Tag Archives: mealybug

Palm Mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum

image of Palm Mealybug and its damage
California Pest Rating for
Palm mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Palmicultor palmarum is currently Q-rated. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Palm mealybugs are slow moving, piercing-sucking insects that feed on plant sap and are usually found in clusters along leaf veins, on the undersides of leaves, and in hidden areas at joints. These insects exude honeydew that becomes infested by sooty mold and gives the leaves a dirty appearance. Ants may be attracted to the honeydew. Plants infested with mealybugs become weak and may eventually die3.

Known hosts include: Arecaceae: Areca catechu, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota mitis, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis lutescens, Elaeis guineensis, Hyophorbe indica, Phoenix roebelenii, Roystonea regia, Washingtonia filifera, Licuala spp. & Thrinax spp.; Pandanaceae: Freycinetia spp.; Fabaceae: Acacia asak; Poaceae: Phyllostachys spp.1, 5.

Worldwide Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum was described from Hawaii and has been introduced to many places in the world, including much of the Caribbean islands, the Bahamas, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Caledonia, Niue, China, Mexico, and Florida in the continental United States 1.

Official Control: Palmicultor palmarum is listed as a harmful organism by the Republic of Korea and Egypt6.

California Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Palmicultor palmarum was found in 2017 at a nursery in San Diego County (PDR 370P06678075 & 370P06678076). It has been intercepted 53 times since 19904.

The risk Palmicultor palmarum (palm mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Palmicultor palmarum are mostly palm trees, and this species appears to be restricted to areas with a tropical/subtropical climate; it is possible that it may become established in a limited portion of southern California. Therefore, Palmicultor palmarum receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Palmicultor palmarum has been reported to feed on plants of at least fifteen genera in four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. Palmicultor palmarum frequently moves long distances in the trade of infested palm trees. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Palmicultor palmarum could reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increasing crop production costs in nurseries. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Palmicultor palmarum is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Palmicultor palmarum  (Palm mealybug):  Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:  

There have not been any recent surveys for Palmicultor palmarum.  It is possible that it could be present in coastal parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Palmicultor palmarum is not known to be present in California. If it became established here, it could have a significant impact on the ornamental palm industry ($70 Million industry in California – Hoddle.) 2 Therefore, an “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. Scale Net: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.             http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Palmicultor%20palmarum/


  2. Hoddle, M. Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.  http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

  3. Missouri Botanical Garden. Online, Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/help-for-the-home-gardener/advice-tips-resources/pests-and-problems/insects/mealybugs/mealybugs-indoors.aspx

  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  5. Stocks, I.   19: Recent Adventive Scale Insects in Florida and the Caribbean Region. pp. 346-347.   CABI.  Accessed on 12/18/2017. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/FullTextPDF/2013/20133231104.pdf

  6. USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 12/18/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/16/18 – 4/30/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

A mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley

California Pest Rating for
A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is a small (approximately 1.4 mm long) mealybug that occurs on palms.  It was described recently and is very similar to N. nipae (Beardsley, 1999).  It is possible that some identifications of N. nipae were actually misidentified N. floridensisNipaecoccus nipae is present in California (reported from Alameda, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, and Ventura counties).  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported on the palms Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta and Psidium guajava (guava) (Beardsley, 1999; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2010).  In the nursery environment, it has been found on a variety of palms.

Worldwide Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is reported from Cuba and Florida (where it infests palms) (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2015).  It is possibly native to Florida (Peña, 2013).

Official Control: Nipaecoccus floridensis is apparently not under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found in numerous instances at California nurseries, but there do not appear to be any reports of this species being present in California outside of nurseries.  For this reason, it is assumed that it is not present in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit (probably from Florida) in 2015 (PDR # 570P06363493) and on a plant from Florida in 2017 (PDR # 010P06660306).  It has been found at nurseries (usually on palms) numerous times: Ventura County in 2000 (PDR # 1190499); Orange County in 1997, 1998, and 2001 (PDR # 1145197, 1212115, 1204342, and 085566); Los Angeles County in 1995, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 1122913, 1212067, 1294290, 1352589, 1352580, 1352496, 1352477, 190P06058690, 190P06058654, 190P06058656, 190P06058655, 190P06059656, 190P06059651, 190P06059638, 190P06620202, 190P06620188, 190P06620166, 190P06620165, 190P06620164, 190P06620167, 190P06620155, 190P06620155, 190P06620147, 190P06620146, 190P06620146, 190P06620134, 190P06620133, 190P06620125, 190P06620114, 190P06620113, 190P06620059 , 190P06619989, 190P06619878, 190P06060247, 190P06060186, 1252840, and 190P06060156); San Bernardino County in 2013, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 360P06147027, 360P06381148, 360P06381138, 360P06578933, 360P06380913, 360P06380914, and 360P06202635); San Diego County in 2012 (PDR # 1508906); and Ventura County in 2012, 2015, and 2017 (PDR # 1508906, 56VP06083122, 56VP06083121, 56VP06084073, and 56VP06084022).

The risk Nipaecoccus floridensis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Nipaecoccus floridensis is only known to occur in Florida and Cuba, although see Uncertainty, below. It is apparently restricted to tropical and subtropical areas.  It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California, perhaps the coastal, southern portion of the state.  Therefore, Nipaecoccus floridensis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported from a few species of palms and from guava. It was intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can be dispersed passively in the first instar (“crawler”) stage by wind (CABI, 2017).  Based on the numerous detections on palms at nurseries, Nipaecoccus floridensis is evidently capable of being dispersed artificially via transport of infested plants.  In addition, some Nipaecoccus are capable of producing over 1000 offspring per female (Bartlett, 1978).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Nipaecoccus floridensis feeds on palms.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California (Hoddle).  If N. floridensis was introduced to California, it could become a pest in nurseries and increase the cost of palm production.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact: B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Nipaecoccus floridensis became established in California, it could trigger treatments if ornamental palms became infested. As palms are widely planted in the state, infestations and treatments in response could be widespread as well.  The only native California palm species, Washingtonia filifera, occurs in desert, and N. floridensis is unlikely to thrive in such an environment.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nipaecoccus floridensis: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found at California nurseries numerous times, the species is presumed to not be established in the state, as no records outside of nurseries have been found. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

As stated above, Nipaecoccus floridensis is similar to, and could have perhaps been misidentified as Nipaecoccus nipae in the past.  Therefore, N. floridensis may have a more widespread distribution than is reflected in literature and collecting records, which means that the climatic tolerance and feeding habits may be broader than what is suggested by those records.  It is apparent that N. floridensis has had numerous opportunities to become established in California, based on the fact that it has been found in nurseries multiple times, and it is possible that N. floridensis is already established in a limited part of the state but has gone undetected.  If the species is not established in California, it may be possible that it is not capable of becoming established here outside of the nursery environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is a palm-feeding mealybug that is not known to be established in California but could become a pest of ornamental palms.  Ornamental palms are an important industry in California, and they are an iconic symbol of the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bartlett, B.R. 1978. Pseudococcidae, p. 137–170. In: C.P. Clausen (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review. Agriculture Handbook. 480. USDA, Washington, DC.  545 pp.

Beardsley, J.W.  1999.  Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and two apparently undescribed sibling species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  Entomologica, Bari.  33: 49-57.

CABI.  2017.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  Florida cooperative agriculture pest survey program quarterly report no. 2-2005.  10 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., N.B. Hardy. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed 3 November 2017. http://scalenet.info.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Hamon, A., Kondo, T., Oliver, P.H., Herrera, M.D.M., and A.H. Marrero.  2015.  Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) del Parque Natural Topes de Collantes, Sancti-Spíritus, Cuba y la relación con sus plantas hospedantes.  Insecta Mundi.  426: 1-27.

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Rubio, M.V., Bonnin, P.C., and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad.  14(3): 181-183.

Peña, J.  2013.  Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.  464 pp.

Stocks, I.  2013.  19: Recent adventive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida and the Caribbean basin, pp. 342-362.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell): Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell):  Mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

From 1953 to 2012, Ferrisia dasylirii was incorrectly considered a synonym of B-rated Ferrisia virgata.  A recent revision corrected this and resurrected F. dasylirii as a valid species1.  On August 28, 2014 Dr. Gillian Watson notified me that she had examined specimens in the California State Collection of Arthropods and confirmed that F. dasylirii is present in the state.  Because this mealybug is not on CDFA’s pest rating list, a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundFerrisia dasylirii is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of plants, including many ornamentals and some crops.  It may be spread long distances by commerce in infested plants or plant products.

Worldwide Distribution: Ferrisia dasylirii appears to be of Neotropical origin.  It is found from the United States south to Chile2.  It is also found in Hawaii and several Caribbean islands2.

Official Control: Ferrisia virgata is considered a quarantine pest by Israel, Japan, and New Zealand3.  It is likely that these trading partners will also consider the newly resurrected F. dasylirii as a quarantine pest if it is intercepted.

California Distribution:  Specimens of Ferrisia dasylirii in the state collection indicate that the mealybug is present in the environment of Alameda County (1962), Imperial County (1993, 2003), Los Angeles County (2000), San Bernardino County (1978, 1979, 1982), San Diego County (1978), and San Joaquin County (1980, 1995).

California Interceptions:  From August 19, 2014 to August 26, 2015 Ferrisia dasylirii was intercepted 24 times by California’s high risk programs and dog teams on fruit and plants shipped from Florida, Hawaii, Michigan, Mississippi, and within California.

The risk Ferrisia dasylirii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ferrisia dasylirii is polyphagous and suitable host plants are grown throughout California. It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ferrisia dasylirii feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 29 families2.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs reproduce rapidly and can spread locally by crawling or by wind.  They may move long distances rapidly by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment or by the movement of infested plants or plant products.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not emerged as a significant pest.  Several trading partners might consider this mealybug to be a quarantine pest and its presence on plants or plant products could have trade impacts.  No other economic impacts are expected.  Ferrisia dasylirii receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ferrisia dasylirii has been present in California since at least 1962 and has not had significant economic impacts.  It receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ferrisia dasyliriiMedium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Records in the state collection indicate that Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment of California. The mealybug receives a High(-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(8)

Uncertainty:

There is significant genetic variability within Ferrisia dasylirii1.  It is possible that some lineages could be cryptic species that are not present in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ferrisia dasylirii is widespread in the environment and is not having significant economic or environmental impacts.  A “C” rating is justified.  

References:

1Kaydan, M.B. and P.J. Gullan. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of eight new species and a new genus. Zootaxa 3543: 1-65.  http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2012/3543.html

2SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Ferrisiadasylirii.htm

 3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Friday, September 25, 2015 and closed on November 9, 2015.


Pest Rating: C


Posted by ls

Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink: Bougainvillea Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink: Bougainvillea Mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In June 2013 Dr. Gillian Watson identified samples of Phenacoccus peruvianus from a nursery in Los Angeles County.  This Neotropical mealybug has recently spread around the Mediterranean via the nursery trade where it has established outdoors and is the subject of biological control programs.  Because of the polyphagous nature of the pest and its track record as an emerging invasive species, Dr. Watson recommended a survey of the environment around the nursery where it had been found.  Invasion of California by Phenacoccus peruvianus appears imminent and the mealybug presently has a temporary Q-rating, so a pest rating proposal is required to establish a permanent rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult and nymph bougainvillea mealybugs feed on the lower surfaces of foliage of a variety of plants but may also be found on shoots, bark, and upper leaf surfaces2.  Heavy infestations of the mealybugs cause significant damage to ornamental plants, ruining their appearance and reducing their market value2.  Populations of the mealybug may cause necrosis of the foliage, leaf loss, die back and sooty mold growth on the excreted honeydew2.  Known host plants include: AcanthaceaeJusticia suberecta2; Amaranthaceae: Alternanthera sp.2; ApocynaceaeAllamanda cathartica (Copa de Oro) (PDR 56VP06083189), Plumeria sp. (PDR 56VP06083076), Trachelospermum jasminoides (star jasmine) (PDRs 400P06198540, 56VP06083076, 400P06198619, 56VP06083189, 56VP06083193, 400P06198525),  AsclepiadaceaeAraujia sercifera2;  AsteraceaeBaccharis sp.2, Eupatorium sp.2,4; Aucubaceae:  Aucuba japonica2BignoniaceaeCampsis distictis (trumpet vine) (PDR 56VP06083189) ;  CannaceaeCanna sp. (PDR 56VP06083079);  HamamelidaceaeLoropetalum chinense (Chinese Fringe Flower) (PDR 56VP06083189);  Juglandaceae: Juglans jamaicensis4; LamiaceaeLamium spp. (PDR 56VP06083079); Solenostemon blumei4MalvaceaeHibiscus rosa-sinensis4; Hibiscus sp. (PDR 360P06202527),  MyporaceaeMyporum laetum2MyrtaceaePsidium spp. (guava, strawberry guava, mexican guava) (PDRs 190P06058618, 190P06058626, 190P06058785);  Nyctagenaceae: Bougainvillea glabra1,2, Bougainvillea sp.1,2RubiaceaeCoffea sp.4; SapindaceaeDodonea viscosa (PDR 190P06058627);  Scrophulariaceae: Budleja sp.2; Solanaceae: Capsicum sp. (Chili pepper) (PDR 190P06058634), Cestrum sp2, Lycopersicon escuelentum4; Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)3, Solandra sp. (PDR 56VP06083165), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)3, Solanum vespertilio2, Solanum jasminoiles (potato vine) (PDR 400P06198732);  Verbenaceae: Lantana camara4 (PDR 56VP06083079, 400P06198670).  Phenacoccus peruvianus is presently spreading long distances through international plant trade.

Worldwide Distribution: Phenacoccus peruvianus is native to South America where it was first found in Peru and northern Argentina1.   Bougainvillea mealybug was not found outside of this native range until it was recently found spreading rapidly around Europe.  It was first found in Spain in 1999, Italy in 2002, Great Britain and France in 2005, Portugal in 2006, Monaco in 20081, and Greece in 20125.  Bougainvillea mealybug has not been found in North America aside from interceptions in California nurseries, which started in June 2013.

Official Control: Phenacoccus peruvianus is not known to be under official control in any nations or states.

California DistributionPhenacoccus peruvianus has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsPhenacoccus peruvianus has not been intercepted at the borders or ports in California.  It has been found in four nurseries during inspections in Los Angeles, Ventura, and San Bernardino Counties.  Bougainvillea mealybug has also been intercepted six times on shipments of plants from the Ventura County nursery.

The risk Phenacoccus peruvianus (Bougainvillea mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1.  Climate/Host Interaction: Phenacoccus peruvianus is presently invasive in the Mediterranean region of Europe, a climate similar to California, indicating that it is likely to find favorable conditions here. Furthermore, the hosts of the polyphagous mealybug are widely grown as ornamentals in California.  Bougainvillea mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2.  Known Pest Host Range: Phenacoccus peruvianus feeds on at least 32 species of plants in 20 families.  Twenty-seven finds in California associated with nurseries have revealed 13 new host records, indicating that the host range of this polyphagous mealybug is likely to continue to expand as it invades new areas.  Bougainvillea mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3.  Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs are capable of rapid reproduction.  They may also spread long distances by hitchhiking on clothing or animals, by wind, or by commerce in infested plants.  Phenacoccus peruvianus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4.  Economic Impact: Bougainvillea mealybug is expected to be a pest in the nursery industry as it disfigures ornamental plants with its presence and with sooty mold.  It is likely to reduce the value of infested plants or increase production costs by triggering management activities.  Although bougainvillea mealybug is not currently known to be on any quarantine lists, it has a very limited worldwide distribution and has only recently become invasive.  It has not been found anywhere else in the United States.  It is therefore reasonable to assume that the presence of this mealybug in the state may disrupt markets for California-grown ornamental plants. Bougainvillea mealybug is not expected to lower crop yields, change cultural practices in agricultural industries, vector diseases, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Phenacoccus peruvianus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

 5.  Environmental Impact: Phenacoccus peruvianus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Baccharis is a known host of the mealybug and Baccharis vanessae (Encinitas baccharis) is listed as an endangered species in California.  This plant may be directly affected by the mealybug.  Bougainvillea mealybug is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  The mealybug is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Since many of the known hosts are common ornamental plants it is likely that bougainvillea mealybug will have environmental cultural impacts as residents discard infested plants and replace them with other species.  Bougainvillea mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

 Consequences of Introduction to California for Phenacoccus peruvianus (Bougainvillea mealybug): High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6.  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Phenacoccus peruvianus has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any formal surveys for bougainvillea mealybug in California so it is possible that it could be established in some places.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phenacoccus peruvianus is a polyphagous mealybug that has never been found in the environment of North America.  If it were found, it would likely result in official survey and eradication or biological control programs due to potential significant economic and environmental impacts.  An A-rating is justified.

References:

1Beltrá, A., A. Soto, J.-F. Germain, D. Matile-Ferrero, G. Mazzeo, G. Pellizzari, A. Russo, J.C. Franco, and D.J. Williams.  2010.  The Bougainvillea mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus, a rapid invader from South America to Europe.  Entomologia Hellenica 19:137-143. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/220048178_The_Bougainvillea_mealybug_Phenacoccus_peruvianus_a_rapid_invader_from_South_America_to_Europe

2SEL Catalog Query Results:  Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccusperuvianus.htm

3Beltrá, Aleixandre, Alejandro Tena, and Antonia Soto.  2013.  Fortuitous biological control of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus in Southern Europe.  BioControl 58(3): 309-317.  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10526-012-9488-5

4Beltrá, Aleixandre Ivars.  2014.  Biology and management of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in urban landscapes.  Doctoral Thesis, Universitat Politècnica de València.  http://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/37233/Beltr%C3%A0%20-%20%22Biology%20and%20management%20of%20the%20invasive%20mealybug%20Phenacoccus%20peruvianus%20%28Hemiptera%3A%20Pseu….pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

5Gkounti, Vasilki and Panagiotis Milonas. 2013.  First record of the bougainvillea mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus in Greece.  Entomologia Hellenica 22: 16-18.  http://www.entsoc.gr/volume%2022a/22%281%29-16-18.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday,  April 1, 2015 and closed on May 16, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls