could be failing to establish.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dysmicoccus grassii has never been found in the environment of California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Culik, Mark P., David dos Santos Martins, and Penny J. Gullan. 2006. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee. Journal of Insect Science 6(23): 1-6. http://jinsectscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/jis/6/1/23.full.pdf

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Dysmicoccus/grassii/

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug)

California Pest Rating for
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has an internal CDFA rating of “Q”. A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is a mealybug with pantropical distribution. It is a highly polyphagous mealybug presenting a host range of more than 40 families of plants, including among others Agave, Ananas, Annona, Brassica, Citrus, Cucurbita, Ficus, Mangifera, Musa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Yucca (4, 10). It vectors pineapple wilt and green spot disease (9) and due to this, it is considered the most economically important pest of pineapple and is the primary cause of pineapple crop failure in Hawaii (3). The Annona mealybug is ovoviviparous; the eggs hatch within the female resulting in live births of young nymphs. One female produces about 350 nymphs in 30 days. Adults are found on leaves, stems, aerial roots and fruit clusters (7).

Worldwide Distribution: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is thought to be native to tropical America, with a few records from sub-tropical localities. It is found in 39 countries (see 10), including all pineapple growing areas of Fiji, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Micronesia, Philippines, and Taiwan (3). It is known to have been introduced in China, Japan, Sri Lanka and Lithuania (2).

U.S. Distribution: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is present in Hawaii and Florida (1, 2, and 10).

U.S. Quarantine Interceptions: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has been intercepted 3,600 times on a variety of hosts at U.S. ports of entry between 1995 and 2012. This species is commonly intercepted from southern Asia, particularly The Philippines, on a diversity of tropical fruits and from many areas of South America on agave and tropical fruits (4).

Official Control: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has been listed as a harmful organism in Japan (8).

California Distribution:  Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has not been found in the natural environment in California (5).

California Interceptions:  Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has been intercepted multiple times through border station inspections, dog teams, high risk pest exclusion and through incoming quarantine shipments. Between January 2000 and August 2016, it has been intercepted 71 times (5). It has not yet been found in the natural or agricultural environment in California.

The risk Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts like beans, citrus, cotton, cowpeas, pumpkin and tomatoes are grown throughout California and this presents the possibility of rapid spread and establishment of this pest throughout the state (2). Pineapples and Banana are grown in coastal areas of California and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes could spread and get established in these areas (6). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is highly polyphagous and is found on 40 plant families (10). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes reproduces parentally. One female can give birth to 350 nymphs in 30 days. The life span averages about 90 days. Larvae, also known as crawlers, have flattened bodies and long hairs which aid in their dispersal by wind. (3). Certain species of caretaking ants aid the mealybugs in colonizing new plants by providing them shelter, protecting them from predators and keeping them clean from secreted honeydew.  It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Since the ants aid mealybugs to colonize new plants, there can be significant costs associated with cultural and chemical control of ant species throughout the state on its many hosts. Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is a vector of mealybug wilt and green spot disease of pineapples. The wilt disease alone can cause yield loss of up to 35% in pineapples (9). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact:  A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes is not likely to impact threatened or endangered species. However infestations could trigger additional private treatment by growers. Chemicals used for ant control may have detrimental environmental impacts because of their slow degradation (3). Pineapple and banana growing regions of southern California coast are likely to be impacted by this pest. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact:  A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction of Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug into California:  High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment of California. Therefore, it receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (15)

Uncertainty:

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has been intercepted many times by CDFA through regulatory pathways. There are ample opportunities for this pest to be introduced into California through various ports of entry.  If it goes undetected, there is a good possibility that it can spread and get established based on its rapid dispersal potential and wide host range.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment in California. If this species were to become established in California, there could be significant economic and environmental impacts. Based on all the above evidence, an “A” rating is proposed at this time.

References:
  1. Egelie, Ashley A and Gillett-Kaufman, Jennifer L., University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department: Publication # EENY-635, September 2015 http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/FRUIT/MEALYBUGS/pineapple_mealybug.htm
  2. Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests, Accessed 10/14/2016 http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/20251
  3. Kessing JLM, Mau RFL, 2007. Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley). Crop Knowledge Master. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/d_neobre.htm
  4. Miller, D., A. Rung, G. Parikh, G. Venable, A.J. Redford, G.A. Evans, and R.J. Gill. 2014. Scale Insects, Edition 2. USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP). Fort Collins, CO. [August 13 2016] <http://idtools.org/id/scales/>: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6966
  5. Pest and Damage Report Database: Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture: Accessed 9/30/2016
  6. Pineapple fruit facts: California rare fruit Growers https://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pineapple.html
  7. Plant Health Australia: Exotic Threat: Pineapple Mealybug- Fact Sheet http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Grey-pineapple-mealy-bug-FS.pdf
  8. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT): Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD), Accessed 10/13/2016  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ReportFormat.jsp
  9. Sether DM, Hu JS, 2002. Yield impact and spread of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 and mealybug wilt of pineapple in Hawaii. Plant Disease, 86(8):867-874.
  10. ScaleNet: http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Dysmicoccus%20neobrevipes/ Accessed 10/13/2016

Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916)403-6617, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Dec 1, 2016 – Jan 15, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller: Jack Beardsley mealybug

jackbeardsleymealybug-idtools-gallery
California Pest Rating for
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller:  Jack Beardsley mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Since 1999 Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has been regularly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  This mealybug presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of plants.  Known hosts include:  Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica1), hog plum (Spondias sp.1); Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona sp.1), sugar-apple (Annona squamosa1,2), soursop (Annona muricata1), cherimoya (Annona cherimola1); Apiaceae: celery (Apium graveolens1); Apocynaceae: Fernaldia sp.1, wax plant (Hoya carnosa1), oleander (Nerium oleander1), Plumeria sp.1; Araceae: Malayan sword (Aglaonema simplex1), Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema sp.1), poison dart plant (Aglaonema commutatum1), Anthurium sp.1, Dieffenbachia sp.; Araliaceae: spikenard (Aralia sp.); Arecaceae: coconut (Cocos sp.1); Asparagaceae: Agave sp.1, ti (Cordyline terminalis2), Dracaena sp.1, Yucca sp.1; Asteraceae: Spanish needles (Bidens bipinnata1), jack in the bush (Chromolaena odorata (=Eupatorium odoratum1)), Chrysanthemum sp.2; Basellaceae: Indian spinach (Basella alba2); Begoniaceae: Begonia sp.1; Boraginaceae: black sage (Cordia curassavica1); Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas comosus1); Cactaceae: Acanthocereus sp.1; Peruvian apple cactus (Cereus peruvianus1), Cereus sp.1, Coryphanta cubensis1, melon cactus (Melocactus sp.1), Rhipsalis mesembrianthemoides1; Caricaceae: papaya (Carica papaya1,2); Convolvulaceae: morning glory (Ipomoea sp.1), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas1); Cucurbitaceae: ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis1), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo1), Cucurbita sp.1, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo1), chayote (Sechium edule1), Trichosanthes cumumesina; Dilleniaceae: Acrotrema cestatum1; Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha wilkesiana1, Aporusa aurita1, Chamaesyce sp.1, Codiaeum sp.1, Croton sp.1, sandbox tree (Hura crepitans1), Jatropha sp.1, Jatropha curcas1, cassava (Manihot esculenta1,2); Fabaceae: thorntree (Acacia sp.1), shyleaf (Aeschynomene americana1), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan1), Cajanus indicus1, logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum1), Mucuna sp.1, lima bean (Phaseolus limensis1), Pueraria javanica1, tamarind (Tamarindus indica1), Tamarindus sp.; Geraniaceae: geranium (Pelargonium sp.1); Gesneriaceae: purple martin (Streptocarpus sp.2); Heliconiaceae: Heliconia sp.1; Iridaceae: Iris sp.1; Lamiaceae: Coleus sp.1, mint (Mentha sp.1), basil (Ocimum sp.1), sage (Salvia sp.1); Lauraceae: avocado (Persea sp.1); Lythraceae: pomegranate (Punica granatum1); Malvaceae: cotton (Gossypium sp.1), Gossypium barbadense1, okra (Hibiscus exculentus1), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus1), Hibiscus sp.1,; cacao (Theobroma cacao1); Moraceae: Ficus decora1, Ficus sp.1, Ficus tricolor1, mulberry (Morus sp.1); Moringaceae: Moringa oleifera1; Musaceae: latundan banana (Musa sapientum1), banana (Musa sp.1), Musa paradasiaca1; Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp.1, Eugenia sp.1, common guava (Psidium guajava1), guava (Psidium sp.1); Nephrolepidaceae: Nephrolepis sp.1; Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea sp.1; Oleaceae: star jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum2); Orchidaceae: Cattleya sp.1, Cycnoches sp.1, twisted dendrobium (Dendrobium tortile1), Dendrobium sp.1, Mormolyca balsamina1, venus slipper (Paphiopedilum sp.1); Piperaceae: black pepper (Piper nigrum1); Poaceae: lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus1), corn (Zea mays1); Polygonaceae: Rumex sp.1; Proteaceae: Macadamia sp.1; Rubiaceae: coffee (Coffea arabica1), Gardenia jasminoides1; Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1, key lime (Citrus aurantiifolia1), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi1); Sapindaceae: ackee (Blighia sapida1), lychee (Litchi chinensis1), Nephelium sp.1, rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum1); Sapotaceae: star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito1); Solanaceae: Capsicum sp.1, chili pepper (Capsicum fructescens1), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum1), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum1), cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana1), husk tomato (Physalis pubescens1), Solanum sp.1, eggplant (Solanum melongena1), potato (Solanum tuberosum1); Sterculiaceae: teabush (Melochia tomentosa1); Verbenaceae: Lantana sp.1, wild sage (Lantana camara1); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis sp.1); Zingiberaceae: red ginger (Alpinia purpurata1), ginger-lilies (Alpinia sp.1), Phaeomeria sp.1, ginger (Zingiber officinale1).  It is most common on banana, tomato, potato, pepper, and Hibiscus1.  The mealybug may spread long distances through commerce in infested plants and plant material.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is presumably native to and widespread in the Neotropical region from Mexico south to Brazil1.  It has spread to many Pacific islands including Hawaii, and to southeast Asia1.  In the continental United States it has been found in Florida and Texas1.  It has even been found in Canada1.

Official Control: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is considered a quarantine pest by Chile, India, Japan, and Peru3.

California Distribution:  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has been intercepted by CDFA 321 times since 1997, most commonly on basil leaves, nursery stock, and cut flowers.  The mealybug has not been found in any nurseries.

The risk Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Jack Beardsley mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi feeds on a large variety of plants, many of which are grown in California. It is likely to establish wherever host plants are grown and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is highly polyphagous on a wide variety of plants in at least 49 plant families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has high reproductive potential.  Each female lays 300-600 eggs4 and they can complete many generations per year.  Mealybug crawlers may be dispersed locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.  They may also be moved long distances on infested plants or plant material.  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is injurious to plants in the absence of efficient natural enemies and has the potential to lower yields of many high-value California crops such as grapes, citrus, and tomatoes.  This mealybug may also lower the value of a wide variety of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and by the production of sooty mold.  It may also increase crop production costs as some growers may apply new treatments.  The mealybug is also considered a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners and could potentially disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock.  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Hoover’s spurge (Chamaesyce hooveri) and Wiggin’s croton (Croton wigginsii) are listed as endangered plants in California and are likely to be consumed by this mealybug.  The mealybug is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It could trigger new chemical treatments in agricultural industries and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Many of the mealybug’s hosts are popular ornamental plants and are likely to be significantly impacted, especially when grown as indoor houseplants with limited access to predatory insects.  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Jack Beardsley mealybug):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has never been detected in California. CDFA has conducted several recent delimitations for exotic mealybugs that would have been likely to detect this mealybug due to its large host range and the high-risk locations of the survey.  It was not found in any of these surveys.  Furthermore, it has not been found in any nurseries.  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi should be considered absent from California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(15)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that existing treatments for mealybugs will limit the impact of Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi in managed environments.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi has never been found in the environment of California and its entry to the state has the potential to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudococcus/jackbeardsleyi/

http://www.idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=7007

2Shylesha, A.N. 2013.  Host range of invasive Jack Beardsley mealybug, Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller in Karnataka.  Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems 19(1):106-107  http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/viewFile/176/168

3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4Mau, Ronald F.L. and Jayma L. Martin Kessig.  Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller.  Crop Knowledge Master.  Department of Entomology.  Honolulu, Hawaii.  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/p_jackbe.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Jul 26, 2016 and closed on Sep 9, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley): A Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley): A Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Dysmicoccus texensis is regularly intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Dysmicoccus texensis is a mealybug that is often found feeding on plant roots, where large populations prevent water and nutrient absorption, weaken plants, and reduce crop yields3.  It is considered a pest of great pest importance on coffee in Brasil3 (Rubiaceae: Coffea sp.1).  It has also been observed feeding, sometimes on aerial plant parts, on other hosts including: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica1; Araceae: Dieffenbachia sp.1; Bromeliaceae: Vriesea macrostachya1; Euphorbiaceae: Manihot esculenta1; Fabaceae: Acacia cornigera1, Acacia veracruzensis1, Acacia sphaerocephala1, Acacia farnesiana1, Inga inga1, Inga ruiziana1, Inga punctata1, Inga laurina1, Trifolium sp.1; Malvaceae: Theobroma cacao1, Theobroma amplexicaule1, Meliaceae: Guarea sp.1; Musaceae: Musa textilis1, Musa paradisiaca1; Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava1; Polygonaceae: Coccoloba sp.1; Rutaceae: Citrus latifolia1; Citrus aurantium1; Solanaceae: Solanum sp.1.  Coffee root mealybug may be transported long distances through commerce in infested plants or plant parts.

Worldwide Distribution: Dysmicoccus texensis is native to the Neotropical region including southern Texas, Mexico, Central America, and South America1.  It is also found in the Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and the U.S. Virgin Islands1.

Official Control: Dysmicoccus texensis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations2.

California Distribution:  Dysmicoccus texensis has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions Dysmicoccus texensis was intercepted 44 times by CDFA’s border stations, dog teams, and high risk programs between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014.  The mealybug was found on limes, grapefruit, bananas, bell peppers, sugar apple, and aerial parts of unidentified plants.

The risk Dysmicoccus texensis (coffee root mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Dysmicoccus texensis are commonly grown in California as both crops and ornamentals. Dysmicoccus texensis is likely to establish wherever hosts are grown.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dysmicoccus texensis is known to feed on at least 24 species of plants in 13 families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs have high reproductive rates and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of infested plants or fresh plant parts.  They may also be dispersed locally by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Dysmicoccus texensis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although known hosts of Dysmicoccus texensis include economically important crops such as Citrus and Solanum, it is primarily considered a pest of coffee.  Yields of other crops are not likely to be significantly reduced.  However, the mealybug may increase production costs in the nursery industry.  It has potential to lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  Although D. texensis is not known to be considered a quarantine pest, several of California’s trading partners are significant producers of coffee.  Since the mealybug is well documented as a serious pest of coffee, it is reasonable to expect that its presence could trigger disruptions of fresh fruit exports.  Dysmicoccus texensis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Dysmicoccus texensis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Trifolium is a host of D. texensis and several species of Trifolium are listed as threatened or endangered plants in California.  These potential hosts include showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific Grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  Dysmicoccus texensis is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  The mealybug may trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry.  It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Dysmicoccus texensis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dysmicoccus texensisHigh (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dysmicoccus texensis has never been found in the environment of California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys for Dysmicoccus texensis.  It is possible that it could be present in some parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dysmicoccus texensis has never been found in the environment California.  Its entry to the state is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  Dysmicoccus texensis is the valid name.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Dysmicoccus/texensis/

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro, Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília, Jair Campos de Moraes, Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira, and Alcides Moino Junior. 2006. Coffee root mealybug biology control entomopathogenic nematodes. Universidade Federal de Lavras.  http://www.openthesis.org/documents/Biologics-aspects-Dysmicoccus-texensis-Tinsley-331392.html


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 22, 2016 and closed on Aug 6, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Planococcus minor (Maskell): Pacific Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Planococcus minor (Maskell): Pacific Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Planococcus minor is frequently intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Planococcus minor is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of valuable agricultural crops and ornamental plants.  Infestations may cause reduced yield, lower plant or fruit quality, stunted growth, discoloration, and leaf loss1.  The mealybugs also excrete large volumes of honeydew that reduces photosynthetic activity and attracts ants as it builds up on leaves and fruit1.  The mealybug can be an economic pest at low population densities by vectoring viruses that kill plants1.  However, it has not emerged as a serious economic pest in much of its range presumably due to the presence of predators and parasitoids1.  Known hosts include:  Acanthaceae: Aphelandra sp.2, Graptophyllum sp.2, Justica carnea2, Odontonema sp.2, Pachystachys coecinea2; Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus sp.2; Anacardiaceae: cashew (Anacardium occidentale2), mango (Mangifera indica2), Rhus sp.2, ambarella (Spondias dulcis2); Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona reticulata2), sugar apple (Annona squamosa2), soursop (Annona muricata2), ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata2); Apiaceae: celery (Apium graveolens2); Apocynaceae: Araujia sericofera2, Hoya sp.2, Plumeria rubra2; Araceae: Aglaonema sp.2, Alocasia sp.2, giant taro (Alocasia macrorhiza2), taro (Colocasia esculenta2), giant swamp taro (Cryptosperma chamissonis2), Dieffenbachia sp.2, centipede tongavine (Epipremnum pinnatum2), Philodendron fonzii2, water cabbage (Pistia stratioites2), Rhaphidophora vitiensis2, arrowleaf elephant ear (Xanthosoma sagittifolium2), Xanthosoma nigrum2; Araliaceae: Aralia sp.2, ivy (Hedera helix2), Polyscias guilfoylei2, umbrella tree (Schefflera actinphylla2); Arecaceae: betel tree (Areca catechu2), Balaka seemanni2, Chrysalidocarpus sp.2, coconut tree (Cocos nucifera2), Kentia palm (Howeia forsteriana2); Asparagaceae: Dracaena sp.2; Asteraceae: black-jack (Bidens pilosa2), endive (Cichorium endivia2), Dahlia sp.2, lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia2), Helianthus sp.2, climbing hempvine (Mikania scandens2), sweetscent (Pluchea odorata2), node weed (Synedrella nodiflora2), French marigold (Tagetes patula2), Tithonia sp.2, beach sunflower (Wedelia biflora2), common zinnia (Zinnia elegans2); Balsaminaceae: garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina2), Impatiens sultani2; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia sp.2; Boraginaceae: Spanish elm (Cordia alliodora2), Tournefortia argentata2; Brassicaceae: broccoli etc (Brassica oleracea2), Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis2), radish (Raphanus sativus2); Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas comosus2); Burseraceae: java almond (Canarium indicum2), santa cruz nut (Canarium harveyi2); Cactaceae: higo chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis2); Casuarinaceae: Casuarina equisetifolia2; Clusiaceae: Alexandrian laurel balltree (Calophyllum inophyllum2); Combretaceae: Lumnitzera coccinea2, tropical almond (Terminalia catappa2), Commelinaceae: Commelina sp.2, Tradescantia sp.2, Convolvulaceae: beach morning-glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae2), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas2), Merremia peltata2; Corynocarpaceae: Corynocarpus sp.2; Cucurbitaceae: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus2), cucumber (Cucumis sativus2), muskmelon (Cucumis melo2), squash (Cucurbita moschata2), squash (Cucurbita maxima2), squash (Cucurbita pepo2), chayote (Sechium edule2); Cyperaceae: coco-grass (Cyperus rotundus2); Dioscoreaceae: purple yam (Dioscorea alata2); Euphorbiaceae: chenille plant (Acalypha hispida2) , copperleaf (Acalypha godseffiana2), Acalypha tricolor2, candlenut (Aleurites moluccana2), Antidesma sp.2, garden croton (Codiaeum variegatum2), Croton sp.2, poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae pulcherrima2), fireplant (Euphorbiaceae heterophylla2), Euphorbiaceae geniculata2, Euphorbiaceae atoto2, river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha2), Glochidion ramiflorum2, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis2), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas2), Macaranga aleuritoides2, blush macaranga (Macaranga tanarius2), Macaranga macrophylla2, Macaranga harveyana2, food wrapper plant (Mallotus japonicus2), cassava (Manihot esculenta2), stonebreaker (Phyllanthus niruri2), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis2); Fabaceae: Acacia spirobis2, soapbush wattle (Acacia holosericea2), needle bush (Acacia farnesiana2), Formosan Koa (Acacia confusa2), saga tree (Adenanthera pavonina2), peanut (Arachis hypogaea2), Napoleon’s plume (Bauhinia monandra2), Cajanus indicus2, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan2), Calliandra houstoniana2, candle bush (Cassia alata2), Cassia imperialis2, butterfly pea (Centrosema pubescens2), Erythrina sp.2, Flemingia sp.2, Gliricidia maculata2, Gliricidia sepium2, soybean (Glycine max2), Tahitian chestnut (Inocarpus fagifer2), white leadtree (Leucaena glauca2), white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala2), sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica2), giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra2), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus2), siratro (Phaseolus atropurpureus2), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris2), Wisteria sp.2; Geraniaceae: Pelargonium sp.2; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia aurantiaca2; Iridaceae: Gladiolus sp.2; Lamiaceae: painted nettle (Coleus blumei2), Epimeredi indicum2, comb bushmint (Hyptis pectinata2), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum2), sage (Salvia officinalis2); Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana2); Lecythidaceae: fish poison tree (Barringtonia asiatica2); Liliaceae: common asparagus fern (Asparagus plumosus2), pale grass lily (Caesia parviflora2), spider lily (Crinum asiaticum2); Loganiaceae: false coffee tree (Fagraea racemosa2); Lythraceae: crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica2), Pemphis acidula2; Magnoliaceae: banana shrub (Michelia figo2); Malvaceae: Abutilon sp.2, Gossypium sp.2, sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus2), sunset muskmallow (Hibiscus manihot2), Kleinhovia hospita2, Pavonia sp.2, Theobroma cacao2, Chinese bur (Triumfetta rhomboidea2); Marantaceae: Maranta sp.2; Moraceae: breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis2), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus2), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera2), panama rubber tree (Castilloa elastica2), Ficus opositica2, fig (Ficus carica2), Ficus congesta2, weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2), white mulberry (Morus alba2); Musaceae: pink velvet banana (Musa velutina2), latundan banana (Musa sapientum2); Myristicaceae: Myristica macrantha2; Myrtaceae: rainbow eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta2), jambolan (Eugenia cumini2), mountain apple (Eugenia malaccensis2), common guava (Psidium guajava2); Oleaceae: Jasminum sp.2, Onagraceae: primrose willow (Ludwigia octovalis2); Orchidaceae: Dendrobium veratrifolium2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus edulis2, Pandanus foetida2, Pandanus maliformis2, Pandanus odoratissimus2; Passifloraceae: passion fruit (Passiflora edulis2); Phyllanthaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica2); Piperaceae: Piper puberulum2, kava (Piper methysticum2), matico (Piper aduncum2); Poaceae: sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum2), corn (Zea mays2); Proteaceae: macadamia nut (Macadamia tetraphylla2); Rhamnaceae: Alphitonia zizyphoides2; Rosaceae: Asian pear (Pyrus serotina2), china rose (Rosa chinensis2); Rubiaceae: Borreria laevis2, Liberian coffee (Coffea liberica2), arabica coffee (Coffea arabica2), robusta coffee (Coffea canephora2), gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides2), beach gardenia (Guettarda speciosa2), jungle geranium (Ixora coccinea2), great morinda (Morinda citrifolia2), Tahitian gardenia (Randia tahitensis2); Rutaceae: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium2), lemon (Citrus limon2), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi2), key lime (Citrus aurantifolia2), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata2), orange (Citrus sinensis2), pomelo (Citrus grandis2), Evodia hortensis2; Sapotaceae: sapodilla (Manilkara zapota2), taun (Pometia pinnata2); Scrophulariaceae: coral fountain (Russelia equisetiformis2); Solanaceae: raintree (Brunfelsia hispida2), chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens2), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum2), angel’s trumpet (Datura suaveolens2), devil’s trumpet (Datura metel2), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum2), turkey berry (Solanum torvum2), potato (Solanum tuberosum2), indian nightshade (Solanum indicum2), eggplant (Solanum melongena2), Theaceae: tea plant (Camellia sinensis2); Urticaceae: Boehmeria sp.2, Leucosyke sp.2, native mulberry (Pipturus argenteus2), Procris pedunculata2; Verbenaceae: pagoda flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum2), java glorybower (Clerodendrum fallax2), Clerodendrum disparifolium2, Premna taitensis2, Premna obtusifolia2, Stachytarpheta sp.2, teak (Tectona grandis2), Verbena sp.2, simpleleaf chastetree (Vitex trifolia2); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis vinifera2); Zingiberaceae: red ginger (Alpinia purpurata2), shellflower (Alpinia nutans2), green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum2), white ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium2), torch ginger (Nicolaia speciosa2), ginger (Zingiber officinale2).  Planococcus minor may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Planococcus minor is probably Asian in origin1.  From there it has invaded much of the Neotropical region spanning from Mexico south to Argentina1,2.  It was first found in Hawaii in 2009 and Florida in 2010.

Official Control: Planococcus minor is listed as a harmful organism by China, the Republic of Korea, and Japan3.

California Distribution Planococcus minor has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Planococcus minor has been intercepted 89 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations and dog teams.  Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts mostly from Hawaii, but also from Florida, Washington, and Pennsylvania.

The risk Planococcus minor (pacific mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Planococcus minor are widely grown throughout California as agricultural crops and ornamentals. The mealybug is likely to establish wherever suitable host material is found and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Planococcus minor feeds on more than 250 plants belonging to 66 families and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pacific mealybug can complete a generation in less than a month and each female lays between 206 and 270 eggs, indicating a high reproductive rate.  Mealybugs can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Planococcus minor may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and sooty mold.  It may also increase production costs for a wide variety of crops.  Several of California’s trading partners list pacific mealybug as a harmful organism, so exports of fresh fruit including citrus and grapes may be disrupted.  Pacific mealybug has been implicated in the transmission of virus diseases between plants1.  Furthermore, honeydew secreted by the mealybugs will attract ants, which may injure parasitic wasps, disrupting biological control programs for other pests.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Planococcus minor is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as Wiggins’ croton (Croton wigginsii) and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The mealybugs are not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  They may trigger new treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Pacific mealybug feeds on a wide variety of popular ornamental plants and plants common in home/urban gardens.  Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Planococcus minor (Pacific Mealybug): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Planococcus minor has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:  

Recent formal mealybug surveys in California have focused on Proteas and would have been unlikely to detect pacific mealybug.  It is possible that the mealybug could be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Planococcus minor has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Francis, Antonio W., Moses T.K. Kairo, and Amy L. Roda. 2012. Passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). University of Florida Extension.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN92000.pdf

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Planococcus/minor

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 9, 2016 and closed on April 23, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell): Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell):  Mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

From 1953 to 2012, Ferrisia dasylirii was incorrectly considered a synonym of B-rated Ferrisia virgata.  A recent revision corrected this and resurrected F. dasylirii as a valid species1.  On August 28, 2014 Dr. Gillian Watson notified me that she had examined specimens in the California State Collection of Arthropods and confirmed that F. dasylirii is present in the state.  Because this mealybug is not on CDFA’s pest rating list, a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundFerrisia dasylirii is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of plants, including many ornamentals and some crops.  It may be spread long distances by commerce in infested plants or plant products.

Worldwide Distribution: Ferrisia dasylirii appears to be of Neotropical origin.  It is found from the United States south to Chile2.  It is also found in Hawaii and several Caribbean islands2.

Official Control: Ferrisia virgata is considered a quarantine pest by Israel, Japan, and New Zealand3.  It is likely that these trading partners will also consider the newly resurrected F. dasylirii as a quarantine pest if it is intercepted.

California Distribution:  Specimens of Ferrisia dasylirii in the state collection indicate that the mealybug is present in the environment of Alameda County (1962), Imperial County (1993, 2003), Los Angeles County (2000), San Bernardino County (1978, 1979, 1982), San Diego County (1978), and San Joaquin County (1980, 1995).

California Interceptions:  From August 19, 2014 to August 26, 2015 Ferrisia dasylirii was intercepted 24 times by California’s high risk programs and dog teams on fruit and plants shipped from Florida, Hawaii, Michigan, Mississippi, and within California.

The risk Ferrisia dasylirii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ferrisia dasylirii is polyphagous and suitable host plants are grown throughout California. It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ferrisia dasylirii feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 29 families2.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs reproduce rapidly and can spread locally by crawling or by wind.  They may move long distances rapidly by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment or by the movement of infested plants or plant products.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not emerged as a significant pest.  Several trading partners might consider this mealybug to be a quarantine pest and its presence on plants or plant products could have trade impacts.  No other economic impacts are expected.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not had significant economic impacts.  It receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ferrisia dasyliriiMedium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Records in the state collection indicate that Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment of California. The mealybug receives a High(-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(8)

Uncertainty:

There is significant genetic variability within Ferrisia dasylirii1.  It is possible that some lineages could be cryptic species that are not present in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment and is not having significant economic or environmental impacts.  A “C” rating is justified.  

References:

1Kaydan, M.B. and P.J. Gullan. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of eight new species and a new genus. Zootaxa 3543: 1-65.  http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2012/3543.html

2SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Ferrisiadasylirii.htm

 3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Friday, September 25, 2015 and closed on November 9, 2015.


Pest Rating: C


Posted by ls