Tag Archives: Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae

California Pest Rating for
Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae Corbett
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Aleurotrachelus anonae was recently reported to be established on the island of Hawaii.  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).  The adults of Aleurotrachelus species are small (1-2 mm in length), whitish (covered by white wax), fly-like insects (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  The immature stages are found on leaves, where they feed on plant fluids.  The last immature stage (“puparium”) of A. anonae is approximately 0.5 mm long, pale yellow, and oval in shape with finely-toothed margins (Corbett, 1935).  This species has been reported from Annona squamosa, Morus indica, Persea americana, and Zingiber sp.  Infestations on avocado in Hawaii apparently caused sooty mold, which grows on plant surfaces in association with the honeydew excreted by the whiteflies (Dubey and Ko, 2010; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Malumphy and Reid.  2017; Mound and Halsey, 1978).

Worldwide Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is reported from Bangladesh, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Hawaii (Dubey and Ko, 2010; Evans, 2008; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  An Aleurotrachelus infestation that may have been A. anonae was found in a nursery in Florida.  It is not known if this whitefly is currently present in that state (Stocks, 2016).

Official Control: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Aleurotrachelus anonae has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Aleurotrachelus anonae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Aleurotrachelus anonae appears to have a moderate host range, and potential host trees are grown widely in California (Morus alba, the genus of which contains a reported host, and Persea americana, which was attacked in Hawaii and possibly in Florida). The areas where A. anonae is known to occur have tropical/subtropical climates. Aleurotrachelus anonae may be able to become established in a limited portion of southern California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although details are scarce, reports suggest that A. anonae feeds on plants in at least four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adult whiteflies are capable of dispersing via flight, although they may not move great distances that way.  Immature Aleyrodidae are sedentary and affixed to the surface of their host plant and thus are easily dispersed via movement of infested plant material, as proven by their frequent interception at ports of entry.  Therefore, Aleurotrachelus anonae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on several different plants, little is known regarding the impact of such feeding.  In support of the pest potential of A. anonae, other species of Aleurotrachelus are pests.  For example, A. socialis is the most important whitefly pest of cassava in Colombia, and A. atratus is a pest of coconut in Africa and South America (Holguín et al., 2006; Kityo et al., 2017).  Aleurotrachelus anonae was reported to attack avocado in Hawaii and possibly Florida.  The Hawaii infestation was associated with sooty mold, which can reduce photosynthesis in affected plants (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  Avocados are an important crop in California, and if A. anonae was established in this state, it could lower yields of avocado.  This could trigger treatments as well.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are no native California plants in the host genera reported for A. anonae. However, mulberry (Morus alba) is planted in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on another Morus species; if it was established in California, it could impact plantings of M. alba.  Infestations on crop or ornamental plants could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D,E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

 E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aleurotrachelus anonae: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

The field reports of A. anonae lack detail.  For example, except for the report of sooty mold associated with this species on avocado in Hawaii, there is no indication of the level of damage (if any) inflicted on host plants.  This may be an indication of a lack of impact on the host plants.  There is also uncertainty regarding the suitability of California’s climate for A. anonae.  The areas this species is currently known to occur in are tropical or subtropical.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly that has been reported to feed on plants in at least four families.  One of these plants is avocado, an important crop in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.  It could potentially become established in southern portions of the state, and if it did so, it could impact agriculture and ornamental plantings.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Corbett, G. H. 1935. 48. Malayan Aleurodidae. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums. 17 (4): 722-852.

Dubey, A.K. and C.-C. Ko.  2010.  Aleurotrachelus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and allied genera from Taiwan.  Zootaxa.  2685: 1-29.

Evans, G.A.  2008.  The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the world and their host plants and natural enemies.  Version 2008-09-23.

Holguín, C.M., Carabali, A., and Bellotti, A.C.  2006.  Tasa intrínseca de crecimiento de Aleurotrachelus socialis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en yuca Manihot esculenta.  Revista Colombiana de Entomología.  32(2): 140-144.

Kityo, R., Cugala, D., and Nampala, P.  2017.  First record of parasitoids associated with the invasive coconut whitefly in Inhambane Province, Mozambique.  International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research.  3(2): 2568-2583.

Malumphy, C. and Reid, S.  2017.  Solanum or pepper whitefly, Aleurotrachelus trachoides.  Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.

Mound, L.A. and Halsey, S.H.  1978.  Whitefly of the world.  A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data.  British Museum and John Wiley and Sons.  340 pp.

Stocks, I.  2016.  Aleurotrachelus near anonae (Corbett), a new continental record whitefly in Florida.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry.  Pest Alert.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 28, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Asiothrixus antidesmae (Takahashi): Whitefly [No Common Name]

California Pest Rating for
Asiothrixus antidesmae (Takahashi): Whitefly [No Common Name]
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In September 2016 the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) released a report on Asiothrixus antidesmae that recommended that USDA establish a non-reportable/non-actionable port policy for the whitefly in the continental United States.  Stephen Brown requested comments on this proposal.

History & Status:

Background:  Asiothrixus antidesmae is a whitefly that feeds by sucking phloem from a variety of plants including:  Apocynaceae: Alyxia stellata (maile); Araceae: Alocasia sp. (taro), Anthurium andraeanum (flamingo lily); Calophyllaceae: Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel); Clusiaceae: Garcinia eugenifolia (saptree); Dillenaceae: Dillenia spp.; Lamiaceae: Ocimum spp. (basil); Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia sp.; Phyllanthaceae: Antidesma spp. (chinalaurel); Piperaceae: Piper betel; Rubiaceae: Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine), G. taitensis (Tahitian gardenia), Ixora spp., Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry); Smilacaceae: Smilax sp.  The whitefly can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Asiothrixus antidesmae is native to Taiwan.  From there is has spread to Nauru, Palau, Tahiti, Western Samoa, Brunei, the Philippines, Singapore, Sulawesi, Thailand, Guadeloupe, and Saint Lucia.  In the United States it has been found in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Florida.

Official Control: Asiothrixus antidesmae is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Asiothrixus antidesmae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Asiothrixus antidesmae was intercepted by CDFA 6 times between January 1, 1987 and September 27, 2016 on shipments of fresh plant parts from Hawaii, usually betel leaves (Piper betel).

The risk Asiothrixus antidesmae (whitefly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: According to the NPAG report Asiothrixus antidesmae is expected to establish a widespread distribution in California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Asiothrixus antidesmae is known to feed on plants in 13 genera in 10 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Whiteflies are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  Asiothrixus antidesmae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Asiothrixus antidesmae is not considered to be an economic pest.  It is not expected to lower crop yields.  It might increase nursery stock production costs.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Asiothrixus antidesmae receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Asiothrixus antidesmae were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested ornamental plants unacceptable.  A variety of tropical ornamental plantings could be affected by this pest.  Asiothrixus antidesmae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Asiothrixus antidesmae (Whitefly): High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

 –Low = 5-8 points

 –Medium = 9-12 points

 –High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Asiothrixus antidesmae has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There are a wide variety of whiteflies already present in California including some with significantly overlapping host ranges.  It is possible that natural enemies of these existing whiteflies and competitive effects will help mitigate any impacts of Asiothrixus antidesmae.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Asiothrixus antidesmae has never been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

Smith, J.W. 2016.  NPAG Report Asiothrixus antidesmae (Takahashi): Whitefly [no common name].  United States Department of Agriculture New Pest Advisory Group.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

10/13/2016 – 11/27/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls 

 

Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Spiraling Whitefly)

California Pest Rating for
Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Spiraling Whitefly)
Hemiptera:  Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:  

In October 2013, USDA released a DEEP report proposing to deregulate Aleurodicus dispersus (spiraling whitefly).  The insect is currently “Q”-rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Spiraling whitefly is highly polyphagous, feeding on plants in 49 different plant families.  Known hosts include such economically important pests as avocado, citrus, eggplant, pepper, rose, Prunus spp., and palms.  Interceptions indicate that the whitefly often moves long distances in the trade of plants and flowers.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of spiraling whitefly is believed to be the tropical Americas.  It was described from Florida in 1965 from specimens collected as early as 1950.  Since then it has been found to have a widespread distribution including Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Mexico.  Furthermore, it is reported in numerous nations in Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.

Official Control: Arizona has a state quarantine against all citrus whiteflies.  Aleurodicus dispersus is also listed as a harmful organism by Antigua and Barbuda, Chile, China, French Polynesia, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, and New Zealand2.

California Distribution:  Spiraling whitefly has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Spiraling whitefly is frequently intercepted on shipments of plants, leaves, and flowers from Hawaii and Florida.  It has been intercepted more than 1300 times since 11/29/2000.

The risk spiraling whitefly would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Spiraling whitefly has been present in Florida for over 60 years but has not spread beyond the central portion of the state. Primarily a tropical species, it is reportedly limited by cold temperatures.  In California the whitefly would likely be limited to southern and coastal areas.  Spiraling whitefly receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Spiraling whitefly is a highly polyphagous insect that is known to feed on plants from 49 different plant families.  The whitefly receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Whiteflies reproduce rapidly and can be spread long distances by wind or through the movement of plants and flowers.  Spiraling whitefly receives a High(3) in this category.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Spiraling whitefly was originally considered an economic pest in Hawaii when it was introduced.  However, damage is now limited as a successful biological control agent was introduced.  In the absence of this biological control agent in California, the whitefly may be expected to lower crop yield by both sucking juices from plants and reducing their photosynthetic capacity by contaminating leaf surfaces with sooty mold.  They may also lower crop value by triggering treatment and/or disfiguring nursery stock with their presence and with sooty mold.  Furthermore, Arizona maintains a quarantine against all citrus whiteflies and many of California’s trading partners list Aleurodicus dispersus as a harmful organism.  This could lead to disruptions in markets for California citrus.  Spiraling whitefly receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Rosa minutafolia (small-leaved rose) is listed as an endangered species in California and is a potential host for spiraling whitefly.  The whitefly may also trigger additional chemical treatments.  The whitefly receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aleurodicus dispersus (Spiraling Whitefly):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Spiraling whitefly has not been found in the environment of California. It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

Spiraling whitefly has been intercepted more than a thousand times in California.  However, it has never been found in the environment.  This may indicate that environmental conditions in the state are unfavorable for establishment of the species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

In the absence of a successful biological control program in California, spiraling whitefly is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Zlotina, Marina 2013.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Aleurodicus dispersus Russell: Spiralling Whitefly

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Jun 22, 2016 and closed on Aug 6, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi: Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly

California Pest Rating for
Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi: Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On February 9, 2016 USDA announced that it had changed the status of Paraleyrodes bondari from actionable to non-actionable based on a recommendation from the National Plant Board1.  Stephen Brown subsequently requested a rating proposal for Paraleyrodes bondari.

History & Status:

BackgroundParaleyrodes bondari is a whitefly that feeds on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of a variety of plants2.  Infested plants develop a coating of sooty mold and strands of white wax2.  Known hosts include Annonaceae: sugar apple (Annona squamosa2); Arecaceae: coconut (Cocos nucifera2), Chamaedorea sp.2; Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana2), til (Ocotea foetens2), canary laurel (Apollonias barbujana2); Meliaceae: Trichilia sp.2; Malvaceae: Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis2); Moraceae: banyantree (Ficus benghalensis2), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina2), curtain fig (Ficus microcarpa2); Myrtaceae: Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora2), guava (Psidium guajava2); Rutaceae: orange (Citrus sinensis5), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata5), lemon (Citrus limon5), Citrus spp.2  Paraleyrodes bondari may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Paraleyrodes bondari is Neotropical in origin2 with a known range from Brazil to Honduras.  From there it has spread to Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion, and Maderia2.  It was first found in southern Florida by Stephen Brown in 20112 and by 2012 had spread to six counties3.

Official Control: All citrus whiteflies are considered quarantine pests by the State of Arizona.  Paraleyrodes bondari is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, Bermuda and Jordan both list all whiteflies as harmful organisms4.

California Distribution Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California.

California Interceptions:  Paraleyrodes bondari has never been intercepted by CDFA.  However, unidentified species of Paraleyrodes were intercepted 39 times from 2001 to 2015 on plants and fresh plant parts from Hawaii and Florida.

The risk Paraleyrodes bondari (Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Paraleyrodes bondari are widespread in urban and rural residential areas of California and are important agricultural crops. The whitefly is likely to encounter suitable hosts through much of the state.  The present distribution of Paraleyrodes bondari corresponds with tropical climates.  It is likely that the whitefly will be limited to warmer parts of coastal and southern California.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Paraleyrodes bondari feeds on at least eighteen species of plants in eight families including important crops and ornamentals.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Whiteflies are capable of rapid reproduction and may be transported long distances by wind or when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Paraleyrodes bondari has not been documented reducing any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and sooty mold.  Arizona considers all citrus whiteflies to be quarantine pests and Paraleyrodes bondari has not been found in that state.  Its presence in California could disrupt markets.  Bondar’s nesting whitefly is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Paraleyrodes bondari were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in groves, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Hosts of the whitefly are popular as both ornamentals and in home/urban gardens and may be significantly affected.  Paraleyrodes bondari receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Paraleyrodes bondari (Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The whitefly has not been documented to reduce crop yields.  However, populations in infested areas are suppressed by Encarsia variegata (Aphelinidae)2.  It is possible that this whitefly could be more damaging in California if it were to establish without this parasitoid.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Paraleyrodes bondari has never been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Collins, Joe 2015.  Letter from National Plant Board to Ricardo Valdez.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/frsmp/downloads/non-reg-pests/pnr-12-21-15.pdf

2 Stocks, Ian C. 2012. Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari, a whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) New to Florida Attacking Ficus and Other Hosts.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Pest Alert DACS-P-01801.  http://www.fortlauderdale.gov/Home/ShowDocument?id=4794

3 Distribution of Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly, Paraleyrodes bondari. May 25, 2012.  http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/hodges/white_website/maps/Whitefly_Bondars_Nesting_Map_8X11.pdf

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 Martin, J.H. 1996. Neotropical whiteflies of the subfamily Aleurodicinae established in the western Palearctic (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Natural History 30: 1849-1859. http://www.eurekamag.com/002/002903436.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 1, 2016 and closed on April 15, 2016.


Comment Format:

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Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls