Tag Archives: Hemiptera: Diaspididae

Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell

California Pest Rating for
Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Poliaspis media has recently been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego counties and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Poliaspis media is a polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on the undersides of leaves of host plants1.  The scale insect’s feeding induces galls on some host plants1.  Some of the known hosts are: Achariaceae: Melicytus alpinus1; Aizoaceae: Disphyma australe1; Araliaceae: Raukaua anomalus1; Asteliaceae: Astelia fragrans1; Asteraceae: Craspedia sp.1, Ozothamnus sp.1, Sonchus sp.1; Brassicaceae: Streptanthus sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas revoluta1; Ericaceae: Acrothamnus colensoi1, Cyathodes sp.1, Dracophyllum latifolium1, Dracophyllum lessonianum1, Dracophyllum oliveri1, Dracophyllum recurvum1, Dracophyllum sp.1, Dracophyllum traversii1, Leptecophylla juniperina1, Leucopogon fraseri1, Leucopogon sp.1, Pentachondra pumila1; Gaultheria depressa1, Gaultheria rupestris1, Gaultheria sp.1; Myrtaceae: Leptospermum scoparium1; Orchidaceae: Orchidaceae sp.1; Plantaginaceae: Veronica decumbens1, Veronica elliptica1, Veronica hulkeana1, Veronica macrantha1, Veronica pentasepala1, Veronica subalpina1, Veronica venustula1; Podocarpaceae: Lepidothamnus laxifolius1; Primulaceae: Myrsine australis1, Myrsine divaricata1, Myrsine salicina1, Samolus repens1; Ranunculaceae: Clematis afoliata1; Restionaceae: Emposidisma minus1; Rubiaceae: Coprosma arborea1, Coprosma chathamica1, Coprosma cheesemanii1, Coprosma depressa1, Coprosma propinqua1, Coprosma pumila1, Coprosma rhamnoides1, Coprosma robusta1, Coprosma rubra1, Coprosma sp.1, Coprosma spathulata1, Coprosma tenuifolia1, Coprosma virescens1; Rutaceae: Leionema nudum1; Santalaceae: Exocarpos bidwillii1; Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea prostrata1, Pimelea urvilleana1; Zamiaceae: Dioon edule1Poliaspis media may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Poliaspis media was described from specimens collected in New Zealand before 1880, but it may be native to Asia1,2.  It has been found in New Zealand, Fiji, India, Greece, the United Kingdom, and the United States1.  It was first found in Florida in 20072.

Official Control: Poliaspis media is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution Poliaspis media was collected in the environment of California at a residence in Tustin (Orange County) in 1999 and at a residence in Villa Park (Orange County) in 2016 and again in 2017.  It was found at a park in San Diego County in 2018.

California Interceptions Since 1993, samples of Poliaspis media have been collected 22 times in inspections of nurseries in San Diego, Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties.  The scale insects were also intercepted once on a shipment of sago palms (Cycas revoluta) from Florida.

The risk Poliaspis media (cycad poliaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Poliaspis media is established in nations with Mediterranean climates similar to much of California and it is expected to establish a widespread distribution here. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Poliaspis media is known to feed on a variety of plants in 21 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and could potentially disrupt markets for nursery stock and other fresh plant material.  Poliaspis media receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Cycads are high value, slow-growing ornamental plants that are popular in California and may be significantly impacted by this insect.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Poliaspis media (Cycad Poliaspis Scale):  High (14) 

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Poliaspis media is only known to be established in the environment of Orange County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Over the course of 20 years, Poliaspis media has been found multiple times in nurseries in California but it has only been intercepted coming into the state once.  It has been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego Counties.  There have been no recent formal surveys for this pest.  It is possible that this scale insect is more widely established in the environment of Southern California and is infesting nurseries locally.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Poliaspis media has been established in the environment of Orange County for several years, was recently found in San Diego County, and is not under official control.  It is expected to have significant impacts on the nursery industry and ornamental plantings as it expands its distribution in the state.  A “B” rating is justified.


References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Poliaspis%20media/

2 Hodges, Greg and W.N. Dixon. 2007.  The Poliaspis Cycad Scale Poliaspis cycadis Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): A new exotic scale insect for Florida.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/68154/1612633/Pest_Alert_-_Poliaspis_cycadis,_The_Poliaspis_Cycad_Scale.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B

 


Posted by ls

Armored Scale | Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)

California Pest Rating for
Armored scale |  Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Melanaspis leivasi was found on Florida stranger fig (Ficus aurea Nutt.) at a residence in West Palm Beach by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Resources and identified by USDA APHIS on 11/9/2017 (USDA/APHIS/PPQ, 2017). This is the first domestic record for this pest in the United States. In California, it currently has a “Q” rating.  Due to its potential economic and environmental impacts, a permanent rating is proposed

History & Status:

Background:  Melanaspis is a genus of armored scales that includes 64 described species, of which M. leivasi is the largest, adult females measuring up to 2.4 millimeters in length (Deitz and Davidson, 1986).  Melanaspis leivasi has been associated with Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae), Bursera sp. (Burseraceae), Ficus sp. (Moraceae), and Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) (Claps et al., 1999; Garcia Morales et al., 2016).

Worldwide Distribution:  Melanaspis leivasi is reported from South America (Brazil and Colombia), Central America (Guatemala and Panama), and Mexico. This species is not known to occur in the continental United States (Garcia Morales et al., 2016).

Official Control: Melanaspis leivasi is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Melanaspis leivasi is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Melanaspis leivasi has been intercepted three times in California; all three interceptions were in San Diego on tropical apricot (Mammea americana) from Mexico.

The risk Melanaspis leivasi would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Of the four genera of plants that M. leivasi has been associated with, only Vitis is widely distributed in California. The family Anacardiaceae contains other genera in California that could possibly serve as host plants.  Because of the apparent restriction to a tropical or subtropical climate, it appears unlikely that M. leivasi could become established in more than a limited portion of California. Therefore, Melanaspis leivasi receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Melanaspis leivasi has been associated with four families of plants: Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, and Vitaceae (Garcia Morales et al., 2016). Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Natural dispersal in diaspidids is limited, because adult females do not fly.  They can, however, be artificially dispersed via movement of infested plant material.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: There is little information available on the biology of Melanaspis leivasi.  The genus Melanaspis includes several pest species.  Some species are pests in their native range.  One, M. deklei, is not known to be a pest in its native range, but became a pest of ornamental wax myrtle trees in South Carolina after it was introduced there (Chong et al., 2009).  It is possible that M. leivasi could become an agricultural pest of grapes in California if it became established here; if so, this could lower crop yield, increase production costs, and negatively change normal cultural practices.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The genus Melanaspis has a demonstrated pest potential, as several species are economic pests. In addition, M. leivasi apparently feeds on at least four families of plants; some of these families include species native to California.  Three members of the Anacardiaceae, Rhus ovata, R. ovatifolia, and Malosma laurina, are prominent or dominant members of shrub-dominated communities in southern California. If this pest were to attack these species and reduce their fitness, then it could cause modification of habitat types including coastal strand, southern sagebrush scrub, sumac scrub, and various types of chaparral. As these plant communities serve as habitat for the federally endangered Least Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), then this pest could indirectly affect this endangered species.   Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Melanaspis leivasi: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Melanaspis leivasi is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There is significant uncertainty.  Little information is available on the biology of M. leivasi.  For example, the breadth of its feeding habits is apparently broad, but this is based on a small number of literature records.  It is possible that it would feed on a far wider range of host plants. It is also possible that M. leivasi would not be capable of becoming established in California because it requires a tropical climate, although there are areas of subtropical climate in southern California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Melanaspis leivasi is a scale insect with apparently broad feeding habits.  It is possible that it could become established in California.  This species belongs to a genus with several economic pests, and it is not known to be present in California.  However, if this species gets established in California, it could cause significant economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Chong, J.-H., Hodges, G.S., and M. Samuel-Foo.  2009.  First record and management of the armored scale, Melanaspis deklei Dietz & Davidson (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in South Carolina.  Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology.  26(2): 63-75.

Claps, L.E., Wolff, V.R.S, and R.H. González.  1999.  Catálogo de las especies de Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoides) nativas de Argentina, Brasil y Chile.  Insecta Mundi.  13(3-4): 239-256.

Deitz, L.L. and J.A.  Davidson.  1986.  Synopsis of the armored scale genus Melanaspis in North America (Homoptera: Diaspididae). North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin No. 279.  92 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. 2016.  ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info.  Accessed 15 November 2017

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Melanaspis%20leivasi/

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed 15 November 2017.

http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

USDA/APHIS/PPQ 2017. PestID record APEMD173124536001


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

12/12/17 – 1/26/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan): Rufous scale

California Pest Rating for
Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan): Rufous scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Selenaspidus articulatus is frequently intercepted by CDFA. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

 History & Status:

Background: Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale), also called the West Indies scale, is considered as a serious pest of certain citrus producing areas of South America, West Indies and coastal regions of Peru2.

Rufous scale is a highly polyphagous species that can feed on vegetative growth, flowers, fruits and post-harvest stages of its host plants. Species of Citrus are favored hosts of this pest, but it also feeds on members from the families Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Palmae. Known hosts include Acalypha, Anacardium, Annona spp., Antidesma, Ardisia, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Arundinaria, Averrhoa spp., Barringtonia, Bauhinia, Bignonia, Brunfelsia, Calathea, Calea, Calophyllum, Camellia sinensis (tea),  Carissa, Cassia, Celastrus, Ceratonia, Chrysalidocarpus, Chrysophyllum, Cladoxylon, Cocos nucifera, Codiaeum, Cordyline, Croton, Cycas,Cyperaceae, Decaspermum, Dictyosperma, Dovyalis, Dracaena, Elaeis,Eriobotrya, Eucalyptus, Eugenia, Excoecaria, Ficus, Fortunella,Furcraea, Garcinia, Gardenia, Gliricidia, Hedera, Hedychium, Hevea brasiliensis, Hibiscus, Howea, Hyphaene, Ixora, Jacquemontia, Jasminum, Lagerstroemia, Lantana, Ligustrum, Litchi chinensis, Lonchocarpus, Maclura, Magnolia, Malachra, Mammea, Mangifera indica, Olea europaea, Palmae, Pandanus, Passiflora edulis, Persea americana, Phaseolus, Phoenix dactylifera,Pilea, Plumeria, Rosa, Saccharum officinarum, Sambucus, Schinus, Spondias, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Tambourissa, Tecoma, Theobroma, Thespesia,Tricalysia, Vitis vinifera, Washingtonia and Xanthosoma sagittifolium2.

Rufous scale damages both sides of the leaves, but mostly the upper surface exposed to the sun. The damage is caused by sap-depletion, and through injection of toxic saliva, which causes chlorosis and death of plant tissue in the area of penetration. Parasitism is the most successful technique to control this scale2.

Worldwide Distribution: Rufous scale is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It spread through many of the citrus growing countries including Peru, Jamaica, Montserrat, Philippines, Panama, Nicaragua, Solomon Islands, Mozambique, Trinidad and Tobago, Mexico, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Togo, Uganda, United Kingdom, Mauritius, Tanzania, Comoros, Grenada, Martinique, Australia, Barbados, Brazil, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Kenya, Chad, Madagascar, Eritrea, French Guiana, and Fiji Island3.

In the United States it can be found in Florida and the Virgin Islands.

Official Control: Rufous scale has been listed as a harmful Organism by 11 nations including China, Japan, Paraguay, Guatemala, Venezuela, Chile, India, New Zealand, Vietnam, Republic of Korea and Republic of Bolivia5.

California Distribution: Rufous Scale has never found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Rufous scale has been intercepted multiple times by CDFA’s border stations and nursery regulatory inspections. Interceptions were typically on plants or plant material imported from South American countries.

The risk Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Rufous scale are grown throughout California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Rufous scale is a highly polyphagous species that has been recorded from hosts belonging to 60 genera in 31 plant families4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Rufous scale females produce large number of eggs (71-124 each) and can be easily transported with the movement of infested plant material. It receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

3) Economic Impact: Rufous scale is mainly a pest of citrus but also has the potential to devastate California grape, avocado and olive industry. It is listed as a damaging pest by several nations so it has the potential to trigger a loss of markets. Furthermore, it may increase production costs in citrus and in nursery industries as growers may treat to ensure fruit or plant cleanliness It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Rufous scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It could affect threatened and endangered species such as Wiggins’ croton

(Croton wigginsii) and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia); it would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats. It is very likely to trigger new treatment programs in citrus, olive & avocado orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It may also significantly impact ornamental plantings. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: C, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale):  High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Rufous scale has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There are no surveys done recently for the detection. Since most of the host plants are grown throughout California, it could easily spread and get established in the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Rufous scale has never been found in California and might cause significant economic and environmental impacts if this pest were to get established in California. Currently, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

1DISCOVERIES IN NATURAL HISTORY & EXPLORATION UCR website. Accessed on 11-15-16. http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biotact/ch-95.htm

2Davidson, J.A. and D.R. Miller, 1990. Ornamental plants. In: D. Rosen (ed.), armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4B. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 603-632 http://wbd.etibioinformatics.nl/bis/diaspididae.php?menuentry=soorten&id=175

3Biological Records Centre: Global Species : Accessed on 11-15-16 http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/385773

4USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 11-15-16. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

 Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Howardia biclavis (mining scale)

5119004-mining-scale(Howardia-biclavis)
California Pest Rating for
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Howardia biclavis has an internal CDFA rating of A.
A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Howardia biclavis is an armored scale insect. It reproduces parthenogenetically without males 2. The number of days for each developmental stage and number of generations per year depend on temperature, humidity and rain fall 3. Howardia biclavis completes its life cycle in 30 days. It infests the bark, leaves and fruit of the host plant by burrowing beneath the epidermal layer. It has a wide host range covering 68 families (194 genera). Recorded hosts include acacia, allamanda, bougainvillea, cassia, fig, ebony, gardenia, hibiscus, ixora, jasmine, kelumpang, lantana, lychee, mango, papaya, plumeria, poinsettia, pulasan, sapodilla, and sapote 4.

Worldwide Distribution: Howardia biclavis is thought to be originated in the New World tropics 7 or Africa 8. It is now found worldwide and has been reported in 71 countries 4. In the Unites States, it was first recorded at Kona, Hawaii in 1895 by Maskell 1.

Official Control: Howardia biclavis has been listed as a harmful organism by Chile, French Polynasia, Republic of Korea, Mexico and Taiwan 5.

California Distribution:  Howardia biclavis was found in California Nurseries prior to 1950 and was eradicated by 1956. It was eradicated subsequently whenever found 9. Based on CDFA pest and damage records database, it has not been detected in California’s natural or agricultural environment between January 2000 through August 2016 10.

California Interceptions:  Howardia biclavis has been intercepted multiple times through border station inspections, dog teams and high risk pest exclusion activities. Between January 2000 and August 2016, it has been intercepted 116 times 10.

The risk Howardia biclavis (Mining scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Howardia biclavis are grown throughout California and this presents the possibility of rapid spread and establishment of this pest within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Howardia biclavis is highly polyphagous and its host range includes 68 plant families covering 194 genera of plants 4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Howardia biclavis reproduces parthenogenetically and completes its life cycle in 30 days. The crawler stage of this insect can be easily transported by people, animals, birds, ants and wind currents. Wind also acts as a dispersal agent. Long distance dispersal happens by passive transport of infested material and short distance dispersal occurs when crawlers search out places to settle and feed. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Howardia biclavis is expected to lower crop value because it feeds on plant juices and causes loss of vigor, deformation of infested plant parts, loss of leaves and sometimes death of plants. As armored scale are chiefly spread by movement of nursery stock, possibly resulting in quarantine triggers and loss of markets for California grown nursery stock. Mining scale has been reported as an economic pests of woody ornamentals in Florida. It is considered a serious world pest. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Howardia biclavis causes deformation of infested plants. Growers can find the infested plants unsightly. This would significantly impact cultural practices, urban gardening and ornamental plantings. Growers would need additional residential pesticide treatments if it were to infest the urban and ornamental plant environment. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Mining Scale:  High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Howardia biclavis has not been found and established in natural environment of California. Therefore, it receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (15)

Uncertainty:

Howardia biclavis has been intercepted many times by CDFA. There is a possibility that it may have entered the State and gone undetected. If it goes undetected, there is a good possibility that it will establish on its wide host range.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Howardia biclavis has been found in nurseries in California in the 1950’s and was eradicated. It has not been found in the natural environment in the last 15 years, but if it were to become established in the State, there would be significant economic and environmental impacts. Based on all the above evidence presented, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Tenbrink, Victoria L. and Hara, Arnold H. 1992. Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master: Howardia biclavis (Comstock). Accessed: 9/28/2016
http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/h_biclav.htm

Brown, S.W. 1965. Chromosomal survey of the armored and palm scale insects (Coccoidea: Diaspididae and Phoenicococcidae) Hilgardia 36: 189-294.

Beardsley, J. W. Jr. & R. H. Gonzalez. 1975. The biology and ecology of armored scales. Annual Review of Entomology 20: 47-73.

Scale net database: Howardia biclavis (Comstock), Accessed 9/30/2016
http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Howardia%20biclavis/

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT): Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD), Accessed 9/28/2016
https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/PExDReport.jsp

Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests, Accessed 9/30/2016
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/27709

Miller, D.R. Davidson, J.A. 2005 Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs. Cornell University Press. xiv + 442 pp.

Watson, G.W. 2002 Arthropods of Economic Importance: Diaspididae of the World: Howardia biclavis (mining scale), Accessed 9/29/2016
http://wbd.etibioinformatics.nl/bis/diaspididae.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=128

Gill, Raymond J. 1997: The Scale Insects of California: Part 3: The Armored Scales (Homoptera Diaspididae). California Department of Food and Agriculture, Technical Series in Agricultural Biosystematics and Plant Pathology, 3: 307 pp. https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/Technical_Series_03.pdf

10 Pest and Damage Report Database: Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture: Accessed 9/30/2016


Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Nov 2 – Dec 17, 2016


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Fiorinia externa Ferris: Elongate Hemlock Scale

1122010-ElongateHemlockScale-byEricDay-VirginiaPolytech-bugwood-web
California Pest Rating for
Fiorinia externa Ferris:  Elongate Hemlock Scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Fiorinia externa is often intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundFiorinia externa is an armored scale insect that is considered to be a pest of ornamental and forest conifers1.  These insects overwinter as mated females or eggs1.  Females begin laying eggs within their waxy covers in early spring1.  As eggs hatch, crawlers disperse to other needles on the same plant where they settle on the underside1.  There they insert their mouthparts and feed1.  They reach maturity in 7-8 weeks in Pennsylvania1.  Feeding causes needles to develop yellow banding and drop prematurely1.  This damage causes foliage to appear thin and weakens the trees, making them vulnerable to secondary invaders1.  Known hosts include 43 species2 including: CupressaceaeBiota orientalis5, Juniperus chinensis5 (Chinese juniper), Juniperus rigida5 (temple juniper); PinaceaeAbies spp.1,3 (firs), Cedrus spp.1 (cedars), Picea spp.1,3 (spruces), Pinus spp.1,3 (pines), Pseudotsuga menziesii1,3 (douglas fir), Tsuga canadensis1,2 (eastern hemlock), T. caroliniana1,2 (Carolina hemlock), and Tsuga diversifolia (northern Japanese hemlock); Taxaceae: Taxus spp.1 (yews).   Fiorinia externa may be carried long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Fiorinia externa is native to Japan1,2 and is also found in China5.  It was first found in New York in 19081 and has since been found in Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.  Interceptions by CDFA also indicate that the scale is also established in North Carolina.

Official Control: Neither Fiorinia externa nor Fiorinia spp. are known to be under official control by any other states or nations4.

California DistributionFiorinia externa has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsFiorinia externa was intercepted 97 times between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 by CDFA’s high risk inspections, dog teams, and other quarantine programs.  Most of the interceptions have been on fraser fir (Abies fraseri) from North Carolina.

The risk Fiorinia externa (elongate hemlock scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Species of Abies, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Taxus, and Tsuga are native to the forests of California and are grown as ornamentals. Fiorinia externa is likely to establish wherever these host plants are grown.  Elongate hemlock scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Fiorinia externa is known to feed on 43 species of plants in 9 genera in three plant families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female elongate hemlock scales produce an average of 20 eggs during their lifetime and a generation may be completed every seven to eight weeks during the growing season1.  Crawlers typically remain on the same plant but may be dispersed long distances by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.  They may also be carried long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  Elongate hemlock scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Fiorinia externa were to enter California it is likely that the scale would lead to lower yields and increased production costs in managed forests, Christmas tree farms, and in the nursery industry.  The scale is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Elongate hemlock scale receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Fiorinia externa in California would be likely to disrupt natural communities, as it infests forests and increases the susceptibility of trees to other pests and diseases.  The scale is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Elongate scale insect is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in managed forests, Christmas tree farms, and the nursery industry.  The scale is also likely to significantly impact cultural practices and ornamental plantings.  Fiorinia externa receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Fiorinia externa (elongate hemlock scale): High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Fiorinia externa has never been found in the environment and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Impacts on forests may potentially be more significant than loss of trees.  Stands of dead trees may affect the rate of runoff and water supplies and could affect the stability of mountain and canyon slopes.  There have not been any recent formal surveys of the scales of conifers in California.  It is possible that Fiorinia externa could be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Hoover, Gregory A. 2009. Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) Fact Sheet.  Pennsylvania State University.  http://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/elongate-hemlock-scale

2 McClure, Mark S.  Pest Alert: Elongate Hemlock Scale.  USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area NA-PR-01-02  http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/pest_al/ehscale/ehscale.htm

3 Elongate Hemlock Scale Fiorinia externa Ferris.  PSU Christmas Tree Pest Fact Sheets.  http://extension.psu.edu/pests/ipm/agriculture/christmas-tree/pest-fact-sheets/needle-discoloration-and-injury/elongate-hemlock-scale.pdf

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 SEL Catalog Query results for Fiorinia externa Ferris.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Fioriniaexterna.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

10/13/2016 – 11/27/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls 

Boxwood Scale | Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche)

California Pest Rating for
Pinnaspis buxi (Bouché): Boxwood Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis buxi is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis buxi is a widespread, polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on a wide variety of hosts.  Known hosts include Apocynaceae: Nerium odorum1,2; Aquifoliaceae: Ilex vomitoria1,2; Araceae: Aglaonema philippinensis1,2, Alocasia sp.1,2, Anthurium magnificum1,2, Anthurium crystallinum1,2, Anthurium grandi1,2, Anubias sp.1,2, Colocasia esculenta1,2, Epipremnum sp.1,2, Homalomena philippinensis1,2, Monstera deliciosa1,2, Monstera sp.1,2, Philodendron sp.1,2, Philodendron pertusum1,2, Pothos seemanii1,2, Rhodospatha sp.1,2, Scindapsus sp.1,2, Scindapsus aureus1,2, Spathiphyllum sp.1,2; Arecaceae: Acrocomia sp.1,2, Acrocomia media1,2, Areca lutescens1,2, Areca catechu1,2, Areca sp.1,2, Calamus sp.1,2, Chamaerops sp.1,2, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens1,2, Cocos nucifera1,2, Daemonorops lewisianus1,2, Dictyosperma sp.1,2, Dictyosperma album1,2, Howeia forsteriana1,2, Howeia belmoreana1,2, Licuala grandis1,2, Neodypsis1,2, Phoenix sp.1,2, Pinanga kuhlii1,2, Raphia sp.1,2, Rhapis sp.1,2, Tachycarpus sp.1,2, Thrinax excelsa1,2, Trachycarpus sp.1,2, Veitchia joannis1,2; Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum morifolium1,2; Bromeliaceae: Tillandsia sp.1,2, Vriesea polonia1,2; Burseraceae: Canarium commune1,2; Buxaceae: Buxus sp.1,2, Buxus sempervirens1,2; Celastraceae: Siphonodon celastrineus1,2; Cucurbitaceae: Momordica charantia1,2, Momordica sp.1,2; Cupressaceae: Cunninghamia sp.1; Cyperaceae: Cyperus alternifolius1,2; Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.1,2, Diospyros oleoides1,2; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites montana1,2, Hevea brasiliensis1,2; Fabaceae: Cassia fistula1,2, Hardwickia binata1,2, Inocarpus fagifer1,2, Kentia sp.1,2, Phaseolus vulgaris1,2, Tamarindus indica1,2; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia bihai1,2, Heliconia sp.1,2; Iridaceae: Dietes bicolor2, Moraea bicolor1; Juncaceae: Prinonium sp.1,2; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia edulis1,2; Liliaceae: Aloe sp.1,2, Cordyline terminalis1,2, Cordyline fruticosa1,2, Dracaena sp.1,2; Lythraceae: Punica granatum1; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia glandiflora1,2, Michelia chambaka1,2; Malvaceae: Gossypium barbadense1,2, Hibiscus arnottianus1,2, Hibiscus sp.1,2, Sida sp.2, Theobroma cacao1; Marantaceae: Maranta sp.1,2; Meliaceae: Dysoxylum sp.2, Sandoricum sp.1,2, Trichilia sp.1,2; Moraceae: Artocarpus integrifolia1,2, Artocarpus heterophyllus1,2, Ficus glomerata1,2; Musaceae: Musa sp.1,2; Ochnaceae: Schuurmansia sp.1,2; Oleaceae: Olea cuspidata1,2, Olea sp.1,2; Orchidaceae: Dendrobium sp.1,2, Epidendrum sp.1,2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus sp.1,2, Pandanus conideus1,2, Pandanus hornei1,2, Pandanus odoratissimus1,2, Pandanus seychellarum1,2, Pandanus upoluensis1,2, Pandanus utilis1,2; Pinaceae: Pinus sp.1,2; Piperaceae: Piper sp.1,2; Polypodiaceae: Asplenium sp.1,2; Proteaceae: Helicia sp.1,2; Pteridaceae: Adiantum aethiopicum1,2; Rubiaceae: Coprosma laevigata1,2, Morinda citrifolia1,2; Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1,2; Smilacaceae: Smilax sp.1,2; Solanaceae: Lycopersicon esculentum1,2; Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia sp.1,2, Strelitzia reginae1,2; Thymelaeaceae: Daphne oleoides2; Ulmaceae: Celtis philippinensis1,2; Verbenaceae: Lantana commersoni1,2.  The scale can spread long distances when infested plants or plant products are moved in commerce.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis buxi is widespread in Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, and Palearctic regions2.  In the United States it can be found in Florida, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico & Vieques Island, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Hawaiian Islands2.

Official Control: Pinnaspis buxi is listed as a quarantine pest by Costa Rica, Japan, New Zealand, and Seychelles.

California Distribution Pinnaspis buxi has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Pinnaspis buxi is commonly intercepted.  Between January 1, 2000 and December 4, 2014 the scale was intercepted 857 times.  Interceptions were typically on plants or plant material imported from Hawaii, Costa Rica, and Florida.

The risk Pinnaspis buxi (boxwood scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pinnaspis buxi is highly polyphagous and feeds on a wide variety of plants, many of which are grown in California. The scale is likely able to establish wherever host plants are grown.  Boxwood scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis buxi feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 44 families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates.  They may spread long distances when host plants are moved.  Furthermore, they may spread by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.  Pinnaspis buxi receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Despite the worldwide distribution and polyphagous nature of Pinnaspis buxi it does not appear to be documented as causing economic damage.  Nevertheless, it is listed as a quarantine pest by several nations so it has the potential to trigger a loss of markets.  Furthermore, it may increase production costs in citrus and in nursery industries as growers may treat to ensure fruit or plant cleanliness.  Pinnaspis buxi receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis buxi is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The scale may trigger additional chemical treatment programs by the citrus and nursery industries and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Boxwood scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis buxi (Boxwood Scale):  High(13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis buxi has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(13)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis buxi is commonly intercepted.  It is likely that the scale has entered California many other times and escaped detection.  There have been no formal surveys for this scale in the state.  It is therefore possible that it could be present in some locations in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis buxi is a polyphagous scale that may has never been found in the environment of California.  If it were to enter the state, it could be expected to have economic impacts in the nursery and citrus industries.  It may also have environmental impacts by triggering new chemical treatments.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pinnaspis%20buxi/

2SEL Catalog query results: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisbuxi.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016  11/7/2016


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

Lesser Snow Scale | Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley)

LesserSnowScale-CDFA
California Pest Rating for
Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley): Lesser Snow Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis strachani is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support the permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis strachani is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on a wide variety of plants.  Known hosts include:  Acanthaceae: Justicia sp.1, Thunbergia grandiflora1; Amaryllidaceae: Agave fourcroytes1, Crinum sp.1, Crinum asiaticum1, Eucharis sp.1, Polianthes tuberosa1; Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale1, Mangifera sp.1, Mangifera odorata1, Mangifera indica1; Annonaceae: Annona muricata1, Annona squamosa1, Annona sp.1, Annona reticulata1, Cananga odorata1, Polyalthia longifolia1, Uvaria sp.1; Apocynaceae: Calotropis procera1, Nerium sp.1, Pachypodium sp.1, Parsonsia sp.1, Plumeria sp.1, Plumeria alba1, Plumeria rubra1, Plumeria tuberculata1, Vallesia glabra1; Araceae: Colocasia esculenta1, Rhaphidophora sp.1; Araliaceae: Arailia sp.1, Schefflera sp.1, Arecaceae: Acanthophoenix sp.1, Attalea gomphocarpa1, Chamaerops , Chrysalidocarpus sp.1, Cocos nucifera1, Cocos sp.1, Elaeis guineensis1, Heterospathe sp.1, Howea sp.1, Kentia sp.1, Latania sp.1, Licuala sp.1, Livistona sp.1, Phoenix dactylifera1, Rhapis sp.1, Roystonea regia1, Sabal sp.1, Thrinax sp.1, Trachycarpus sp.1, Veitchia joannis1, Verschaffeltia1; Asparagaceae: Agave sisalana1, Agave americana1, Cordyline sp.1, Dracaena sp.1, Furcraea gigantea1, Liriope sp.1, Yucca sp.1; Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum indicum1, Fitchia sp.1, Psiadia sp.1, Scalesia incisa1, Scalesia affinis1; Boraginaceae: Coldenia fusca1, Cordia lutea1, Cordia alba1, Cordia macrostachya1, Heliotropium arborescens1, Messerschmidia argentea1, Tournefortia sp.1, Tournefortia argentea1; Brassicaceae: Thelypodium sp.1, Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus1, Bromelia sp.1; Cannaceae: Canna indica1; Combretaceae: Conocarpus erecta1, Terminalia sp.1, Terminalia catappa1, Terminalia calamansanay1, Terminalia complanata1; Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea batatas1, Ipomoea grandiflora1; Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum pinnata1; Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa cerifera1, Cucurbita sp.1, Cucurbita maxima1, Cucurbita pepo1, Sechium sp.1, Sechium edulis1, Trichosanthes sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas sp.1, Cycas revoluta1, Dioon edule1, Zamia sp.1; Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea alata1, Dioscorea bulbifera1, Dioscorea sp.1, Ebenaceae: Diospyros chloroxylon1, Diospyros kaki1; Elaeocarpaceae: Muntingia calabura1; Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha wilkesiana1, Aleurites moluccana1, Chamaesyce amplexicaulis1, Croton lucidus1, Croton sp.1, Euphorbiaceae heterophylla1, Euphorbiaceae sp.1, Euphorbiaceae nivulia1, Euphorbiaceae pulcherrima1, Excoecaria agallocha1, Hevea brasiliensis1, Hippomane mancinella1, Jatropha curcas1, Manihot sp.1, Manihot esculenta1, Pedilanthus sp.1, Ricinus communis1; Fabaceae: Acacia melanoxylon1, Albizia stipulata1, Albizia sp.1, Bahuinia variegata1, Bauhinia sp.1, Bauhinia pauletia1, Bauhinia purpurea1, Bauhinia sp.1, Caesalpinia sp.1, Caesalpinia pulcherrima1, Caesalpinia crista1, Cajanus indicus1, Cajanus sp.1, Cajanus cajan1, Canavalia microcarpa1, Cassia alata1, Cassia tora1, Cassia occidentalis1, Crotalaria usaramoensis1, Crotalaria hirsuta1, Crotalaria sp.1, Delonix regia1, Desmodium lasiocarpum1, Enterolobium cyclocarpum1, Erythrina subumbrans1, Erythrina sp.1, Erythrina poeppigiana1, Erythrina lithosperma1, Erythrina indica1, Erythrina glauca1, Galactia striata1, Inocarpus fagiferus1, Intsia bijuga1, Lablab purpureus1, Leucaena leucocephala1, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus1, Macroptilium lathyroides1, Mimosa pigra1, Mimosa pudica1, Phaseolus vulgaris1, Pithecolobium saman1, Prosopis sp.1, Pueraria thunbergiana1, Samanea saman1, Sophora tomentosa1, Wistaria sp.1; Geraniaceae: Geranium sp.1, Pelargonium radula1, Pelargonium zonale1; Gesneriaceae: Saintpaulia sp.1; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia sp.1; Hernandiaceae: Hernandia ovigera1, Hernandia peltata1; Lamiaceae: Ocimum gratissimum1; Lauraceae: Cassytha filiformis1, Cinnamomum camphora1, Persea americana1; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia sp.1, Barringtonia asiatica1, Barringtonia thurstonii1, Barringtonia butonica1; Liliaceae: Aloe sp.1, Asparagus officinalis1, Asparagus sprengeri1, Asparagus plumosus1, Cordyline terminalis1, Ophiopogon japonicus1, Ophiopogon intermedius1, Rhipogonum scandens1, Sansevieria metallica1, Sansevieria sp.1, Yucca gloriosa1; Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica1, Punica granatum1; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora1; Malvaceae: Abutilon hybridum1, Abutilon sp.1, Althaea officinalis1, Bastardia vicosa1, Ceiba sp.1, Ceiba pentrandra1, Dombeya sp.1, Gossypium sp.1, Gossypium hirsutum1, Gossypium barbadense1, Gossypium arboreum1, Guazuma ulmifolia1, Hibiscus sp.1, Hibiscus syriacus1, Hibiscus tiliaceus1, Hibiscus sabdariffa1, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis1, Hibiscus mutabilis1, Hibiscus manihot1, Hibiscus esculentus1, Malvastrum americanum1, Malvaviscus arboreus1, Ochroma sp.1, Pachira insignis1, Sida sp.1, Sida acuta1, Sterculia sp.1, Thespesia sp.1, Thespesia propulnea1, Triumfetta semitriloba1, Urena lobata1, Vitis vinifera1, Waltheria ovata1; Marantaceae: Calathea zebrina1, Maranta sp.1; Meliaceae: Cedrela salvadorensis1, Melia azedarach1; Menispermaceae: Cissampelos pareira1; Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus1, Artocarpus altilis1, Ficus carica1, Ficus palmata1, Morus nigra1; Moringaceae: Moringa oleifera1; Musaceae: Musa sp.1, Musa sapientum1; Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus grandis1; Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea sp.1, Cryptocarpus pyriformis1; Ochnaceae: Lophira alata1; Olacaceae: Schoepfia sp.1, Oleaceae: Jasminum grandifolium1, Jasminum sambac1; Orchidaceae: Aerides1, Cymbidium sp.1, Cypripedium sp.1, Dendrobium sp.1, Odontoglossum sp.1, Orchis sp.1, Paphiopedilum insigne1, Phalaenopsis sp.1, Renanthera sp.1, Rhynchostylis sp.1, Trichoglottis sp.1; Pandanaceae: Pandanus sp.1, Pandanus odoratissimus1; Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis1; Piperaceae: Piper nigrum1; Poaceae: Cenchrus ciliaris1, Cenchrus glauca1, Cymbopogon sp.1, Cynodon dactylon1, Panicum sp.1; Polygonaceae: Antigonon sp.1, Antigonon leptopus1, Coccoloba sp.1, Polygala sancti-georgii1, Polygala galapageia1, Polygala andersonnii1, Polygonum glabrum1; Polypodiaceae: Niphobolus fissus1; Portulacaceae: Portulaca sp.1, Proteaceae: Grevillea heliosperma1, Grevillea robusta1, Persoonia sp.1; Pteridaceae: Asplenium nidus1; Pteridophyta: Neottopteris rigida1, Nephrolepis davalliodes1, Platycerium grande1; Rhamnaceae: Colubrina arborences1, Scutia pauciflora1, Ziziphus sp.1, Ziziphus jujuba1; Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera gymnorhiza1, Rhizophora mangle1; Rosaceae: Prunus sp.1, Prunus persica1, Pyrus sp.1; Rubiaceae: Genipa sp.1, Morinda royoc1, Morinda citrifolia1, Randia sp.1; Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos1, Atlantia citrioides1, Balsamocitrus paniculata1, Balsamocitrus chevaliere1, Balsamocitrus dawei1, Casimiroa sp.1, Citrus aurantifolia1, Citrus unshiu1, Citrus sp.1, Citrus sinensis1, Citrus paradisi1, Citrus maxima1, Citrus macrophylla1, Citrus limon1, Citrus grandis1, Citrus aurantium1, Feronia limonia1, Feroniella pentaphylla1, Limonia glutinosa1, Limonia acidissima1, Micromelum minutum1, Murraya exotica1, Murraya paniculata1, Murraya koenigii1, Zanthoxylum sp.1, Zanthoxylum martinicense1; Salicaceae: Salix chilensis1, Salix sp.1, Salix babylonica1; Santalaceae: Viscum sp.1; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa1, Litchi chinensis1, Melicoccus sp.1, Melicoccus bijugatus1, Sapindus sp.1; Sapotaceae: Pouteria obavata1; Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum1, Capsicum sp.1, Capsicum frutescens1, Cestrum diurnum1, Datura metel1, Lycopersicon esculentum1, Solanum seaforthianum1, Solanum wendlandii1, Solanum torvum1, Solanum sp.1, Solanum erianthum1, Solanum melongena1; Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis1, Strelitzia sp.1; Symplocaceae: Symplocos sp.1; Ulmaceae: Trema guineensis1, Trema micranthum1; Urticaceae: Laportea sp.1, Soleirolia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Clerodendron thomsonae1, Gmelina arborea1, Lantana involucrata1, Stachytarpheta sp.1; Vitaceae: Cissus sp.1, Vitis sp.1; Zingiberaceae: Alpinia purpurata1, Zingiber officinale1; and Manoranjitham sp.1Pinnaspis strachani may be spread long distances in the commerce of infested plants or plant parts.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis strachani is widespread in Australasian, Oceanic, Afrotropical, Oriental, and Neotropical regions1.  In North America it has been reported in Mexico, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas1.  It is also present in Hawaii.

Official Control: Pinnaspis strachani is listed as a quarantine pest by Honduras, Japan, New Zealand, and Taiwan3.

California Distribution Pinnaspis strachani has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Pinnaspis strachani was intercepted 1,401 times by California between January 1, 2000 and December 12, 2014.  Interceptions are most common on plants and fruit from Hawaii, Florida, and Costa Rica.

The risk Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants are commonly grown as crops and ornamentals in California and Pinnaspis strachani is likely to establish wherever they grow. The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis strachani is highly polyphagous.  It is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants in at least 74 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Pinnaspis strachani receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pinnaspis strachani is documented as a pest of many crops including citrus, olives, and cotton1.  Known hosts also include grapes, Prunus and avocado.  The scale may lower yields in these crops and increase production costs by triggering new management programs.  Pinnaspis strachani is also listed as a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners and therefore has the potential to trigger a loss of markets.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis strachani is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale may directly affect threatened or endangered species including Thelypodium stenopetalum (slender-petaled thelypodium), Chamaesyce hooveri (Hoover’s spurge), Croton wigginsii (Wiggins’ croton), and Polygonum hickmanii (Scott’s valley polygonum).  The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Pinnaspis strachani may trigger new chemical treatments in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  The scale may also significantly impact a wide variety of ornamental plantings and home/urban gardens.  Lesser snow scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis strachani has never been detected in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(15)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis strachani is commonly intercepted and presumably has remained undetected on other consignments.  It may already be present in some localities in California or may have failed to establish.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale) has never been found in the environment of California and can be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish here.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pinnaspis%20strachani/

2SEL Catalog query results: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisstrachani.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016 – 11/7/2016


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

White Peach Scale | Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)

White Peach Scale | Psuedaulacaspis pentagona
California Pest Rating for
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni): White Peach Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to justify its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaulacaspis pentagona is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect.  It is considered an important economic pest of peach trees and woody ornamentals and has destroyed many peach orchards in the southeast USA1.  Known hosts include: Acanthaceae: Acanthus sp.2, Asystasia2, Crossandra sp. 2; Actinidiaceae: Actinidia arguta2, Actinidia polygama2, Actinidia sp. 2; Amaranthaceae: Gomphrena sp. 2, Salicornia fruticosa2; Anacardiaceae: Mangifera sp. 2, Mangifera indica2, Rhus sp. 2, Schinus sp. 2, Spondias sp. 2; Apocynaceae: Allamanda cathartica2, Allamanda grandiflora2, Allamanda sp. 2, Asclepius sp. 2, Calotropis procera2, Calotropis2, Catharanthus roseus2, Cynanchym perrieri2, Ervatamia orientalis2, Marsdenia clausa2, Nerium oleander2, Nerium sp. 2, Plumeria alba2, Plumeria rubra2, Plumeria sp. 2, Plumeria acutifolia2, Rhynchospermum verticulatum2, Rhynchospermum sp. 2, Tylophora asthmatica2, Vinca rosea2; Aquifoliaceae: Ilex sp. 2, Ilex opaca2; Araceae: Philodendron sp. 2, Symplocarpus2; Araliaceae: Arailia sp. 2, Aralia spinosa2, Aralia elata2, Hedera sp. 2, Kalopanax septemlobus2; Arecaceae: Chrysalidocarpus lutescens2, Cocos nucifera2, Phoenix2; Asteraceae: Arctium sp. 2, Bahia fastigata2, Helianthus sp. 2, Helianthus annuus2, Mikania2; Berberidaceae: Berberis2, Mahonia sp. 2, Betulaceae: Osmanthus ilicifolius2, Osmanthus asiaticus2, Ostrya2; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia2, Catalpa ovata2, Catalpa syringifolia2, Catalpa vulgaris2, Catalpa yunnanensis2, Catalpa sp. 2, Catalpa bignonioides2, Catalpa bungei2, Tecoma sp. 2, Boraginaceae: Ehretia ovalifolia2, Ehretia acuminata2, Heliotropium peruvianum2, Messersmidia argentea2, Tournefortia argentea2, Brassicaceae: Brassica willdenovii2, Brassica rapa2, Iberis sp. 2; Cannabaceae: Trema sp. 2; Capparaceae: Cleome spinosa2; Caricaceae: Carica papaya2, Carica sp. 2; Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus sp. 2; Casuarinaceae: Casuarina2; Celastraceae: Euonymus alata2, Euonymus sp. 2, Euonymus europaea2, Orixa japonica2; Clusiaceae: Calophyllum sp. 2, Hypericum sp. 2, Mammea americana2; Convolvulaceae: Argyreia speciosa2, Argyreia nervosa2, Ipomea batatas2, Ipomea purpurea2, Ipomea sp. 2, Ipomoea tiliacea2, Cornaceae: Cornus sp. 2; Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum calycinum2, Bryophyllum pinnatum2, Kalanchoe nadijae2, Kalanchoe orgyalis2, Kalanchoe pinnatum2, Kalanchoe sp. 2, Sedum sp. 2; Cucurbitaceae: Citrullus vulgaris2, Cucurbita sp. 2; Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta2, Cycas media2, Cycas sp. 2, Zamia2; Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp. 2, Diospyros kaki2, Diospyros virginiana2; Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus2; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites2, Codiaeum sp. 2, Croton sp. 2, Euphorbiaceae sp. 2, Hevea2, Jatropha gossypifolia2, Jatropha curcas2, Jatropha integerrima2, Jatropha sp. 2, Macaranga sp. 2, Mallotus japonicus2, Manihot sp. 2, Manihot esculenta2, Pedilanthus tithymaloides2, Poinsettia2, Ricinus communis2, Ricinus sp. 2, Sapium sebiferum2, Sebastiana ligustrina2; Fabaceae: Acacia sp. 2, Acacia arabica2, Albizia stipulata2, Bauhinia sp. 2, Cajanus cajan2, Cassia alata2, Cercis sp. 2, Cercis canadensis2, Crotaleria juncea2, Crotolaria sp. 2, Cytisus scoparius2, Cytisus nigricans2, Erythrina poeppigiana2, Erythrina indica2, Erythrina glauca2, Erythrina sp. 2, Genista sp. 2, Gleditschia triacanthos2, Gleditschia sp. 2, Gleditschia ferox2, Glycine max2, Kennedya2, Lespedeza sp. 2, Ononis sp. 2, Phaseolus vulgaris2, Pueraria sp. 2, Robinia pseudoacacia2, Sarothamnus2, Sophora japonica2, Vigna sp. 2; Fagaceae: Castanea sp. 2, Castanea crenata2, Quercus acutissima2; Geraniaceae: Geranium sp. 2, Pelargonium zonale2, Pelargonium inquinans2, Pelargonium sp. 2; Ginkgoaceae: Ginkgo2; Grossulariaceae: Ribes sp. 2; Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp. 2; Juglandaceae: Juglans regia2, Juglans mandshurica2, Juglans sp. 2, Juglans nigra2, Pterocarya stenoptera2; Lamiaceae: Callicarpa sp. 2, Nepeta sp. 2; Lauraceae: Cinnamomum2, Sassafras sp. 2; Liliaceae: Draceana sp. 2; Loganiaceae: Buddleia davidii2, Gelsemium sp. 2; Loranthaceae: Loranthus sp. 2; Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia flos-reginae2; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia sp. 2; Malvaceae: Althaea rosea2, Althaea sp. 2, Dombeya sp. 2, Firmiana simplex2, Firmiana plantanifolia2, Gossypium sp. 2, Gossypium brasiliense2, Guazuma ulmifolia2, Hibiscus sp. 2, Hibiscus diversifolius2, Hibiscus esculentum2, Hibiscus manihot2, Hibiscus mutabilis2, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis2, Hibiscus tiliaceus2, Malachra sp. 2, Malvastrum tricuspidatum2, Montezuma speciosissima2, Sida2, Sterculia plantifolia2, Sterculia sp. 2, Theobroma sp. 2, Tilia miqueliana2, Triumfetta bartramia2, Urena sinuata2, Urena lobata2; Meliaceae: Cedrela sp. 2, Cedrela toona2, Melia sp. 2, Melia azedarach2; Moraceae: Broussonetia sp. 2, Broussonetia kazinoki2, Broussonetia papyrifera2, Castilla sp. 2, Ficus sp. 2, Morus nigra2, Morus rubra2, Morus sp. 2, Morus alba2, Morus indica2, Morus bombycis2; Musaceae: Strelitzia2; Myrtaceae: Eugenia sp. 2, Psidium2; Oleaceae: Chionanthus virginicus2, Fraxinus chinensis2, Fraxinus excelsior2, Fraxinus sp. 2, Jasminum sp. 2, Jasminum sp. 2, Ligustrum obtusifolium2, Ligustrum japonicum2, Ligustrum ibota2, Ligustrum sp. 2, Osmanthus sp. 2, Syringa vulgaris2, Syringa sp. 2; Onagraceae: Fuchsia sp. 2; Orchidaceae:, Ellaeanthus sp. 2, Stanhopea sp. 2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus sp. 2; Passifloraceae: Passiflora sp. 2, Passiflora edulis2, Passiflora quadrangularis2; Piperaceae: Piper sp. 2, Piper umbellatum2, Potomorphe umbellata2; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp. 2; Platanaceae: Phytolacca rivinoides2, Platanocephalus indicus2, Platanus2; Polygalaceae: Polygala2; Ranunculaceae: Clematis sp. 2, Delphinium sp. 2, Paeonia2; Rhamnaceae: Hovenia dulcis2, Rhamnus alaternus2, Rhamnus sp. 2, Rhamnus elaternum2, Ziziphus sp. 2; Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis2, Amygdalus sp. 2, Amygdalus armeniaca2, Amygdalus persica2, Armeniaca2, Cerasus2, Cliffortia polygonifolia2, Cotoneaster sp. 2, Cydonia sp. 2, Cydonia oblonga2, Cydonia vulgaris2, Kerria japonica2, Malus pumila2, Malus formosana2, Malus sylvestris2, Persica vulgaris2, Photinia serrulata2, Prunus sp. 2, Prunus mume2, Prunus communis2, Prunus domestica2, Prunus laurocerasus2, Prunus persica2, Prunus yedoensis2, Prunus subhirtella2, Prunus sargentii2, Prunus salicina2, Prunus pseudocerasus2, Prunus amygdaloides2, Prunus armeniaca2, Prunus avium2, Prunus pognostyla2, Prunus cerasus2, Pyrus serotina2, Rosa2, Rubus2, Sorbus commixta2, Spiroea japonica2, Stranvaesia niitakayamensis2; Rubiaceae: Bouvardia2, Cinchona sp. 2, Galium sp. 2, Morinda citrifolia2, Palicourea sp. 2; Rutaceae: Citrus maxima2, Citrus reticulata2, Citrus sp. 2, Citrus aurantium2, Evodia rutaecarpa2, Zanthoxylum2, Zanthoxylum piperitum2; Salicaceae: Flacourtia2, Populus sp. 2, Populus sieboldi2, Populus alba2, Salix warburgii2, Salix nigra2, Salix kinuyanagi2, Salix glandulosa2, Salix chaenomeloides2, Salix babylonica2, Salix sp. 2; Santalaceae: Phoradendron flavescens2; Sapindaceae: Acer2, Aesculus pavia2, Aesculus hippocastanum2, Koelreuteria paniculata2, Nephelium2; Sapotaceae: Sideroxilon marmulano2; Saxifragaceae: Deutzia scabra2, Ribes rubrum2, Ribes grossularia2, Ribes sinanense2; Scrophulariaceae: Angelonia salicariaefolia2, Buddleja sp. 2, Myoporum pictum2, Paulownia tomentosa2, Paulownia sp. 2, Scrophularia2, Veronica2; Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus glandulosa2, Picrasma quassioides2; Solanaceae: Capsicum grossum2, Capsicum annum2, Capsicum sp. 2, Datura suaveolens2, Lycopersicon esculentum2, Nicotiana tabacum2, Solanum verbascifolium2, Solanum rugosum2, Solanum uporo2, Solanum auriculatum2, Solanum sp. 2; Theaceae: Camellia sp. 2, Thea sinensis2; Ulmaceae: Aphananthe aspera2, Celtis australis2, Celtis sinensis2, Trema lamarckiana2, Trema micrantha2, Ulmus campestris2, Ulmus sp. 2, Zelkova serrata2; Urticaceae: Boehmeria sp. 2, Urtica dioica2; Verbenaceae: Callicaria superba2, Callicarpa americana2, Callicarpa lanata2, Lantana sp. 2, Stachytarpheta indica2, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis2, Stachytarpheta dichotoma2, Stachytarpheta mutabilis2, Stachytarpheta sp. 2, Stachytarpheta urticifolia2, Stachytarpheta urticaefolia2, Verbena sp. 2, Verbena bonariensis2; Vitaceae: Quinaria2, Vitis vinifera2, Vitis sp. 2.  White peach scale may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is believed to be native to Japan or China but has spread throughout much of the world1.  It is established in the east from Texas to Florida and as far north as Maine1.  It was first found in Hawaii in 19971.

Official Control: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is listed as a harmful organism by Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Chile, French Polynesia, Georgia, Honduras, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam3.

California Distribution Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has been intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs, dog teams, and border stations 408 times.  Many of these interceptions have been on papaya and kiwi fruits from Hawaii and kiwi fruits from Italy.

The risk Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (white peach scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Due to its highly polyphagous nature and current establishment in a range of climates from Hawaii to Canada white peach scale can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants belonging to at least 76 families.  Known hosts include many economically important crops.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Pseudaulacaspis pentagona lay an average of 80-100 eggs and have 2-4 generations per year1.  Scale insects can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Pseudaulacaspis pentagona were to enter California it would be expected to lower the yields of many crops, especially stone fruit.  It is likely to increase crop production costs.  Many of California’s trading partners list white peach scale as a harmful organism, indicating that trade disruptions would be likely.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is likely to feed on multiple threatened or endangered plant species including Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  It is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  White peach scale would likely trigger additional official or private treatment programs in orchards, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants unacceptable.  It is also likely to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, and a wide range of ornamental plantings.  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (White Peach Scale):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys of California for white peach scale.  It is possible it could be present at some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in California and is likely to have major economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Branscome, Deanna. 2012. Common name: white peach scale. University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/white_peach_scale.htm

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudaulacaspis%20pentagona/

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016 – 11/7/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead): Oriental Scale

3948099-WEB-oriental-scale-byWilliamM-Ciesla-Bugwood

California Pest Rating for
Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead): Oriental Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Aonidiella orientalis is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Aonidiella orientalis is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect.  It feeds on the leaves of a wide variety of plants and is regarded as an economic pest of citrus, tea, dates, palms, papaya, mango, and ornamentals1.  Known hosts include:  Acanthaceae: Adhatoda vasica1, Barleria cristata1, Thunbergia grandiflora1; Amaranthaceae: Bassia latifolia1; Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica1, Pistacia integerrima1, Spondias cytherea1; Annonaceae: Annona squamosa1, Annona glabra1, Annona1, Polyalthia korihthi1, Polyathia1, Rollinia emarginata1; Apocynaceae: Alstonia scholaris1, Alstonia1, Calotropis1, Calotropis procera1, Carissa carandas1, Carissa1, Nerium1, Nerium oleander1, Plumeria1, Tabernaemontana coronaria1, Tabernaemontana1; Araliaceae: Hedera1; Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera1, Cocos1, Inodes neglecta1, Loroma amethystiora1, Phoenix1, Phoenix dactylifera1, Phoenix1, Roystonea regia1; Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia1; Asparagaceae: Agave variegata1, Agave sisalana1, Agave americana1, Agave1; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia vinusta1, Bignonia radicans1, Kigelia pinnata1, Oroxylum indicum1, Tecoma australis1, Tecoma undulata1, Tecoma stans1; Boraginaceae: Cordia rothii1, Cordia myxa1, Cordia1, Cordia obliqua1, Ehretia serrata1; Burseraceae: Boswellia serrata1, Bursera serrata1; Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens1; Cactaceae: Cactus1, Opuntia1; Cannaceae: Canna indica1; Capparaceae: Crataeva religiosa1; Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera chinensis1, Sambucus javanica1; Caricaceae: Carica papaya1, Carica papaya1; Celastraceae: Catha edulis1, Celastrus paniculata1; Combretaceae: Quisqualis indica1, Terminalia belerica1, Terminalia arjuna1; Convolvulaceae: Calonyction roxburghii1, Ipomoea1, Porana paniculata1; Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia1; Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta1, Cycas1; Ebenaceae: Diospyros1, Diospyros montana1, Diospyros embryopteris1; Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus pungens1; Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha1, Bischofia javanica1, Croton tiglium1, Mallotus philippinensis1, Phyllanthus myrtifolius1, Poinsettia1, Putranjiva roxburghii1, Ricinus1, Ricinus communis1, Sapium sebiferum1; Fabaceae: Acacia cyanophila1, Albizia lebbek1, Albizia1, Atylosia1, Atylosia candollii1, Bauhinia variegata1, Bauhinia1, Bauhinia purpurea1, Bauhinia alba1, Bauhinia vahlii1, Bauhinia racemosa1, Butea frondosa1, Caesalpinia bonducella1, Cassia1, Cassia auriculata1, Cassia fistula1, Ceratonia siliqua1, Dalbergia1, Dalbergia lanceolaria1, Dalbergia sissoo1, Erythrina crista1, Inga dulcis1, Poinciana regia1, Pongamia glabra1, Saraca indica1, Tamarindus1, Tamarindus indica1, Tephrosia1; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia1; Liliaceae: Aloe vera1, Asparagus sprengeri1, Asparagus1; Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica1, Lawsonia inermis1, Punica granatum1; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora1; Malpighiaceae: Hiptage madablota1; Malvaceae: Adansonia1, Bombax malabaricum1, Eriodendron anfractuosum1, Grewia asiatica1, Hibiscus1, Pterospermum acerifolium1, Sterculia1, Sterculia alata1; Melastomataceae: Osbeckia1, Wrightia coccinea1, Meliaceae: Azedarach indica1, Cedrela toona1, Melia volkensii1, Melia1, Melia indica1, Melia composita1, Melia azadirachta1, Swietenia mahagoni1; Menispermaceae: Cocculus laurifolius1; Moraceae: Broussonetia papyrifera1, Ficus benghalensis1, Ficus salicifolia1, Ficus glomerata1, Ficus infectoria1, Ficus nitida1, Ficus orbicularis1, Ficus palmata1, Ficus religiosa1, Ficus carica1, Ficus retusa1, Ficus roxburghii1, Ficus1, Ficus elastica1, Maclura aurantiaca1, Morus1, Morus alba1, Morus laevigata1; Moringaceae: Moringa pterygosperma1; Musaceae: Musa1, Musa sapientum1; Myrtaceae: Callistemon rigidus1, Eucalyptus1, Eugenia jambolana1, Eugenia1, Myrrhinium rubriflorum1, Myrtus communis1, Psidium guajava1; Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea1, Mirabilis jalapa1, Nyctaginia1; Ochnaceae: Ochna squarrosa1; Oleaceae: Jasminum1, Olea europaea1; Orchidaceae: 1; Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola1; Poaceae: Panicum1; Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus neriifolius1, Podocarpus lamberti1; Polygonaceae: Antigonon leptopus1; Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta1; Ranunculaceae: Clematis paniculatus1; Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus persicus1, Ziziphus oenoplia1, Ziziphus1, Ziziphus jujuba1; Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera sexangulata1, Rhizophora mucronata1; Rosaceae: Eriobotrya japonica1, Prunus armeniaca1, Pyrus sinensis1, Rosa1; Rubiaceae: Stephegyne parviflora1; Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos1, Aegle1, Casimiroa1, Chloroxylon swietenia1, Citrus trifoliata1, Citrus limon1, Citrus aurantium1, Citrus1, Feronia elephantum1, Limonia1, Murraya exotica1, Murraya exotica1; Salicaceae: Populus alba1, Populus euphratica1, Salix tetrasperma1; Santalaceae: Santalum album1; Sapindaceae: Acer pictum1, Acer oblongum1, Dodonaea viscosa1, Litchi chinensis1, Nephelium litchi1, Sapindus detergens1; Sapotaceae: Mimusops elengi1, Mimusops kauki1; Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus aladulosa1; Solanaceae: Solanum melongena1, Solanum arundo1; Theaceae: Camellia1, Thea1; Ulmaceae: Celtis1, Celtis australis1, Ulmus integrifolia1, Ulmus1; Verbenaceae: Callicarpa macrophyla1, Citharexylum subserratum1, Clerodendrum phlomoides1, Duranta ellisi1, Duranta plumieri1, Gmelina arborea1, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis1, Vitex negundo1; Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera1, Zamiaceae: Zamia1; Zingiberaceae: Alpinia nutans1Aonidiella orientalis may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Aonidiella orientalis is presumably native to Asia and has spread through much of the Neotropical, Afrotropical, Palearctic, and Oceanic regions.  In North America it is only known to be established in Florida1.

Official Control: Aonidiella orientalis is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Japan, and the Republic of Korea2.

California Distribution Aonidiella orientalis has never been found in California.

California Interceptions From 1987 through 2015 Aonidiella orientalis was intercepted 225 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, dog teams, and border stations.  Many of these interceptions have been on coconut, papaya, and mango from Florida, Brazil, and Mexico.

The risk Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Due to its highly polyphagous nature and known distribution across a range of climates Aonidiella orientalis can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in California.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Aonidiella orientalis is known to feed on hundreds of species in at least 67 plant families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Aonidiella orientalis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Aonidiella orientalis is considered an economic pest of several crops that are grown in California and may be expected to lower crop yields and increase crop production costs.  Oriental scale is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners.  If the scale were to enter the state it may disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock.  Aonidiella orientalis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Aonidiella orientalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on endangered and threatened species such as small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  Oriental scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional official or private treatment programs in orchards, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants unacceptable.  Aonidiella orientalis may also significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, and ornamental plantings.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aonidiella orientalis has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys for oriental scale in California.  It is possible that it could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aonidiella orientalis has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Aonidiella%20orientalis/

http://scalenet.info/validname/Aonidiella/orientalis/

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 24, 2016 and closed on Aug 8, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green): Trilobe Scale

California Pest Rating for
Psuedaonidia trilobitiformis (Green)
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green): Trilobe Scale
Photo Credit: National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR)
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green):  Trilobe Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is commonly intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaonidia trilobitiformis is a polyphagous, widespread armored scale insect.  Known hosts include:  Agavaceae: Agave mexicana1, Cordyline sp.1, Cordyline neo-caledonyca1, Dracaena sp.1; Anacardiaceae: Anacardium sp.1, Anacardium occidentale1, Mangifera sp.1, Mangifera indica1, Nothopegia colebrookiana1, Schinus molle1, Schinus terebinthifolius1, Sclerocarya caffra1; Annonaceae: Annona sp.1, Annona reticulata1, Annona squamosa1, Cananga odoratum1; Apocynaceae: Acocanthera abessinica1, Carissa carandas1, Carissa madagascariensis1, Carissophyllum sp.1, Catharanthus roseus1, Cerbera oppositifolia1, Echites sp.1, Nerium sp.1, Nerium indicum1, Nerium oleander1, Ochrosia oppositifolia1, Plumeria acutifolia1, Plumeria rubra1, Thevetia sp.1, Thevetia peruviana1, Trachelospermum foetidum1; Araceae: Monstera deliciosa1, Philodendrom sp.1, Pothos aureus1; Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera1, Dictyosperma alba1, Elaeis guineensis1, Hyphaene thebaica1; Bignoniaceae: Crescentia cujete1, Pyrostegia venusta1; Boraginaceae: Cordia myxa1; Bromeliaceae: Ananas sativa1; Caricaceae: Carica papaya1; Combretaceae: Terminalia arjuna1, Terminalia catappa1; Corylaceae: Corylus sp.1; Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp.1, Diospyros eriantha1, Diospyros kaki1; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites sp.1, Aleurites fordi1, Aleurites moluccana1, Aleurites montana1, Codiaeum sp.1, Gelonium lanceolatum1, Hura crepitans1, Jatropha curcas1; Fabaceae: Acacia simplicifolia1, Acacia spirorbis1, Bauhinia sp.1, Bauhinia monandra1, Bauhinia variegata1, Cassia sp.1, Cassia siamea1, Cassia spectabilis1, Clitoria terneata1, Crotalaria sp.1, Dalbergia sp.1, Dalbergia championii1, Derris indica1, Mucuna bennettii1, Pithecolobium unguis-cati1; Fagaceae: Quercus sp.1; Flacourtiaceae: Flacourtia ramontchi1, Hydnocarpus wightiana1, Scolopia oldhamii1; Fumariaceae: Fumaria sp.1; Guttiferae: Calophyllum inophyllum1; Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp.1; Lauraceae: Cinnamomum zeylanicum1, Laurus nobilis1, Machilus sp.1, Persea sp.1, Persea americana1, Persea gratissima1; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia asiatica1; Liliaceae: Taetsia neocaledonica1; Magnoliaceae: Michelia champaca1; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.1; Marantaceae: Maranta sp.1; Meliaceae: Xylocarpus obovatus1; Moraceae: Artocarpus sp.1, Artocarpus altilis1, Artocarpus communis1, Artocarpus heterophyllus1, Artocarpus incisa1, Artocarpus integrifolius1, Brosimum utile1, Cudrania cochinchinensis1, Ficus sp.1, Ficus awkeotsang1, Ficus benghalensis1, Ficus elastica1, Ficus pumila1, Ficus religiosa1, Ficus repens1, Ficus retusa1, Ficus scandens1, Ficus swinhoei1, Ficus thonningii1, Ficus trichoclada1, Ficus wightiana japonica1; Myrtaceae Eugenia sp.1, Eugenia jaboticaba1, Myrtus sp.1, Psidium sp.1, Psidium cattleianum1, Psidium guajava1; Naucleaceae: Cephalanthus sp.1; Nyctaginaceae: Bouganvillea sp.1; Oleaceae: Jasminum sp.1; Passifloraceae: Passiflora sp.1, Passiflora edulis1, Passiflora laurifolia1, Passiflora quadrangularis1; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.1; Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera1; Punicaceae: Punica granatum1; Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus sp.1, Ziziphus spina-christi1; Rosaceae: Eriobotrya japonica1, Mespilus germanica1, Prunus domestica1, Pyrus sp.1, Rosa sp.1; Rubiaceae: Coffea sp.1, Coffea arabica1, Coffea liberica1, Ixora sp.1, Ixora coccinia1; Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1, Citrus aurantium1, Citrus aurantium bigaradia1, Citrus bergamia1, Citrus decumana1, Citrus grandis1, Citrus histrix1, Citrus limetta1, Citrus limon1, Citrus maxima1, Citrus nobilis unchiu1, Citrus sinensis1, Murraya exotica1; Santalaceae: Santalum austro-caledonicum1; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa1, Euphoria longana1, Litchi sinensis1; Sapotaceae: Achras sapota1, Mimusops sp.1, Mimusops elengi1; Solanaceae: Capsicum sp.1, Capsicum annuum1, Capsicum frutescens1; Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao1; Theaceae: Camellia sp.1, Camellia japonica1, Eurya japonica1, Thea japonica1; Thymelaeaceae: Peddiea africana1; Tiliaceae: Grewia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Premna sp.1, Tectona grandis1; Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera1.

Worldwide Distribution: Although it was first found in Sri Lanka, the native range of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is uncertain.  From its origin it has spread through much of Africa, Asia, Australia, the Pacific, South America, and Central America1.  In the continental United States the scale is known to be present in Florida1.

Official Control: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand2.

California Distribution:  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis was intercepted by CDFA’s dog teams, border stations, and high risk programs 139 times.  These interceptions have occurred on a wide variety of commodities from Hawaii, Florida, Mexico, and many other countries in Central and South America.  Many of the interceptions are on mango.

The risk Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (trilobe scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis are grown throughout California as agricultural crops and ornamentals.  The scale insect is likely to establish wherever these plants are grown.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is highly polyphagous.  The scale insect is known to feed on more than 174 plant species in 50 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The biology of Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is not well documented.  However, scale insects have high reproductive rates.  They are capable of moving long distances through commerce in infested plants and plant parts.  Trilobe scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trilobe scale is known to feed on many plants that are economically important in California including citrus, avocado, and grapes.  However, despite its polyphagous nature and widespread distribution, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis is not well-documented to be a plant pest and is therefore not expected to lower crop yields.  It may increase crop production costs as growers may treat to control scale populations for quarantine purposes.  Trilobe scale is listed as a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners.  The presence of this scale in California may have significant impacts on California fresh fruit exports.  Trilobe scale is not expected to change normal cultural practices, vector other pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis were to enter California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may directly affect threatened or endangered species, such as Rosa minutifolia (small-leaved rose), by feeding on them.  It is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional private treatment programs in fruit production and nursery industries.  Since it is not well-documented as a pest in other locations, trilobe scale is not expected significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Trilobe Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Although it is not well-documented as a pest in other localities, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis could have a more significant impact in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis has never been found in California and would be likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 SEL Catalog Query Results.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pseudaonidiatrilobitiformis.htm

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudaonidia%20trilobitiformis/

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on April 12, 2016 and closed on May 27, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Radionaspis indica (Marlatt) | Mango Scale

California Pest Rating for
Radionaspis indica (Marlatt): Mango Scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Since 2005 Radionaspis indica has been regularly intercepted on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  This scale insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundRadionaspis indica is a monophagous scale insect that feeds on the trunk, branches, and buds of mango trees (Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae)).  Severe infestations can cause cracking of bark, exudation of sap, and decline of branches2Radionaspis indica may rapidly disperse long distances in the trade of infested mango fruit or nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution: Radionaspis indica may be native to India and is also found in Indonesia, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Cape Verde, Senegal, Cuba, the British Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Panama3.  In the United States the scale is found in Hawaii, Florida, and Puerto Rico3.  Regular interceptions of the scale on mangos from Mexico suggest that it is established in that country.

Official Control: Radionaspis indica is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionRadionaspis indica has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 Radionaspis indica was intercepted 69 times on mango fruit by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams.  It was also intercepted once on papaya.

The risk Radionaspis indica (mango scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Mango trees require warm, dry weather to set fruit. In California the best locations are away from immediate marine influences in the deserts, foothills, and the warmest cove locations of the California Central Valley4,5, 6.  Mango trees are also sometimes grown as ornamental plants in urban environments and are present in the nursery industry.  Radionaspis indica is expected to be able to establish in all of these environments.  It receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Radionaspis indica only feeds on mango and receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Armored scales have high reproductive potential.  Mango fruit is not considered to be a good pathway for dispersal of Radionaspis indica due the limited mobility of female armored scales and crawlers and the species’ limited host range.  However, the scales have high dispersal potential because they are able to disperse long distances rapidly on nursery stock and are able to disperse to any nearby trees by crawling, by wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or other animals.  Radionaspis indica receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: California growers produce between 250,000 and 4,000,000 pounds of mango annually6.  This is a high value commodity produced for local sales at specialty markets and demand is increasing6.  California grown mangos are generally produced organically5.  If Radionaspis indica were to enter California and become established in groves it could potentially reduce yields of this crop if heavy infestations cause branch dieback2.  Furthermore, the scale has potential to both lower crop value by disfiguring fruit and nursery stock with its presence and increase production costs by triggering new chemical treatments.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Radionaspis indica is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not expected to feed on any endangered or threatened species or disrupt critical habitats.  It is possible that its entry could trigger new treatment programs in orchards and nurseries and by residents who find infested trees unsightly.  The scale is not expected significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Radionaspis indica receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Radionaspis indica (mango scale): Medium(10).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Radionaspis indica has never been found in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium(10)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that sometimes the presence of Radionaspis indica on fruit is indicative of home-grown mangos that have not been produced under commercial phytosanitary safeguards.  Any failure to take action on Radionaspis indica infested fruit may increase the risk of introducing exotic fruit flies and other more damaging pests into California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The impacts of the entry of Radionaspis indica into California are expected to be limited to mango groves, nurseries, and scattered ornamental plantings.  Nevertheless, this scale insect may have significant economic and environmental impacts to this growing industry.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Litz, Richard E.  2009.  The Mango: Botany, Production, and Uses.  CABI.  680pp.  http://books.google.com/books?id=oloEhPYqE8QC&dq=Radionaspis+indica&source=gbs_navlinks_s

2 Peña, Jorge E.  1994.  Update on status of pests of tropical fruit crops in south Florida.  Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 107: 340-342.  http://fshs.org/proceedings-o/1994-vol-107/340-342%20%28PENA%29.pdf

3 Ben-Dov, Y. (2014) ScaleNet, Radionaspis indica. Accessible online at: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Radionaspisindica.htm

4 Grown in California website.  Mango fruit facts page.  http://www.grownincalifornia.com/fruit-facts/mango-facts.html

5 Marks, Michael. 2013.  Mango orchards in California?  San Jose Mercury News.  http://www.mercurynews.com/food-wine/ci_24089949/mango-orchards-california

6 Karp, David.  2014.  Mango madness.  Sunset.  http://www.sunset.com/travel/california/mango-madness


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on January 15, 2016 and closed on February 29 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell): Agave scale

California Pest Rating for
Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell):  Agave scale
Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On March 21, 2014, Dr. Gillian Watson identified the armored scale Acutaspis agavis from a sample collected from plants growing outdoors at a school in La Jolla, San Diego County.  A heavy infestation was reported at the site on the adaxial leaf surfaces of Agave tequilana.  Tissue dieback was reported on the most infested leaves and there was no evidence of parasitism or predation.  The insect is currently Q-rated, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundAcutaspis agavis is host specific to Agave spp.  The primary pathway for spread of the scale is likely the movement of infested agave plants.

Worldwide Distribution: Acutaspis agavis is probably native to Mexico.  It has also been reported from Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago.  In the United States it has been found in Arizona, Florida, and Texas.

Official Control: Acutaspis agavis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California DistributionAcutaspis agavis is only known from an incursion at a school in La Jolla.

California Interceptions:  The only instance of an Acutaspis agavis detection in a regulatory situation was in a nursery in El Cajon in 2012.

The risk Acutaspis agavis (Agave scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Agave are commonly grown as ornamental plants in California and the scale is expected to be able to establish wherever they are grown. Acutaspis agavis receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acutaspis agavis is specific to Agave  The scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evidence suggests that Acutaspis agavis has two generations per yearand each female is presumably capable of laying hundreds of eggs.  Adult female armored scales are immobile, but populations may be transported long distances through commerce in infested plants.  Acutaspis agavis receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Acutaspis agavis has the potential to increase production costs of Agave plants in the nursery industry.  The scale is not expected to lower crop yield, trigger lost markets, alter cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Agave scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Acutaspis agavis has the potential to trigger new chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Agave plants are popular and widely grown, especially in southern California.  In the absence of natural enemies agave scale has the potential to significantly impact these cultural practices.  Agave scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is also not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Agave scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acutaspis agavis (Agave scale):  Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acutaspis agavis is only known from an incursion at a school in La Jolla. It is unknown if the scale has spread to other agave plants in the area.  Agave scale receives a Low(-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(10)

Uncertainty:

Agave plants are popular landscape plants, especially in southern California.  There have been no surveys for Acutaspis agavis and it may be present in other locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Economic impacts of Acutaspis agavis should be limited to possible increases in production costs of agave plants in the nursery industry.  However, the entry of agave scale into California may have significant environmental impacts due to the popularity of the plant and the absence of its natural enemies.  A B-rating is justified.

References:

1Systematic Entomology Laboratory.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Acutaspisagavis.htm

2Salas-Araiza, M.D., R.W. Jones, G. Montesinos-Silva, E. Salazar-Solis, L.A. Parra-Negrete, O. Martinez-Jaime, R. Ramirez-Malagon, and S. Flores-Mejia.  2008.  Population dynamics of the agave scale, Acutaspis agavis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on Agave tequilana var. azul (Agavaceae) in Central Mexico.  Southwestern Entomologist 33(4):289-298.  http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3958/0147-1724-33.4.289


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday, October 21, 2015 and closed on December 5, 2015.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls