Tag Archives: Hemiptera

A mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley

California Pest Rating for
A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is a small (approximately 1.4 mm long) mealybug that occurs on palms.  It was described recently and is very similar to N. nipae (Beardsley, 1999).  It is possible that some identifications of N. nipae were actually misidentified N. floridensisNipaecoccus nipae is present in California (reported from Alameda, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, and Ventura counties).  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported on the palms Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta and Psidium guajava (guava) (Beardsley, 1999; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2010).  In the nursery environment, it has been found on a variety of palms.

Worldwide Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is reported from Cuba and Florida (where it infests palms) (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2015).  It is possibly native to Florida (Peña, 2013).

Official Control: Nipaecoccus floridensis is apparently not under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found in numerous instances at California nurseries, but there do not appear to be any reports of this species being present in California outside of nurseries.  For this reason, it is assumed that it is not present in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit (probably from Florida) in 2015 (PDR # 570P06363493) and on a plant from Florida in 2017 (PDR # 010P06660306).  It has been found at nurseries (usually on palms) numerous times: Ventura County in 2000 (PDR # 1190499); Orange County in 1997, 1998, and 2001 (PDR # 1145197, 1212115, 1204342, and 085566); Los Angeles County in 1995, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 1122913, 1212067, 1294290, 1352589, 1352580, 1352496, 1352477, 190P06058690, 190P06058654, 190P06058656, 190P06058655, 190P06059656, 190P06059651, 190P06059638, 190P06620202, 190P06620188, 190P06620166, 190P06620165, 190P06620164, 190P06620167, 190P06620155, 190P06620155, 190P06620147, 190P06620146, 190P06620146, 190P06620134, 190P06620133, 190P06620125, 190P06620114, 190P06620113, 190P06620059 , 190P06619989, 190P06619878, 190P06060247, 190P06060186, 1252840, and 190P06060156); San Bernardino County in 2013, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 360P06147027, 360P06381148, 360P06381138, 360P06578933, 360P06380913, 360P06380914, and 360P06202635); San Diego County in 2012 (PDR # 1508906); and Ventura County in 2012, 2015, and 2017 (PDR # 1508906, 56VP06083122, 56VP06083121, 56VP06084073, and 56VP06084022).

The risk Nipaecoccus floridensis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Nipaecoccus floridensis is only known to occur in Florida and Cuba, although see Uncertainty, below. It is apparently restricted to tropical and subtropical areas.  It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California, perhaps the coastal, southern portion of the state.  Therefore, Nipaecoccus floridensis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported from a few species of palms and from guava. It was intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can be dispersed passively in the first instar (“crawler”) stage by wind (CABI, 2017).  Based on the numerous detections on palms at nurseries, Nipaecoccus floridensis is evidently capable of being dispersed artificially via transport of infested plants.  In addition, some Nipaecoccus are capable of producing over 1000 offspring per female (Bartlett, 1978).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Nipaecoccus floridensis feeds on palms.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California (Hoddle).  If N. floridensis was introduced to California, it could become a pest in nurseries and increase the cost of palm production.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact: B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Nipaecoccus floridensis became established in California, it could trigger treatments if ornamental palms became infested. As palms are widely planted in the state, infestations and treatments in response could be widespread as well.  The only native California palm species, Washingtonia filifera, occurs in desert, and N. floridensis is unlikely to thrive in such an environment.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nipaecoccus floridensis: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found at California nurseries numerous times, the species is presumed to not be established in the state, as no records outside of nurseries have been found. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

As stated above, Nipaecoccus floridensis is similar to, and could have perhaps been misidentified as Nipaecoccus nipae in the past.  Therefore, N. floridensis may have a more widespread distribution than is reflected in literature and collecting records, which means that the climatic tolerance and feeding habits may be broader than what is suggested by those records.  It is apparent that N. floridensis has had numerous opportunities to become established in California, based on the fact that it has been found in nurseries multiple times, and it is possible that N. floridensis is already established in a limited part of the state but has gone undetected.  If the species is not established in California, it may be possible that it is not capable of becoming established here outside of the nursery environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is a palm-feeding mealybug that is not known to be established in California but could become a pest of ornamental palms.  Ornamental palms are an important industry in California, and they are an iconic symbol of the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bartlett, B.R. 1978. Pseudococcidae, p. 137–170. In: C.P. Clausen (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review. Agriculture Handbook. 480. USDA, Washington, DC.  545 pp.

Beardsley, J.W.  1999.  Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and two apparently undescribed sibling species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  Entomologica, Bari.  33: 49-57.

CABI.  2017.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  Florida cooperative agriculture pest survey program quarterly report no. 2-2005.  10 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., N.B. Hardy. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed 3 November 2017. http://scalenet.info.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Hamon, A., Kondo, T., Oliver, P.H., Herrera, M.D.M., and A.H. Marrero.  2015.  Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) del Parque Natural Topes de Collantes, Sancti-Spíritus, Cuba y la relación con sus plantas hospedantes.  Insecta Mundi.  426: 1-27.

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Rubio, M.V., Bonnin, P.C., and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad.  14(3): 181-183.

Peña, J.  2013.  Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.  464 pp.

Stocks, I.  2013.  19: Recent adventive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida and the Caribbean basin, pp. 342-362.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Adelges piceae: Balsam Woolly Adelgid

California Pest Rating for
Adelges piceae:  Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Hemiptera: Adelgidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Adelges piceae has been detected by CDFA in Mendocino County and has a temporary rating of “Z”. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Adelges piceae is a tiny, non-flying, sucking, soft-bodied insect which appears as a white, woolly spot on true firs3. Adults are blackish purple, roughly spherical in shape, less than 1mm long and produce a thick mass of wool-like waxy strands over their bodies. The first immature motile stage of this insect is known as a crawler. The crawlers are orange in color with legs and black eyes. The crawler is the only mobile stage in its life cycle and it is capable of crawling more than 30 m. Adelges piceae has 2-3 generations per year over most of its range with an occasional fourth generation1.

Adelges piceae has long, tube-like mouthparts, and causes great damage to fir forests in Canada and the United States. It was introduced into North America from Europe in the 1900s1. It is a serious pest to landscape and to the Christmas fir tree industry. Adelges piceae causes significant damage to true firs including Abies alba, A. balsamea, A. cilicica, A. fraseri, A. grandis, A. nordmanniana, and others. It is invasive outside of its native central Europe from where it spread via timber imports. Adelges piceae populations in North America are composed entirely of females and as a result, its reproduction is parthenogenetic (i.e. without mating and fertilization)3.

In Europe, host trees are relatively insensitive to attack and the insect is not considered a significant forest pest. In North America, however, it has caused significant damage and mortality to true firs (Abies spp.) in both eastern and western forests. In some localities, firs are slowly being eliminated from the ecosystem; and Adelges piceae populations continue to spread to previously uninfested areas2.

Worldwide Distribution: Adelges piceae is native to Europe where it is well distributed in Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland and UK. In Asia it is present in Turkey. In North America it is introduced in Canada and USA. In South America it is invasive in Chile4.

In the United States it can be found in California, Idaho, Maine, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, West Virginia4.

Official Control: Adelges piceae is listed as a harmful organism in Canada, Japan, Guatemala and Ecuador 5.

California Distribution: Adelges piceae was first detected in California in 1928 in the SF Bay Area. Since then, according to Jack Marshall (CA Dept Forestry & Fire Protection, CA Forest Pest Council, 2012), it has been collected in Palo Alto (1934), Berkeley (1958), Sacramento (1986), and Mendocino Co. (2011, 2012)4.

California Interceptions: Adelges piceae was collected by State fire dept. in Mendocino County (PDR MVAP06099309)6.

The risk Adelges piceae (Balsam woolly adelgid) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Adelges piceae are grown on a limited part of California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Adelges piceae feeds on fir (Abies spp.) and some other pine species which are present only in high elevation. It has moderate host range. So it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adelges piceae females produce up to 200 eggs per clutch and normally two clutches produced per year2. Adelges piceae eggs and newly hatched nymphs are spread by wind, on animals and the movement of infested plant material. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Adelges piceae is a major pest of fir species and causes a billion feet of fir timber loss in North America. It is a serious pest to seed production, landscape fir, natural fir, and fir Christmas tree industry. It is listed as an invasive pest by Canada & Japan so it has the potential to trigger a loss of markets. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control its infestation. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Adelges piceae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Adelges piceae is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It could impact the habitat of endangered species Zayante band-winged grasshopper which feed on grass grown at the base of pines forest. Adelges piceae may trigger new chemical treatments in forests and the nursery industry.  It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Adelges piceae receives a High (3) in this catego

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  C, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened endangered species or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Adelges piceae:  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Adelges piceae has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate and receive Low Score (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -1

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

Adelges piceae is introduced in California about 90 years ago; luckily it spread only a very limited area. Since, the host plants are growing on higher elevations and foot hills. Therefore, it is a strong possibility that it can be establish in other new areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Adelges piceae has been established in   Northern coastal area of California especially, in Mendocino County and is not under official control. Its establishment in the state is likely to have significant economic impacts to nurseries that produce and distribute Christmas trees. It is also likely to have environmental impacts as it triggers new chemical treatments and significantly affects ornamental plantings.  A “B” rating is justified.

 References:
  1. Amman, Gene D. 1962. Seasonal biology of the balsam woolly aphid on Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 55(1):96-98. Accessed on 11-15-16  http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/fidls/bwa.pdf
  1. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Adelges piceae National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). Accessed on 11-23-16 http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=226
  1. Hain, F.P. (1998). The balsam woolly adelgid in North America. pp 87-109. In: Ed. Berryman, A.A. Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations: Patterns, Causes, Implications, Plenum and New York. http://influentialpoints.com/Gallery/Adelges_piceae_Balsam_woolly_adelgid.htm#biolog
  1.  Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/3268
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Responsible party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/10/2017 – 2/24/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Mycetaspis personata (Comstock): Masked Scale

California Pest Rating for
Mycetaspis personata (Comstock):  Masked Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Mycetaspis personata is commonly intercepted at CDFA’s border stations and presently has a temporary Q-rating.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Mycetaspis personata is a polyphagous armored scale insect that typically feeds on leaves1,2.  It has been considered a pest of citrus in Madeira and mango in Egypt1,2.  Known hosts include:  Anacardiaceae: Anacardium spp.1, mango (Mangifera indica1,2), Mangifera spp.1,2, Tapirira guianensis2; Annonaceae: Annona spp.1,2; Arecaceae: Areca spp.1,2, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens1,2, coconut (Cocos nucifera1,2); Cocos spp.1,2, latan palm (Latania sp.1,2); Phoenix spp.1,2, palmetto (Sabal spp.1,2), walking palm (Socratea exorrhiza)2; Bignoniaceae: Catalpa longisiliqua1,2; Bromeliaceae: Tillandsia spp.1,2; Fabaceae: Bauhinia spp.1,2; Guttiferae: Mammea americana2; Lauraceae: Persea spp.1,2; Malpighiaceae: Banisteria laurifolia1,2; Monimiaceae: Tambourissa spp.1,2; Moraceae: Cuban-laurel (Ficus retusa1,2), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina1,2), Ficus spp.1,2; Musaceae: Musa spp.1,2; Myristicaceae: Virola sebifera2; Myrtaceae: Eugenia spp.1,2, pineapple guava (Feijoa selloviana1,2); Oleaceae: jasmine (Jasminum spp.1,2); Rutaceae: Citrus spp.1,2; Sapotaceae: sapote (Achras sapota1,2); Theaceae: Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica1,2).  Mycetaspis personata may be transported long distances with infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Mycetaspis personata has a widespread distribution in South America and the Caribbean1,2.  It has spread to several African and Asian nations and is established Mexico, Hawaii, and Florida1,2.

Official Control: Mycetaspis personata is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan3.

California Distribution:  Mycetaspis personata has never been detected in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Mycetaspis personata is frequently intercepted by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams on fruit.  It is most often intercepted on mango, but has also been intercepted on other fruit including lime, coconut, and avocado.

The risk Mycetaspis personata (masked scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Mycetaspis personata are grown throughout California and the scale insect can be expected to establish wherever they are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Mycetaspis personata is polyphagous on a wide variety of plants in at least 18 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Mycetaspis personata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Mycetaspis personata is considered a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners.  This insect could disrupt markets for Californian agricultural commodities if it were to establish in the state.  It may also increase crop production costs by triggering additional management practices to ensure that crops are free from the pest.  Mycetaspis personata receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Mycetaspis personata is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Masked scale may also significantly impact ornamental plantings.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Mycetaspis personata (Masked Scale): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Mycetaspis personata has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:  

There have been no recent formal surveys for scale insects in California.  It is possible that mask scale could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Mycetaspis personata has never been found in California and may have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish here. An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Mycetaspis/personata/
http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Mycetaspis%20personata/

 2 SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Mycetaspispersonata.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Jul 25, 2016 and closed on Sep 8, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Halticus bractatus (Say): Garden Fleahopper

Garden Fleahopper by Charles Olsen, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org
California Pest Rating for
Halticus bractatus (Say): Garden Fleahopper
Hemiptera: Miridae
Pest Rating:  A 

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Halticus bractatus was recently intercepted by one of CDFA’s border stations on outdoor plants from Florida.  Although this insect is included on some old pest lists with a “C” rating, all PDRs for the species to date have been assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Halticus bractatus is a polyphagous pest that feeds on a variety of crops including citrus1.  It prefers to feed on hosts in the family Fabaceae including alfalfa, beans, peas, and clovers but will readily feed on many other plants including barley, beets, cabbage, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, oats, pepper, potato, pumpkin, squash, sweet potato, tomato,  tobacco, and wheat1,2.  It also feeds on many weeds and occasionally other insects2.  Adult females insert eggs into the stems of vegetation2.  Nymphs and adults suck juices from the stems and surfaces of leaves2.  Feeding causes whitish or yellow speckling on the foliage, stunts plant growth, and may cause the death of seedlings2. Nymphs and adults deposit black fecal material that reduces the marketability of vegetables2Halticus bractatus may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Halticus bractatus is widespread in the eastern United States and Canada as far west as the Rocky Mountains1,2.  It is found throughout Central and South America1,2.  It is also present in Hawaii.

Official Control: Halticus bractatus is listed as a harmful organism by Guatemala, Mexico, Japan, and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution Halticus bractatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Halticus bractatus has been intercepted twice by CDFA on outdoor plants from Florida and Ocimum sp. from Hawaii.  Unidentified species of Halticus have also been intercepted twice on plant cuttings and herbs from Hawaii.

The risk Halticus bractatus (garden fleahopper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Halticus bractatus is widespread east of the Rockies from Canada to Argentina. It is likely capable of establishing a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Halticus bractatus is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Halticus bractatus has a high reproductive rate.  Under favorable conditions it can complete a generation in 30 days and each female produces 80-100 eggs.  Despite its polyphagous nature and widespread distribution in the eastern United States it has only been intercepted by CDFA a few times.  This indicates it may not move often in commerce.  Halticus bractatus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Halticus bractatus is not typically a pest of commercial agriculture because it is controlled by insecticides used against more damaging pests2.  If it were to establish in California it is not expected to lower crop yields.  It may reduce the value of nursery stock and fresh vegetables by disfiguring these commodities.  It is also listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and therefore has the potential to disrupt markets.  It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Halticus bractatus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Halticus bractatus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as showy indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  It is not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  It is not expected to trigger new treatment programs in commercial agriculture.  However, in Florida it is a common early season pest in home gardens.  Home/urban gardening may be significantly impacted by this pest and it may trigger new treatment programs in this environment.  Halticus bractatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Halticus bractatus (Garden Leafhopper):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Halticus bractatus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

In the eastern United States Halticus bractatus is attacked by many other organisms including egg and nymph parasitoids, predatory mites, and nematodes2.  It is possible that the bug could be more damaging in California in the absence of these natural enemies.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Halticus bractatus has not been found in California and it is likely to have significant impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Henry, Thomas J. 1983. The Garden Fleahopper Genus Halticus (Hemiptera: Miridae): Resurrection of an Old Name and Key to Species of the Western Hemisphere. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 85(3):607-611. https://research.amnh.org/pbi/library/0332.pdf

2 Capinera, John L. 2014. Common name: garden fleahopper. University of Florida Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/fleahopper.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 24, 2016 and closed on Aug 8, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A 


Posted by ls

Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood): Stellate Scale

5169063-WEB-stellate-scale-by-Charles-Olsen-USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Bugwood

California Pest Rating for
Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood): Stellate Scale
(synonym Vinsonia stellifera)
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ceroplastes stellifer is regularly intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background Ceroplastes stellifer is a polyphagous soft scale insect that feeds on a variety of plants including many crops and ornamentals.  Some of the known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica1), Mangifera sp.1; Apocynaceae: blackboard tree (Alstonia scholaris1), Ervatamia orientalis1, frangipani (Plumeria acutifolia1); Araliaceae: Schefflera sp.1; Arecaceae: coconut (Cocos nucifera1), Cocos sp.1; Aspleniaceae: Asplenium sp.1; Clusiaceae: Clusia sp.1, purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana1), bitter garcinia (Garcinia spicata1), kokum (Garcinia indica1), Garcinia sp.1; Ebenaceae: velvet apple (Diospyros discolor1); Euphorbiaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica1); Lauraceae: camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora1), avocado (Persea americana1); Liliaceae: asparagus fern (Asparagus sprengeri1); Moraceae: Artocarpus integra1, banyan (Ficus benghalensis1), Ficus antimesma1; Musaceae: Musa sp.1; Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp.1, jambos (Eugenia jambos1), jambul (Eugenia jambolana1), water apple (Eugenia aquea1), Eugenia sp.1, java plum (Syzygium cuminii1); Orchidaceae: blood red broughtonia (Broughtonia sanguinea1), Cattleya sp.1, Cypripedium niveum1, fringed star orchid (Epidendrum ciliare1), Epidendrum sp.1, Stanhopea sp.1; Phyllanthaceae: Chinese-laurel (Antidesma bunius1); Polypodiaceae: Adiantum sp.1; Primulaceae: coralberry (Ardisia polycephala1); Rutaceae: grapefruit (Citrus grandis1), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium1), Citrus sp.1, orangeberry (Glycosmis pentaphylla1), Jambolana sp.1; Sapotaceae: sapodilla (Achras sapota1), Lucuma caimito1, Palaquium sp.1; Strelitziaceae: traveller’s palm (Ravenala madagascariensis1); Zingiberaceae: red ginger (Alpinia purpurata1).  The scale has also been found feeding on additional hosts3,4Ceroplastes stellifer may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of Ceroplastes stellifer is uncertain but early records are from the Caribbean1.  It is now widespread in parts of Australia, the Pacific, Africa, Asia, and South America1.  In the United States it is found in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia1.  Interceptions indicate that it may also be present in Hawaii.

Official Control: Ceroplastes stellifer is listed as a harmful organism by China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Mexico (see Vinsonia stellifera) 2.

California Distribution:  Ceroplastes stellifer has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions From 1987 through 2015 Ceroplastes stellifer was intercepted 251 times by CDFA’s high risk programs and dog teams. Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts from Hawaii, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Jamaica, and Florida.

The risk Ceroplastes stellifer (stellate scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The known distribution of Ceroplastes stellifer is primarily tropical and subtropical.  The scale is expected to be able to establish throughout the warmer parts of California and receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ceroplastes stellifer is known to feed on a wide variety of plants in at least 21 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Ceroplastes stellifer receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ceroplastes stellifer is not documented reducing crop yields.  It might reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increase crop production costs in nurseries and orchards.  It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies.  Stellate scale receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ceroplastes stellifer is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to feed on any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Host plants of the scale are common as ornamentals and in home gardens and might be significantly affected by this pest.  Stellate scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ceroplastes stellifer (Stellate Scale): High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ceroplastes stellifer has not been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys for stellate scale.  It could be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ceroplastes stellifer has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/coccidae/Ceroplastesstellifer.htm

http://scalenet.info/validname/Vinsonia/stellifera/

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Scale Insect Fact Sheet: Ceroplastes stillifer (Westwood).  http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6919

4 Hodgson, Chris J. and Ana L.B.G. Peronti. 2012. A revision of the wax scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Ceroplastinae) of the Afrotropical region. Zootaxa 3372: 265pp.  http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2012/3372.html


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 24, 2016 and closed on Aug 8, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley): Magnolia White Scale

web-MagnoliaWhiteScale-byJeffreyLotz-FloridaDeptAg-Bugwood

California Pest Rating for
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley): Magnolia White Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
 Initiating Event:

Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaulacaspis cockerelli is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect that is a pest of many ornamental plants in the nursery industry1.  The scales live on the upper and lower leaf surfaces and green stems of plants2.  Infestations can cause loss of vigor, spots on foliage, deformation of infested plant parts, loss of leaves, and may lead to death of plants2.  Known hosts include: Actinidiaceae: Actinidia spp.3,4; Adoxaceae: Viburnum sp.3,4; Agavaceae: Yucca sp.3; Amaryllidaceae: Agapanthus sp.3,4, Eurycles sp.3,4; Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale3,4, Campnosperma brevipetiolata3,4, Mangifera indica3,4, Mangifera sp.3,4; Annonaceae: Annona squamosa3,4, Artabotrys hexapetutus3, Canangium odoratum3,4; Apocynaceae: Adenium sp.3,4, Allamanda sp.3,4, Alyxia olivaeformis3,4, Calotropis gigantea4; Nerium indicum3,4, Nerium oleander3,4, Nerium sp.3,4, Plumeria acuminata3,4, Plumeria acutifolia3,4, Plumeria sp.3,4, Thevetia peruviana3,4, Trachelospermum asiaticum3,4, Trachelospermum jasminoides3,4, Trachelospermum sp.3,4, Willughbeia sp.3,4; Aquifoliaceae: Ilex cinerea3, Ilex crenata3,4, Ilex integra3,4, Ilex latifolia3,4, Ilex sp.3,4, Ilex viridis3; Araceae: Acorus gramineus3,4, Alocasia sp.3,4, Philodendron sp.3,4; Araliaceae: Fatsia japonica3,4, Hedera canariensis3,4, Hedera helix3,4, Hedera rhombea3,4; Arecaceae: Archontophoenix alexandrae3,4, Areca catechu3,4, Areca sp. 3,4, Arecastrum romanzoffianum3,4, Arenga engleri3,4, Butia capitata3,4, Caryota sp. 3,4, Chamaerops humilis3,4, Chrysalidocarpus dictyospermi3,4, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens3,4, Chrysalidocarpus sp. 3,4, Clinostigma savoryana3,4, Clinostigma sp. 3,4, Cocos nucifera3,4, Cocos sp. 3,4, Corypha elata3,4, Elaeis sp. 3,4, Howeia sp. 3,4, Livistona sp. 3,4, Neodypsis baroni3,4, Nipa fruticans3,4, Phoenix roebelenii3,4, Rhapis humilis3,4, Sabal mexicana3,4, Seaforthia sp. 3,4, Serenoa repens3,4, Trachycarpus sp. 3,4; Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis gigantean3; Asparagaceae: Asparagus sp. 3,4, Dracena sp.4, Yucca sp.4; Asteraceae: Helianthus annuus3,4, Helianthus sp. 3,4, Pyrrhopappus carolinianus3,4; Berberidaceae: Nandina domestica3,4; Bignoniaceae: Tabebuia pentaphylla3,4; Bromeliaceae: Bromelia sp. 3,4, Vriesea sp. 3,4; Burseraceae: Canarium album3; Buxaceae: Buxus sp. 3,4; Cannaceae: Canna generalis3,4; Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum arboricolum3,4; Viburnum awabuki3,4, Viburnum odoratissimum3,4, Weigela sp.3,4; Caricaceae: Carica papaya3,4; Celastraceae: Euonymus sacrosancta3,4, Schaefferia sp. 3,4; Clusiaceae: Calophyllum inophyllum3,4; Combretaceae: Terminalia catappa3,4; Cornaceae: Aucuba japonica3,4, Cornus controversa3,4, Cornus florida3,4; Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum sp. 3,4; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis3,4, Cycas revoluta3,4, Cycas sp. 3,4, Zamia floridana3,4, Zamia sp. 3,4; Daphniphyllaceae: Daphniphyllum sp. 3,4; Ebenaceae: Diospyros lotus3,4, Diospyros sp. 3,4; Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus decipiens3,4, Elaeocarpus photiniaefolius3,4; Ericaceae: Chimaphila maculata3,4, Rhododendron sp. 3,4; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites moluccana3,4, Aleurites sp. 3,4, Bischofia javanica3,4, Daphniphyllum glaucescens3,4, Daphniphyllum macropodum3,4, Daphniphyllum teijsmanni3,4, Euphorbia humistrata3,4, Excoecaria orientalis3,4, Hevea brasiliensis3,4, Hevea sp. 3,4, Jatropha hastata3,4, Sapium sebiferum3,4; Fagaceae: Lithocarpus sp. 3,4; Garryaceae: Aucuba sp. 3,4; Gnetaceae: Gnetum luofuerise3; Hamamelidaceae: Liquidambar formosana3,4; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia sp. 3,4; Hemerocallidaceae: Dianella sp.3; Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus turbinate3; Hydrangeaceae: Deutzia scabra crenata3,4; Iridaceae: Iris sp. 3,4, Moraea bicolor3,4; Lardizabalaceae: Akebia lobata3,4, Akebia quinata3,4, Akebia trifoliate3,4; Lauraceae: Machilus kobu3,4, Persea americana3,4; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia speciose3,4; Liliaceae: Cordyline terminalis3,4, Dianella ensifolia3,4, Dianella montana3,4, Dianella tasmanica3,4, Liriope muscari3,4, Nolina sp. 3,4, Phormium tenax3,4, Sansevieria nilotica3,4, Yucca gloriosa3,4, Yucca recurvifolia3,4; Loganiaceae: Fagraea berteriana3,4; Loranthaceae: Dendrophthoe falcate3, Ettingsh sp.3; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia denudata3,4, Magnolia grandiflora3,4, Magnolia kobus3,4, Magnolia officinalis3,4, Magnolia soulangeana3,4, Magnolia sp. 3,4, Magnolia virginiana3,4, Michelia alba3,4, Michelia champaca3,4, Michelia compressa3,4, Michelia figo3,4, Michelia fuscata3,4, Michelia sp. 3,4, Schizandra chinensis3,4; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp. 3,4; Marantaceae: Clinogyne virgata3,4; Melastomaceae: Melastoma sp. 3,4; Meliaceae: Aglaia odorata3,4; Moraceae: Ficus carica3,4, Ficus microcarpa3, Ficus pumila3,4, Ficus sp. 3,4, Ficus wightiana3,4, Morus alba3,4, Morus sp. 3,4; Musaceae: Musa paradisiaca3,4, Musa sp. 3,4, Strelitzia nicolai3,4, Strelitzia reginae3,4; Myristicaceae: Myristica fragrans3,4, Myristica laurifolia3,4, Myristica moschata3,4, Myristica sp. 3,4; Myrtaceae: Callistemon sp. 3,4, Eugenia3,4, Pimenta officinalis3,4, Syzigium eumini3; Oleaceae: Olea sp. 3,4, Osmanthus fragrans3,4, Syringa amurensis3,4; Pandanaceae: Pandanus odoratissimus3,4; Phyllanthaceae: Bischofia sp. 3,4; Poaceae Bambusa sp. 3,4; Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus nagi3,4;  Polygonaceae: Polygonum spp. 3,4; Pteridophyta: Adiantum sp. 3,4; Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora mangle3,4, Rhizophora sp. 3,4; Rosaceae: Prunus padus3,4; Rubiaceae: Adina rubella3,4, Gardenia jasminoides3,4, Gardenia sp. 3,4, Ixora coccinea3; Ruscaceae: Dracaena sp.3; Rutaceae: Calodendrum spp. 3,4, Citrus sp. 3,4; Sarraceniaceae: Sarracenia purpurea3,4; Saxifragaceae: Deutzia sp. 3,4, Ribes sp. 3,4; Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum3,4; Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis3,4, Strelitzia sp. 3,4; Symplocaceae: Symplocos ramosissima3,4; Taxaceae: Taxus cuspidata3,4, Taxus sp. 3,4, Torreya sp. 3,4; Theaceae: Camellia japonica3,4, Camellia oleifera3,4, Camellia sasanqua3,4, Camellia sinensis3,4, Camellia sp. 3,4, Eurya acuminata3,4, Eurya crenatifolia3,4, Eurya japonica3,4, Eurya strigillosa3,4, Thea sinensis3,4; Trochodendraceae: Trochodendron aralioides3,4; Ulmaceae: Aphananthe sp. 3,4; Verbenaceae: Stachytarpheta jamaicensis3,4; Xanthorrhoeaceae: Dianella sp.4; Uncertain: Zorisma ovalifolia3,4Pseudalacaspis cockerelli may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is probably native to Asia2.  From there it has spread throughout much of the world3,4.  It was first found in Hawaii in 18982 and Florida in 19421.  Within the continental United States it is now considered widespread in the Gulf States and Georgia1.

Official Control: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, and Peru5.

California DistributionPseudaulacaspis cockerelli has not been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsPseudaulacaspis cockerelli is regularly found by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections.  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 the scale was intercepted 2,187 times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida and Hawaii.

The risk Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (magnolia white scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is highly polyphagous and is likely to find suitable hosts throughout California and establish a widespread distribution in the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli feeds on hundreds of species of plants in at least 81 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is likely to reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is also likely to increase production costs by triggering new management programs.  The scale is also considered a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners.  Its presence in the state may disrupt markets for nursery stock and fresh fruit.  Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  The scale insect is also likely to significantly affect many ornamental plantings.  It receives a High (3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Magnolia White Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  Presumably, it enters California at other times undetected.  It is possible that it has been introduced and is established in some localities.  Alternatively, it could be failing to establish.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Hamon, Avas B. 2015. University of Florida Featured Creatures.  Common name: false oleander scale.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/false_oleander_scale.htm

2 Tenbrink, Victoria L. and Arnold H. Hara. 1992.  Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley).  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Type/p_cocker.htm

3 SEL Catalog.

4 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudaulacaspis%20cockerelli/

http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudaulacaspis/cockerelli/

5 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 21, 2016 and closed on Aug 5, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell): Longan Scale

California Pest Rating for
Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell): Longan Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

August 23, 2012 Ron Eng (CDFA) requested a permanent rating for longan scale (Thysanofiorinia nephelii) as follow-up to a find of the Q-rated pest on a longan tree in a nursery in Santa Ana.

History & Status:

Background:  Longan scale is an armored scale insect that is sometimes considered a pest of the tropical fruits longan (Dinocarps longan) and lychee (Litchi chinensis).  In addition to those primary hosts it has also been occasionally recorded on other hosts:  “Kentia sp.” (a palm), “Cassia” (a leguminous tree), Euphorbia longena (a spurge), and Indigofera sp. (a flowering plant) (SEL).  Longan scale may be spread long distances by the movement of infested plants and fruit.

Worldwide Distribution: Longan scale is believed to be native to mainland Asia (India to China) but has invaded Australia, Japan, Taiwan, the Northern Mariana Islands, Brazil, Cuba, Algeria, and Hawaii (sometime before 1932).  It was first detected in Florida, the nation’s leading producer of longan and lychee fruit, in 1996 and considered an emerging pest.  Although it had spread to seven counties by 2007, there were no reports of significant economic damage (Suh et.al. 2007).

Official Control:  Thysanofiorinia nephelii is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  The scale was downgraded to non-actionable by USDA in March 2011.

California Distribution:  Longan scale has never been collected in the environment in California.

California Interceptions This scale was found in regulatory situations by CDFA 164 times between 1992 and August 2012.  The majority of these were interceptions of crawlers (the 1st instar nymphs) on longan and lychee fruit purchased out of state.  The scale has also been found 5 times on trees in nurseries.

The risk Thysanofiorinia nephelii (longan scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Longan scale has not spread beyond southern Florida since it established there. Longan and lychee are only grown in limited areas of Southern California and the scale would probably be restricted to those areas if it were to enter the state.  Longan scale receives a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Longan scale feeds primarily on longan and lychee, two tropical sapindaceous fruit trees in two different genera.  However, it has also been reported on four other hosts in three different plant families.  Longan scale receives a Medium (2) for host range.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates.  Crawlers of longan scale have been intercepted on longan and lychee fruit many times and may be able to disperse through this pathway.  However, fruit would have to be disposed of in close proximity to a host tree.  Adult female longan scales have been detected on trees in nurseries.  This pathway is how the longan scale is thought to have spread within Florida (Suh et. al. 2007) and is the highest risk pathway for spread within California.  Due to its ability to move long distances through nursery stock longan scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California has approximately 23 ha of longan and lychee orchards (Crane et. al. 2005) worth an estimated $500,000 annually.  Additionally, there is a market for longan and lychee nursery stock in Southern California.  Furthermore, discussions on internet forums indicate there is interest among residents in growing more longan and lychee fruit in the state.  However, no major economic damage has been reported from the introduction of this scale to Florida’s industry.  Longan scale is not expected to lower yields on these trees but it could increase production costs in some cases by triggering chemical treatment.  It is presumed that the fruits grown in California are produced for domestic consumption so no export issues are considered.  Longan scale is not known to vector any pathogens, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Longan scale receives a Low (1) for economic impact.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Longan scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  There are no plants listed in California’s threatened and endangered plant list from the genera listed as hosts for the scale (Dinocarps, Litchi, Kentia, Euphorbia, Cassia, or Indigofera).  The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Although the scales are often controlled by natural enemies in Florida they do sometimes reach high populations that require additional treatment programs.  The scale is not expected to significantly change cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Longan scale receives a Medium (2) for environmental impact.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Longan Scale): Medium(9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Longan scale has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium(9)

Uncertainty:

A variety of ants that tend Homoptera, such as longan scale, are abundant in California.  Ants could protect the scales from natural enemies, causing them to reach higher populations more rapidly than in Florida, thereby triggering more chemical treatments.  The market for Asian fruit is expanding in the United States.  Although lychee and longan do not thrive in California at present, changes in technology or the environment could change this in the future.  If lychee and longan production were to expand in California in the future then longan scale may become a more damaging insect.  Furthermore, the possibility exists that longan scale could colonize additional host plants in California.

Longan scale was intercepted in regulatory situations 164 times between 1992 and 2012.  Presumably the scale enters California many additional times and is not intercepted.  Since it has never been found in our environment, it is possible that environmental conditions (such as the lack of humidity) preclude its establishment.  Alternatively, it is possible that the scale is already here and no one has looked for or noticed it.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Evidence suggests that the introduction of Longan Scale would be of low economic consequences to California.  Despite the scale’s invasive nature and ability to travel in international and domestic trade of longan and lychee fruit and nursery stock, there is only one scientific paper in the literature that mentions its pest potential.  It has not had major economic consequences since its detection in Florida in 1996.  The pest has a limited host range and would probably not affect the environment of California, with the exception of possible additional treatments by longan and lychee growers.

Evidence also suggests that the introduction of longan scale to California is highly likely to happen.  It has been detected in regulatory situations many times.  It is likely to survive post-harvest treatments and shipment to California.  Due to the small size of crawlers and immobility of adults it is likely to at least occasionally escape detection by inspectors.  It is capable of living on and spreading through nursery stock and is likely to be introduced to favorable environments for establishment through that pathway.

The scale has never been detected in the environment of California.  Additionally, rare fruit markets are expanding and we do have a small commercial longan and lychee fruit industry that may be affected by the pest.  Therefore, it is recommended that the permanent pest rating be set to “B”.

References:

Crane, J.H., Zee, F., Bender, G.S., Faber, B., Brunner, B. and Chia, C.L. 2005. COMMERCIAL

SAPINDACEOUS FRUIT PRODUCTION IN THE USA. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 665:93-104

http://www.actahort.org/books/665/665_11.htm

Suh, S.J., G. S. Hodges, and A. C. Hodges.  2007.  Notes on the Longan Scale, Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) in Florida.  Florida Entomologist 90(2): 407-409.  http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/75670/73328

SEL:   http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Thysanofiorinianephelii.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 8, 2016 and closed on April 22, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Radionaspis indica (Marlatt) | Mango Scale

California Pest Rating for
Radionaspis indica (Marlatt): Mango Scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Since 2005 Radionaspis indica has been regularly intercepted on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  This scale insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundRadionaspis indica is a monophagous scale insect that feeds on the trunk, branches, and buds of mango trees (Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae)).  Severe infestations can cause cracking of bark, exudation of sap, and decline of branches2Radionaspis indica may rapidly disperse long distances in the trade of infested mango fruit or nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution: Radionaspis indica may be native to India and is also found in Indonesia, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Cape Verde, Senegal, Cuba, the British Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Panama3.  In the United States the scale is found in Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico3.  Regular interceptions of the scale on mangos from Mexico suggest that it is established in that country.

Official Control: Radionaspis indica is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionRadionaspis indica has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 Radionaspis indica was intercepted 69 times on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  It was also intercepted once on papaya.

The risk Radionaspis indica (mango scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Mango trees require warm, dry weather to set fruit. In California the best locations are away from immediate marine influences in the deserts, foothills, and the warmest cove locations of the California Central Valley4,5, 6.  Mango trees are also sometimes grown as ornamental plants in urban environments and are present in the nursery industry.  Radionaspis indica is expected to be able to establish in all of these environments.  It receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Radionaspis indica only feeds on mango and receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Armored scales have high reproductive potential.  Mango fruit is not considered to be a good pathway for dispersal of Radionaspis indica due the limited mobility of female armored scales and crawlers and the species’ limited host range.  However, the scales have high dispersal potential because they are able to disperse long distances rapidly on nursery stock and are able to disperse to any nearby trees by crawling, by wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or other animals.  Radionaspis indica receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California growers produce between 250,000 and 4,000,000 pounds of mango annually6.  This is a high value commodity produced for local sales at specialty markets and demand is increasing6.  California grown mangos are generally produced organically5.  If Radionaspis indica were to enter California and become established in groves it could potentially reduce yields of this crop if heavy infestations cause branch dieback2.  Furthermore, the scale has potential to both lower crop value by disfiguring fruit and nursery stock with its presence and increase production costs by triggering new chemical treatments.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Radionaspis indica is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not expected to feed on any endangered or threatened species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is possible that its entry could trigger new treatment programs in orchards and nurseries and by residents who find infested trees unsightly.  The scale is not expected significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Radionaspis indica (mango scale): Medium(10).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Radionaspis indica has never been found in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium(10)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that sometimes the presence of Radionaspis indica on fruit is indicative of home-grown mangos that have not been produced under commercial phytosanitary safeguards.  Any failure to take action on Radionaspis indica infested fruit may increase the risk of introducing exotic fruit flies and other more damaging pests into California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The impacts of the entry of Radionaspis indica into California are expected to be limited to mango groves, nurseries, and scattered ornamental plantings.  Nevertheless, this scale insect may have significant economic and environmental impacts to this growing industry.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Litz, Richard E.  2009.  The Mango: Botany, Production, and Uses.  CABI.  680pp.  http://books.google.com/books?id=oloEhPYqE8QC&dq=Radionaspis+indica&source=gbs_navlinks_s

2 Peña, Jorge E.  1994.  Update on status of pests of tropical fruit crops in south Florida.  Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 107: 340-342.  http://fshs.org/proceedings-o/1994-vol-107/340-342%20%28PENA%29.pdf

3 Ben-Dov, Y. (2014) ScaleNet, Radionaspis indica. Accessible online at: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Radionaspisindica.htm

4 Grown in California website.  Mango fruit facts page.  http://www.grownincalifornia.com/fruit-facts/mango-facts.html

5 Marks, Michael. 2013.  Mango orchards in California?  San Jose Mercury News.  http://www.mercurynews.com/food-wine/ci_24089949/mango-orchards-california

6 Karp, David.  2014.  Mango madness.  Sunset.  http://www.sunset.com/travel/california/mango-madness


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on January 15, 2016 and closed on February 29 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) | Crapemyrtle Scale

California Pest Rating for
Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana): Crapemyrtle Scale
Synonym: Eriococcus lagerstroemiae
Hemiptera: Eriococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) inquired about California’s position on deregulating Eriococcus lagerstroemiae (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae).  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae is a scale insect that feeds on the branches, twigs, trunk, stems, and leaves of its host-plants1.  It also feeds on the fruit of persimmon1.  Heavy infestations of the scale are not known to be fatal to trees but they do have significant aesthetic impacts that often lead to host removal1.  Layers of the scale on plants lead to extensive honeydew deposits, growth of sooty mold, dieback, decline, and decrease in the number and size of flowers1.   The sooty mold turns trunks, leaves, and twigs charcoal black1.  Known hosts of the scale include: Buxaceae: Korean boxwood (Buxus microphylla koreana2); Combretaceae: axlewood (Anogeiussus latifolia2), Anogeiussus sp.2; Ebenaceae: persimmon (Diospyros kaki2); Euphobiaceae: food wrapper plant (Mallotus japonicas2), needlebush (Glochidion puberum2); Fabaceae: Dalbergia sp.2, soybean (Glycine max2); Lythraceae: crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica2); Japanese crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia japonica2), giant crapemyrtle (Lagerstsoemia flosreginae2); Moraceae: fig (Ficus carica2); Myrtaceae: Myrtus sp.2; Oleaceae: border privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium2); Punicaceae: pomegranate (Punica granatum2); Rosaceae: paradise apple (Malus pumila2); Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sp.1); Rubus sp.; Ulmaceae: Chinese hackberry (Celtis sinensis). The primary hosts are considered to be crapemyrtle, persimmon, Chinese quince, and pomegranate1Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is native to China, India, Japan, South Korea, and possibly Mongolia1.  It was found in Texas in 2004.  Since then it has spread throughout eastern Texas and to four counties in Arkansas, seven in Louisiana, five in Oklahoma, one in Tennessee, one in Virginia, and one in Mississippi1.

Official Control: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.  However, the USDA proposal would keep the scale actionable in Hawaii1.

California DistributionAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae has never been found in California.

California InterceptionsAcanthococcus lagerstroemiae has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Crapemyrtle scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is expected to establish throughout plant hardiness zones 6-101. This corresponds to almost all of California.  Host plants of the scale are grown throughout the state as ornamentals and crops.  Crapemyrtle scale is likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is known to feed on a variety of plants in twelve families, many of which are widely cultivated in California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has 2-4 generations per year and each adult female lays an average of 220 eggs1.  The scales may disperse long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: In Asia Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is the major pest of crapemyrtle trees, and is also a serious pest of pomegranate and persimmon trees.  If this scale insect were to establish in California it is expected to lower yields in pomegranate and persimmon groves.  It is also likely to lower the value of persimmon fruit and all host nursery stock.  Since the USDA has proposed to keep crapemyrtle scale actionable in Hawaii, this scale is also likely to disrupt markets for California fruit and nursery stock if it were to establish in the state.  Crapemyrtle scale is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is very likely to trigger new treatment programs in orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Crapemyrtle, pomegranate, and persimmon trees are common ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Many of the host trees have been removed from areas in Texas where the scale has established1.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Crapemyrtle Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has not been found in California.  The severe aesthetic impacts attributed to infestations of the scale and ease of detection since it is the only bark scale known to occur on crapemyrtle1 make it unlikely that this pest is present anywhere in California.  Crapemyrtle scale receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that this scale could colonize additional host plants in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae has not been found in California and it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Leah. 2015. NPAG Report Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana: crapemyrtle scale.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG).

2 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana).  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/eriococc/Acanthococcuslagerstroemiae.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on January 15, 2016 and closed on February 29 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura) | Taro Planthopper

California Pest Rating for
Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura): Taro Planthopper
Hemiptera: Delphacidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:  

Tarophagus colocasiae is commonly intercepted by California’s high risk programs.  This planthopper is currently assigned a temporary rating of “Q” and is therefore in need of a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundTarophagus colocasiae is a planthopper that is considered a serious pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta)1.  The planthopper feeds by sucking sap and/or xylem from the plant tissue1.  Feeding produces honeydew, sooty mold, and necrotic areas on leaves and discoloration of bark on stems1.  Heavy infestations may cause stunting and/or wilting of the taro plants.  Taro planthopper is also reported to vector alomae and bobone diseases, which are caused by rhabdoviruses, between taro plants.  The planthopper may spread long distances by the movement of infested taro plants, leaves, or roots.

Worldwide Distribution: Tarophagus colocasiae is widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands1.  It has been present in Hawaii since at least 1930.  The planthopper was confirmed to be present in Florida in June 2015 and is likely established in both Jamaica and Cuba4.

Official Control: Tarophagus colocasiae is not listed as a quarantine pest by any other states or nations2.  However, Tarophagus proserpina is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan and Korea and that species may be a synonym of T. colocasiae.

California DistributionTarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and January 6, 2015, Tarophagus colocasiae was intercepted 133 times on consignments from Hawaii.  127 of the interceptions were on taro.  The remainder were on betel leaf (1), ginger (1), galanga (2), and sweet potato (2).

The risk Tarophagus colocasiae (taro planthopper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Taro grows in USDA plant hardiness zones 8 through 11 and is grown in gardens and small-scale commercial farms in Fresno and Sacramento California3. Tarophagus colocasiae is expected to be able to establish wherever these plants are grown.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Tarophagus colocasiae is only known to feed on taro and related aroids.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Taro planthoppers may be moved long distances when infested taro plants, leaves, or roots are moved.  However, their wings do not fully develop and they are not considered to be good fliers.  Planthoppers have high reproductive rates.  Tarophagus colocasiae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Tarophagus colocasiae were to establish in California it would be likely to lower the yield of commercial taro farms and gardens.  The planthopper would also be likely to increase crop production costs.  Taro leafhopper may also vector diseases between taro plants.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Tarophagus colocasiae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Taro planthopper is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The planthopper may trigger additional treatment programs by gardeners and growers of commercial taro.  The planthopper may also significantly impact taro plants in home/urban gardens.  Taro planthopper receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Tarophagus colocasiae (Taro Planthopper):  Medium(12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Tarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(12)

Uncertainty:

Tarophagus colocasiae is frequently intercepted.  Presumably, the planthopper sometimes escapes detection and enters California.  There have not been any formal surveys for the pest in the state, so it is possible that it may have established in some locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Tarophagus colocasiae has never been found in the environment of California.  However, if it were to enter the state economic and environmental impacts would be limited to taro plants in home gardens and small-scale commercial farms.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1CABI Plantwise Knowledge Bank.  http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=52786

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3Robinson, Ramona and Cara Allen.  2014.  Taro root (Colocasia escuelenta) reported naturalizing in California.  California Department of Parks and Recreation.  http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/pdf/2014/Poster2014_Robison.pdf

4 Halbert, Susan E. and Charles R. Bartlett. The taro planthopper, Tarophagus colocasiae (Matsumura), a new delphacid planthopper in Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Pest Alert.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Plant-Industry/Plant-Industry-Publications/Pest-Alerts/Tarophagus-colocasiae


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on January 15, 2016 and closed on February 29 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams: Waratah Scale

California Pest Rating for
Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams: Waratah Scale1
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is commonly intercepted by California’s high risk programs and occasionally by dog teams.  This armored scale insect is currently assigned a temporary rating of “Q” and is therefore in need of a permanent pest rating.

 History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is an armored scale insect that typically feeds on the underside of host plant leaves.  It is considered a minor pest of macadamia nut production and ornamental proteas1.  Known hosts include Agavaceae:  cabbage tree (Cordyline australis1), mountain cabbage tree (Cordyline indivisa1); Iridaceae: New Zealand iris (Libertia ixioides1), Libertia sp.1; Proteaceae: Chilean firetree (Embothrium coccineum1), Leucadendron sp.4, Leucospermum sp.4, river lomatia (Lomatia myricoides1), Macadamia sp.1,2, king protea (Protea cynaroides4), oleanderleaf protea (Protea nerifolia1), Protea protea4, Protea sp.4, Gippsland waratah (Telopea oreades1), waratah (Telopea speciosissima1,2), Telopea sp.1; Rutaceae: wharangi (Melicope ternata1); Xanthorrhoeaceae: New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax4).

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is native to Australia2.  From there it has spread to New Zealand2 and has been found in greenhouses in Europe3.  Interceptions also show that it is present in some plant nurseries and cut flower production sites in Hawaii.

Official Control: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, all species of Pseudaulacaspis are listed as quarantine pests by Japan and the Republic of Korea5.

California DistributionPseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between November 24, 2004 and January 5, 2015 Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei was intercepted 86 times on shipments of cut flowers and nursery stock from Hawaii.

The risk Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei (waratah scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

 Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei are commonly grown as ornamentals in coastal and southern California. The scale is expected to be able to establish wherever these are grown. Waratah scale receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is known to feed on 18 species of plants in 5 families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has demonstrated a propensity to spread long distances on cut flowers and nursery stock.  Crawlers may also spread locally by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or other animals.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is considered a minor pest of macadamia nut production and ornamental proteas1.  There are a few commercial growers of macadamia nuts in southern California who may find their yields reduced by this insect.  Proteas are also common in the nursery industry and growers may find their yields reduced as unsightly infested plants may be destroyed.  The establishment of waratah scale in California may also increase crop production costs by both macadamia nut and protea producers.  California producers of cut flowers and nursery stock may experience disruptions in trade as both Japan and Korea consider species of Pseudaulacaspis quarantine pests5.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt any critical habitats.  Waratah scale may trigger new private treatment programs by producers of macadamia nuts and ornamental proteas and by residents who find infested ornamental plants unsightly.  Proteas are common ornamental plants and could be significantly impacted by this insect.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei (Waratah scale):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Recent surveys for mealybugs on proteas growing in the environment of coastal and southern California would have been likely to detect populations of Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei but did not find the insect.  Nevertheless, based on the large number of interceptions it is likely that some of the scale insects remained undetected and entered California.  It is possible that some of these scales could have established in limited areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California and is likely to have significant economic impacts to the nursery, cut flower, and macadamia nut industries in California.  Waratah scale may also have significant environmental impacts by triggering new chemical treatments and damaging ornamental plantings.  An “A” rating is justified.

 References:

1SEL Catalog query results:  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pseudaulacaspisbrimblecombei.htm

2Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudaulacaspis/brimblecombei/

3Malumphy, C. and A.J. Halstead.  2012.  First incursions in Europe of four Australasian species of armoured scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).  British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 25(4): 193-197.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/20123419544

4California Department of Food & Agriculture Pest Detection Record Database

5USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale

California Pest Rating for
Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis uniloba is occasionally intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis uniloba is an armored scale insect that feeds on a variety of plants.  Known hosts include: Apocynaceae: Alyxia sp1,2, maile (Alyxia olivaeformis1,2); Fabaceae: Bauhinia racemosa1,2; Magnoliaceae: Michelia sp.1,2; Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.1,2, sweet olive (Osmanthus fragrans1,2), fortune’s tea olive (Osmanthus fortunei1,2); Rutaceae: bael fruit (Aegle marmelos1,2); Theaceae: Adinandra sp.1,2, Adinandra milletti1,2, Adinandra ryukyuensis2, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica1,2), Cleyera japonica1,2, Cleyera ochnacea1,2, Eurya japonica1,2, Thea japonica1,2Pinnaspis uniloba may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis uniloba is probably native to Asia.  It has been reported in China1,2, India1,2, Japan1,2, and South Korea2.  From there it has spread to the Hawaiian Islands.

Official Control: Pinnaspis uniloba is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.

California DistributionPinnaspis uniloba has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsPinnaspis uniloba has been intercepted 92 times on plants and fresh plant material from Hawaii.  Many of these interceptions have occurred on Maile (Alyxia sp.) leaf leis.

The risk Pinnaspis uniloba (unilobed scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

Climate/Host Interaction: A few of the host plants of Pinnaspis uniloba are widely grown as ornamentals in California and the scale may be expected to establish everywhere they are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis uniloba is known to feed on 16 species of plants in six families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Pinnaspis uniloba has only one generation per year.  Armored scales may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved and may be dispersed locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of some nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested ornamentals unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis uniloba (Unilobed Scale):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis uniloba is currently not known to be present anywhere in North or South America.  It is possible that some states or nations could impose new trade restrictions if it were to become abundant in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California.  It is expected to have limited impacts if it were to enter the state.  The scale is most often intercepted on leis and, because of its limited host range, is unlikely to encounter suitable host material when it enters the state via this pathway.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pinnaspis/uniloba/

2 SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisuniloba.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls