California Pest Rating for
Planococcus minor (Maskell): Pacific Mealybug
Pest Rating: A
PEST RATING PROFILE
Planococcus minor is frequently intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.
History & Status:
Background: Planococcus minor is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on a wide variety of valuable agricultural crops and ornamental plants. Infestations may cause reduced yield, lower plant or fruit quality, stunted growth, discoloration, and leaf loss1. The mealybugs also excrete large volumes of honeydew that reduces photosynthetic activity and attracts ants as it builds up on leaves and fruit1. The mealybug can be an economic pest at low population densities by vectoring viruses that kill plants1. However, it has not emerged as a serious economic pest in much of its range presumably due to the presence of predators and parasitoids1. Known hosts include: Acanthaceae: Aphelandra sp.2, Graptophyllum sp.2, Justica carnea2, Odontonema sp.2, Pachystachys coecinea2; Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus sp.2; Anacardiaceae: cashew (Anacardium occidentale2), mango (Mangifera indica2), Rhus sp.2, ambarella (Spondias dulcis2); Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona reticulata2), sugar apple (Annona squamosa2), soursop (Annona muricata2), ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata2); Apiaceae: celery (Apium graveolens2); Apocynaceae: Araujia sericofera2, Hoya sp.2, Plumeria rubra2; Araceae: Aglaonema sp.2, Alocasia sp.2, giant taro (Alocasia macrorhiza2), taro (Colocasia esculenta2), giant swamp taro (Cryptosperma chamissonis2), Dieffenbachia sp.2, centipede tongavine (Epipremnum pinnatum2), Philodendron fonzii2, water cabbage (Pistia stratioites2), Rhaphidophora vitiensis2, arrowleaf elephant ear (Xanthosoma sagittifolium2), Xanthosoma nigrum2; Araliaceae: Aralia sp.2, ivy (Hedera helix2), Polyscias guilfoylei2, umbrella tree (Schefflera actinphylla2); Arecaceae: betel tree (Areca catechu2), Balaka seemanni2, Chrysalidocarpus sp.2, coconut tree (Cocos nucifera2), Kentia palm (Howeia forsteriana2); Asparagaceae: Dracaena sp.2; Asteraceae: black-jack (Bidens pilosa2), endive (Cichorium endivia2), Dahlia sp.2, lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia2), Helianthus sp.2, climbing hempvine (Mikania scandens2), sweetscent (Pluchea odorata2), node weed (Synedrella nodiflora2), French marigold (Tagetes patula2), Tithonia sp.2, beach sunflower (Wedelia biflora2), common zinnia (Zinnia elegans2); Balsaminaceae: garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina2), Impatiens sultani2; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia sp.2; Boraginaceae: Spanish elm (Cordia alliodora2), Tournefortia argentata2; Brassicaceae: broccoli etc (Brassica oleracea2), Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis2), radish (Raphanus sativus2); Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas comosus2); Burseraceae: java almond (Canarium indicum2), santa cruz nut (Canarium harveyi2); Cactaceae: higo chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis2); Casuarinaceae: Casuarina equisetifolia2; Clusiaceae: Alexandrian laurel balltree (Calophyllum inophyllum2); Combretaceae: Lumnitzera coccinea2, tropical almond (Terminalia catappa2), Commelinaceae: Commelina sp.2, Tradescantia sp.2, Convolvulaceae: beach morning-glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae2), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas2), Merremia peltata2; Corynocarpaceae: Corynocarpus sp.2; Cucurbitaceae: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus2), cucumber (Cucumis sativus2), muskmelon (Cucumis melo2), squash (Cucurbita moschata2), squash (Cucurbita maxima2), squash (Cucurbita pepo2), chayote (Sechium edule2); Cyperaceae: coco-grass (Cyperus rotundus2); Dioscoreaceae: purple yam (Dioscorea alata2); Euphorbiaceae: chenille plant (Acalypha hispida2) , copperleaf (Acalypha godseffiana2), Acalypha tricolor2, candlenut (Aleurites moluccana2), Antidesma sp.2, garden croton (Codiaeum variegatum2), Croton sp.2, poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae pulcherrima2), fireplant (Euphorbiaceae heterophylla2), Euphorbiaceae geniculata2, Euphorbiaceae atoto2, river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha2), Glochidion ramiflorum2, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis2), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas2), Macaranga aleuritoides2, blush macaranga (Macaranga tanarius2), Macaranga macrophylla2, Macaranga harveyana2, food wrapper plant (Mallotus japonicus2), cassava (Manihot esculenta2), stonebreaker (Phyllanthus niruri2), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis2); Fabaceae: Acacia spirobis2, soapbush wattle (Acacia holosericea2), needle bush (Acacia farnesiana2), Formosan Koa (Acacia confusa2), saga tree (Adenanthera pavonina2), peanut (Arachis hypogaea2), Napoleon’s plume (Bauhinia monandra2), Cajanus indicus2, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan2), Calliandra houstoniana2, candle bush (Cassia alata2), Cassia imperialis2, butterfly pea (Centrosema pubescens2), Erythrina sp.2, Flemingia sp.2, Gliricidia maculata2, Gliricidia sepium2, soybean (Glycine max2), Tahitian chestnut (Inocarpus fagifer2), white leadtree (Leucaena glauca2), white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala2), sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica2), giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra2), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus2), siratro (Phaseolus atropurpureus2), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris2), Wisteria sp.2; Geraniaceae: Pelargonium sp.2; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia aurantiaca2; Iridaceae: Gladiolus sp.2; Lamiaceae: painted nettle (Coleus blumei2), Epimeredi indicum2, comb bushmint (Hyptis pectinata2), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum2), sage (Salvia officinalis2); Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana2); Lecythidaceae: fish poison tree (Barringtonia asiatica2); Liliaceae: common asparagus fern (Asparagus plumosus2), pale grass lily (Caesia parviflora2), spider lily (Crinum asiaticum2); Loganiaceae: false coffee tree (Fagraea racemosa2); Lythraceae: crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica2), Pemphis acidula2; Magnoliaceae: banana shrub (Michelia figo2); Malvaceae: Abutilon sp.2, Gossypium sp.2, sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus2), sunset muskmallow (Hibiscus manihot2), Kleinhovia hospita2, Pavonia sp.2, Theobroma cacao2, Chinese bur (Triumfetta rhomboidea2); Marantaceae: Maranta sp.2; Moraceae: breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis2), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus2), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera2), panama rubber tree (Castilloa elastica2), Ficus opositica2, fig (Ficus carica2), Ficus congesta2, weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2), white mulberry (Morus alba2); Musaceae: pink velvet banana (Musa velutina2), latundan banana (Musa sapientum2); Myristicaceae: Myristica macrantha2; Myrtaceae: rainbow eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta2), jambolan (Eugenia cumini2), mountain apple (Eugenia malaccensis2), common guava (Psidium guajava2); Oleaceae: Jasminum sp.2, Onagraceae: primrose willow (Ludwigia octovalis2); Orchidaceae: Dendrobium veratrifolium2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus edulis2, Pandanus foetida2, Pandanus maliformis2, Pandanus odoratissimus2; Passifloraceae: passion fruit (Passiflora edulis2); Phyllanthaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica2); Piperaceae: Piper puberulum2, kava (Piper methysticum2), matico (Piper aduncum2); Poaceae: sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum2), corn (Zea mays2); Proteaceae: macadamia nut (Macadamia tetraphylla2); Rhamnaceae: Alphitonia zizyphoides2; Rosaceae: Asian pear (Pyrus serotina2), china rose (Rosa chinensis2); Rubiaceae: Borreria laevis2, Liberian coffee (Coffea liberica2), arabica coffee (Coffea arabica2), robusta coffee (Coffea canephora2), gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides2), beach gardenia (Guettarda speciosa2), jungle geranium (Ixora coccinea2), great morinda (Morinda citrifolia2), Tahitian gardenia (Randia tahitensis2); Rutaceae: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium2), lemon (Citrus limon2), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi2), key lime (Citrus aurantifolia2), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata2), orange (Citrus sinensis2), pomelo (Citrus grandis2), Evodia hortensis2; Sapotaceae: sapodilla (Manilkara zapota2), taun (Pometia pinnata2); Scrophulariaceae: coral fountain (Russelia equisetiformis2); Solanaceae: raintree (Brunfelsia hispida2), chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens2), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum2), angel’s trumpet (Datura suaveolens2), devil’s trumpet (Datura metel2), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum2), turkey berry (Solanum torvum2), potato (Solanum tuberosum2), indian nightshade (Solanum indicum2), eggplant (Solanum melongena2), Theaceae: tea plant (Camellia sinensis2); Urticaceae: Boehmeria sp.2, Leucosyke sp.2, native mulberry (Pipturus argenteus2), Procris pedunculata2; Verbenaceae: pagoda flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum2), java glorybower (Clerodendrum fallax2), Clerodendrum disparifolium2, Premna taitensis2, Premna obtusifolia2, Stachytarpheta sp.2, teak (Tectona grandis2), Verbena sp.2, simpleleaf chastetree (Vitex trifolia2); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis vinifera2); Zingiberaceae: red ginger (Alpinia purpurata2), shellflower (Alpinia nutans2), green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum2), white ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium2), torch ginger (Nicolaia speciosa2), ginger (Zingiber officinale2). Planococcus minor may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.
Worldwide Distribution: Planococcus minor is probably Asian in origin1. From there it has invaded much of the Neotropical region spanning from Mexico south to Argentina1,2. It was first found in Hawaii in 2009 and Florida in 2010.
Official Control: Planococcus minor is listed as a harmful organism by China, the Republic of Korea, and Japan3.
California Distribution: Planococcus minor has never been found in the environment of California.
California Interceptions: Planococcus minor has been intercepted 89 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations and dog teams. Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts mostly from Hawaii, but also from Florida, Washington, and Pennsylvania.
The risk Planococcus minor (pacific mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Planococcus minor are widely grown throughout California as agricultural crops and ornamentals. The mealybug is likely to establish wherever suitable host material is found and receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Planococcus minor feeds on more than 250 plants belonging to 66 families and receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pacific mealybug can complete a generation in less than a month and each female lays between 206 and 270 eggs, indicating a high reproductive rate. Mealybugs can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved. They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals. Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Planococcus minor may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and sooty mold. It may also increase production costs for a wide variety of crops. Several of California’s trading partners list pacific mealybug as a harmful organism, so exports of fresh fruit including citrus and grapes may be disrupted. Pacific mealybug has been implicated in the transmission of virus diseases between plants1. Furthermore, honeydew secreted by the mealybugs will attract ants, which may injure parasitic wasps, disrupting biological control programs for other pests. Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Planococcus minor is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as Wiggins’ croton (Croton wigginsii) and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia). The mealybugs are not likely to disrupt critical habitats. They may trigger new treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. Pacific mealybug feeds on a wide variety of popular ornamental plants and plants common in home/urban gardens. Planococcus minor receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Planococcus minor (Pacific Mealybug): High (15)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Planococcus minor has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)
Recent formal mealybug surveys in California have focused on Proteas and would have been unlikely to detect pacific mealybug. It is possible that the mealybug could be present in some localities.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Planococcus minor has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state. An “A” rating is justified.
1 Francis, Antonio W., Moses T.K. Kairo, and Amy L. Roda. 2012. Passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). University of Florida Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN92000.pdf
2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy. ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Planococcus/minor
3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
♦ Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.
Consequences of Introduction: 1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]
♦ Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.
♦ Comments may not be posted if they:
Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;
Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;
Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;
Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.
♦ Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.
♦ Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.
Pest Rating: A
Posted by ls