California Pest Rating for
Lindingaspis floridana Ferris: Floridana Scale
Pest Rating: B
PEST RATING PROFILE
Lindingaspis floridana was intercepted by a CDFA dog team in a parcel of mango fruit shipped from Florida to Sacramento. This insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to support a permanent pest rating.
History & Status:
Background: Lindingaspis floridana is an armored scale insect that feeds on the leaves of mango (Mangifera indica), fig (Ficus spp.), and olive (Olea spp.)1. It may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.
Worldwide Distribution: Lindingaspis floridana is presumably native to Asia. It was first found in Florida in 19212. It has also spread to Haiti and Jamaica1.
Official Control: Lindingaspis floridana is listed as a harmful organism by Costa Rica, Japan, and Korea3.
California Distribution: Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in the environment of California.
California Interceptions: Lindingaspis floridana has been intercepted by CDFA’s dog teams and high risk programs 6 times since August 1, 2014. It was also intercepted once on July 3, 2001. All of the interceptions for which data was recorded occurred on mango fruit.
The risk Lindingaspis floridana (floridana scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Species of Ficus and Olea are commonly planted as ornamentals and crops throughout much of California. Mango plants are restricted to warmer parts of the state. Lindingaspis floridana is likely capable of establishment everywhere suitable hosts are available. It receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Lindingaspis floridana is known to feed on three genera of plants in three plant families. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment. Lindingaspis floridana receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Although Lindingaspis floridana feeds on economically important plants, it is not considered to be a pest2. There is a closely related similar scale, Lindingaspis rossi, that is already present in California4,5. Lindingaspis rossi is highly polyphagous and feeds on the leaves of many plants including all of the hosts of Lindingaspis floridana5. Therefore if Lindingaspis floridana were to establish in California it is not expected to have major economic impacts. It is not expected to lower crop yields, lower crop values, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies. However, Costa Rica, Japan and Korea list Lindingaspis floridana on their harmful organism lists3. Japan, Korea, and Vietnam list Lindingaspis rossi on their harmful organism lists3. It is therefore possible that Lindingaspis floridana could affect exports to some markets such as Costa Rica. Lindingaspis floridana receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: If Lindingaspis floridana were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It is not likely to trigger new treatment programs or have significant impacts to cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Lindingaspis floridana receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Lindingaspis floridana (Floridana Scale): Medium (10)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)
Lindingaspis rossi is already present in California and feeds on the same hosts as Lindingaspis floridana as well as many other plants. There have been no formal surveys to look for Lindingaspis floridana in California. It is therefore possible that Lindingaspis floridana may already be present in some localities in California but has not been recognized as something new.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Lindingaspis floridana has never been found in California. If it were to establish in the state it might have trade impacts. A “B” rating is justified.
1 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Lindingaspis floridana Ferris. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Lindingaspisfloridana.htm
2 Miller, Douglass R., Gary L. Miller, Greg S. Hodges, and John A. Davidson. 2005. Introduced Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and Their Impact on U.S. Agriculture. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107(1):123-158. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/40540/PDF
3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
4 McKenzie, Howard L. 1956. The Armored Scale Insects of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey Volume 5. http://essig.berkeley.edu/documents/cis/cis05.pdf
5 SEL Catalogue Query Results/ScaleNet: Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell). http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Lindingaspisrossi.htm
Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
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Pest Rating: B
Posted by ls