Category Archives: Hemiptera

Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale

California Pest Rating for
Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis uniloba is occasionally intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis uniloba is an armored scale insect that feeds on a variety of plants.  Known hosts include: Apocynaceae: Alyxia sp1,2, maile (Alyxia olivaeformis1,2); Fabaceae: Bauhinia racemosa1,2; Magnoliaceae: Michelia sp.1,2; Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.1,2, sweet olive (Osmanthus fragrans1,2), fortune’s tea olive (Osmanthus fortunei1,2); Rutaceae: bael fruit (Aegle marmelos1,2); Theaceae: Adinandra sp.1,2, Adinandra milletti1,2, Adinandra ryukyuensis2, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica1,2), Cleyera japonica1,2, Cleyera ochnacea1,2, Eurya japonica1,2, Thea japonica1,2Pinnaspis uniloba may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis uniloba is probably native to Asia.  It has been reported in China1,2, India1,2, Japan1,2, and South Korea2.  From there it has spread to the Hawaiian Islands.

Official Control: Pinnaspis uniloba is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.

California DistributionPinnaspis uniloba has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsPinnaspis uniloba has been intercepted 92 times on plants and fresh plant material from Hawaii.  Many of these interceptions have occurred on Maile (Alyxia sp.) leaf leis.

The risk Pinnaspis uniloba (unilobed scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

Climate/Host Interaction: A few of the host plants of Pinnaspis uniloba are widely grown as ornamentals in California and the scale may be expected to establish everywhere they are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis uniloba is known to feed on 16 species of plants in six families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Pinnaspis uniloba has only one generation per year.  Armored scales may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved and may be dispersed locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of some nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested ornamentals unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis uniloba (Unilobed Scale):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis uniloba is currently not known to be present anywhere in North or South America.  It is possible that some states or nations could impose new trade restrictions if it were to become abundant in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California.  It is expected to have limited impacts if it were to enter the state.  The scale is most often intercepted on leis and, because of its limited host range, is unlikely to encounter suitable host material when it enters the state via this pathway.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pinnaspis/uniloba/

2 SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisuniloba.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius: Banana Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius: Banana Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus elisae is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudococcus elisae is a polyphagous Neotropical mealybug that feeds on a variety of cultivated plants, but most often on banana and other Musaceae1.  Known hosts include: Annonaceae: sugar apple (Annona squamosa1); Araceae: Aglaonema spp.1, Dieffenbachia spp.1; Musaceae: Musa spp.1, latundan banana (Musa sapientum1), plantain (Musa paradisiaca1); Rubiaceae: robusta coffee (Coffea canephora1), arabica coffee (Coffea arabica1), Ixora spp.1; Rutaceae: key lime (Citrus aurantifolia1).  Pseudococcus elisae may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus elisae is native to the Neotropical region.  It is established in Mexico3, Guatemala3, Honduras3, Panama3, Colombia3, Ecuador3, Brazil3, Chile3, and Cuba3.  It was confirmed to be established in Hawaii in 19842.

Official Control: Pseudococcus elisae is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Paraguay4.

California DistributionPseudococcus elisae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Pseudococcus elisae was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations, and dog teams 97 times.  Interceptions have occurred on bananas, cut flowers, nursery stock, and other fresh plant parts.

The risk Pseudococcus elisae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus elisae is a tropical species with a host range that includes some plants grown outdoors in the warmer regions of California (e.g. key lime, banana). If the mealybug were to enter the state it would likely be limited to regions where these host plants are available.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus elisae is known to feed on 10 species of plants in 5 families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pseudococcus elisae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Pseudococcus elisae may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  Several of California’s trading partners consider the mealybug a harmful organism.  It is possible that Pseudococcus elisae could disrupt markets for nursery stock and fresh fruit.  The mealybug receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agri5)  cultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus elisae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pseudococcus elisae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudococcus elisae:  Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus elisae has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the host range of Pseudococcus elisae could be greater than is presently known.  It is also possible that most of the climate of California could be unsuitable for establishment of the species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus elisae has never been found in California.  If it were to enter the state significant economic impacts could be expected on the nursery and fruit industries.  An “A” rating is justified.

 References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudococcus/elisae/

2 Beardsley, John W. 1986. Taxonomic Notes on Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, a Mealybug New to the Hawaiian Fauna (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal Series no. 2942 of the Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resource. 26(1): 31-34.  https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/11188/26_31-34.pdf?sequence=1

3 CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Pseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug). http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/45085

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale

California Pest Rating for
Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui is frequently intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAulacaspis yasumatsui is an armored scale insect that is considered a serious pest of cycads in Florida, Hawaii, Guam, Palau, Taiwan and Indonesia1,2,3.  The scale infests both the fronds and the roots of its host plants at depths of up to 60cm in the soil2.  Clean plants that are infested by the scales show chlorotic leaves within a month1.  Both sides of fronds on untreated plants become white with layers of scales1.  Within 270 days plants are heavily desiccated and brown and within a year they are dead1.  Even if infestations are managed they usually reduce the value of nursery stock, as dead scales are difficult to remove from fronds2.  Infestations are also persistent, they likely to return from deep on the roots to the fronds of treated plants2.  Since it feeds deep beneath soil, Aulacaspis yasumatsui can easily be transported long distances when infested host plants are moved.  Known hosts include:  Boweniaceae: Bowenia sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas media1, Cycas micronesica1, Cycas panzhihuaensis1, Cycas revoluta1, Cycas rumphii1, Cycas seemannii1, Cycas sp.1, Cycas szechuanensis1, Cycas taitungensis1, Cycas thouarsii1, Cycas wadei1; Stangeriaceae: Stangeria eripus1, Stangeria sp.1; Zamiaceae: Dioon califanoi1, Dioon edule1, Dioon merolae1, Dioon rzedowski1, Dioon sp.1, Dioon spinulosum1, Dioon tomasellii sonorense1, Diooon sonorense1, Encephalartos barteri1, Encephalartos ferox1, Encephalartos hildebrandtii1, Encephalartos manikensis1, Encephalartos pterogonus1, Encephalartos sp.1, Encephalartos whitelockii1, Macrozamia lucida1, Macrozamia miguelii1, Macrozamia sp.1, Microcycas colocoma1, Microcycas sp.1, Zamia integrifolia1, Zamia loddigesii Miq1.

Worldwide Distribution: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is native to South-East Asia5.  It has spread to Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and parts of the Pacific Region and Australasia.  It was first found in Florida in 19961,2 and has since spread through much of the southeastern United States, Hawaii, Guam and Palau.

Official Control: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, and Seychelles4.

California DistributionAulacaspis yasumatsui has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Aulacaspis yasumatsui was intercepted 221 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections.  Most of these interceptions have been on cycads from Hawaii and Florida.  Since 2009, heavy infestations of the scale have been found several times in southern California nurseries.

The risk Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Cycads are popular ornamental plants that are grown throughout much of California. Aulacaspis yasumatsui is likely able to establish wherever these hosts are grown.  The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2) Known Pest Host Range: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is known to feed on plants in eight genera in four families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Aulacaspis yasumatsui has a high reproductive rate.  It can complete a generation in 28-41 days and each female lays about 100 eggs1,2.  The scale also has high dispersal potential.  It can be transported long distances on infested plants and can disperse locally by crawling, by wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: If Aulacaspis yasumatsui were to establish in California it would be certain to lower yields in cycad nursery stock production and reduce the value of cycad nursery stock.  It might also trigger disruptions of markets for nursery stock.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

 5)  Environmental Impact: Cycads are popular, high-value ornamental plants in California and if Aulacaspis yasumatsui were to establish in the state these plants would require new treatment programs.  These would be necessary in both the nursery industry and by residents who wish to keep cycads alive.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui would significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, and ornamental plantings.   The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Cycad Aulacaspis Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

 6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aulacaspis yasumatsui has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui commonly infests roots of host plants which can make it difficult to observe during visual inspections.  The frequent interceptions, heavy infestations found in southern California nurseries, and below ground feeding make it possible that some infested plants have been sold to consumers.  Furthermore, there have been no recent surveys of cycad pests.  It is possible that Aulacapis yasumatsui may already be found in some locations in California’s environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui has not been found in the environment of California and would have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish here.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 SEL Catalog Query Results.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Aulacaspisyasumatsui.htm

2 Weissling, T.J. and F.W. Howard. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/palms/cycad_scale.htm

3 Cave, R.D., Chao, J-T., Kumashiro, B., Marler, T., Miles, J., Moore, A., Muniappan, R., and Watson, G.W. (2013) Status and biological control of cycad aulacaspis scale. Biocontrol News and Information, 34(1): 1N-4N.

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale).  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/18756

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Kallitaxila granulata (Stål): A Planthopper

California Pest Rating for
Kallitaxila granulata (Stål):  A Planthopper
Hemiptera:  Tropiduchidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The planthopper Kallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted by CDFA on shipments of plant products from Hawaii.  This organism is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future actions on this pest.

 History & Status:

Background:  Kallitaxila granulata is a moderately polyphagous planthopper that feeds on at least 24 species of plants in at least 19 families.  Adults lay eggs singly or in clusters along leaf veins, typically on the underside of leaves2.  Nymphs and adults both feed on leaves.  Known hosts include:  ApocynaceaePlumeria acuminata (plumeria)2AsparagaceaeCordyline fruicosa (ti)2; AsteraceaeWedelia sp.3; Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera sp. (honeysuckle)3; CibotiaceaeCibotium chamissoi (hapuu)2; ConvovulaceaeIpomoea triloba (Aiea morning glory)3; EuphorbiaceaeAleurites moluccana (kukui)2, Euphorbia heterophylla3FabaceaeErythrina sandwicensis (wiliwili)3; Erythrina variegata (India coral bean)2, Lablab purpureus (lablab beans)3; GleicheniaceaeDicranopteris linearis (uluhe)2; LamiaceaeVitex sp.3; MalvaceaeThespesia populnea (milo tree)3; Moraceae: Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)3; MyrtaceaeMetrosideros polymorpha (ohia-lihua)2; Psidium guava (guava)2Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape)3; RubiaceaeCoffea sp. (coffee)3Rutaceae: Citrus paradisi (grapefruit)2, Citrus sp.3; ScrophulariaceaeMyoporum acuminatum3; Thymelaeaceae: Wikstroemia sp. (akia)3; VerbenaceaeLantana montevidensis3, .  The planthopper has the potential to spread long distances through commerce in infested plants and plant products.

Worldwide Distribution: Kallitaxila granulata is native to the Philippines.  From there it spread to Christmas Island, the Cook Islands, Vietnam, China, and Hawaii4.

Official Control:  Kallitaxila granulata is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionKallitaxila granulata has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsKallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted on shipments of plant products from Hawaii including basil, betel, curry, ginger, malangai, orchids, and ti1.

The risk Kallitaxila granulata (a planthopper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Some of the known hosts of Kallitaxila granulata are widely grown as ornamentals (e.g., Ficus benjamina) and crops (e.g., citrus) in California. The planthopper is likely to establish wherever hosts are grown.  The insect receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kallitaxila granulata is known to feed on at least 24 species of plants in 19 plant families.  The host list for Kallitaxila granulata expanded greatly with its introduction to Hawaii.  It is likely that the plant hopper would continue to colonize new plants if it established in California.  This is likely to cause additional economic and/or environmental impacts that are not considered in this document. The planthopper receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Planthoppers have high reproductive potential and may spread long distances through the movement of infested plants or plant products.  Kallitaxila granulata receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to lower crop yields.  Because the planthopper has a limited distribution, its entry into California may disrupt some markets as it is likely to contaminate commodities with its presence.  The planthopper may increase crop production costs, especially in the nursery industry, as growers treat to ensure clean plants.  Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to negatively change cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  The planthopper receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  No plants listed as threatened or endangered species in California are expected to be hosts for the plant hopper, nor is the plant hopper expected to disrupt critical habitats.  The leaf hopper may trigger additional private treatment programs within the nursery industry as some growers may treat in order to maintain nursery stock cleanliness.  The leaf hopper is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Kallitaxila granulata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kallitaxila granulata: High(13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kallitaxila granulata has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(13)

 Uncertainty:

Kallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted on shipments of plant products from Hawaii.  Presumably, it has also been present on other shipments that were not intercepted and have entered the state.  There have not been any formal surveys of California for this plant hopper.  Therefore, it is likely that Kallitaxila granulata is either already present in parts of the state or that environmental conditions here are not conducive to establishment.  The places where the planthopper is known to be established have humid tropical environments.   The Mediterranean climate of California may not be suitable for the plant hopper.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kallitaxila granulata has not yet been documented to cause significant economic or environmental impacts anywhere it has established.  If the plant hopper were to enter California, economic impacts are expected to be limited to possible disruptions to host plant markets when the insect is found.  Furthermore, production costs may increase in the nursery industry as new treatments could be triggered in order to maintain plant cleanliness.  Environmental impacts are expected to be limited to these possible new chemical treatments.  However, the plant hopper greatly expanded its host range when it was introduced to Hawaii.  It is likely to continue to colonize new hosts in California.  Due to potential economic and environmental impacts of the entry of Kallitaxila granulata into California, an “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1Von Ellenrieder, Natalia.  2007.  A planthopper (Kallitaxila granulata).  California Plant Pest & Disease Report 23(1): 19.  http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdfa.ca.gov%2Fplant%2FPPD%2FPDF%2Fkallitaxila_granulata.pdf&ei=kTe8U_3KDojPiwLM-IGACQ&usg=AFQjCNH2ilXv8591Cqo7A2UW721tVhR6fg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGE

2Yang, Pingjun, Andrei Alyokhn, and Russell Messing.  2001.  Patterns of oviposition and parasitism of eggs of Kallitaxila granulata (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae), a newly invasive planthopper in Hawaii.  Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society 35: 77-83.  http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/8104/9Yang.pdf?sequence=1

3Asche, Manfred. 2000.  New state records of immigrant planthoppers in Hawaii (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea).  Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society 34: 185-187.  http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/8409/Note2.pdf?sequence=1

4FLOW Hemiptera Database:  http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/?page=explorer&db=flow&lang=en&card=taxon&rank=species&id=9580

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Lycorma delicatula White: Spotted Lanternfly

California Pest Rating for
Lycorma delicatula White:  Spotted Lanternfly
Hemiptera: Fulgoridae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 30, 2014 Duane Schnabel distributed information from the National Plant Board that Lycorma delicatula has been found in four counties in Pennsylvania and may have been distributed to other states.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction on this pest.

 History & Status:

Background:  Lycorma delicatula is a fulgorid hopper that is known to feed on at least 41 species of trees and herbs1.  The spotted lanternfly has one generation per year and overwinters as eggs in an ootheca1.  In Korea, eggs hatch in mid-May and nymphs begin sucking saps from young stems and leaves1.  Nymphs do not fly and are particularly polyphagous, feeding on almost any plant they encounter.  Their feeding produces large quantities of fluid, which covers stems and leaves1.  Infestations can weaken plants and eventually kill them1.  Adult spotted lanternfly can fly but tends to spread by walking.  By September, many of the adults have moved to preferred hosts, if they are available1.  The strongly preferred host for adult feeding is tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) but they also prefer bee bee tree (Tetradium (=Evodia) daniellii) and Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense)1.  The insect will also feed on a wide variety of other plants including grapes (Vitis spp.) and stone fruit (Prunus spp.).  Oothecae are typically deposited on trees with a smooth surface structure1.  The most likely pathway for long-distance spread of Lycorma delicatula is the movement of oothecae on infested nursery stock or possibly other objects.

Partial Host List:  Betulaceae: Betula platyphylla1 (Japanese white birch); Cornaceae: Cornus controversa1 (wedding cake tree), C. kousa1 (kousa dogwood), C. officinalis1 (Japanese cornel); Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus umbellata1 (Japanese silverberry); Juglandaceae: Juglans mandshurica1 (Manchurian walnut); Meliaceae: Cedrela fissilis1, Toona sinensis1 (Chinese mahogany); Oleaceae: Syringa vulgaris1 (lilac); Pinaceae: Pinus densiflora1 (Japanese red pine); P. strobus1 (eastern white pine); Rosaceae: Prunus serrulata1 (Japanese cherry), P. yedoensis1 (yoshino cherry); Rutaceae: Phellodendron amurense1 (Amur cork tree), Tetradium daniellii1 (bee bee tree); Salicaceae: Populus alba1 (white poplar); Sapindaceae: Acer palmatum1 (Japanese maple), Acer saccharinum1 (silver maple); Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus altissima1 (tree of heaven), Picrasma quassioides1 (bitterwood); Ulmaceae: Zelkova serrata1 (keyaki); Vitaceae: Parthenocissus quinquefolia1 (Virginia creeper), Vitis amurensis1 (Amur grape), Vitis vinifera1 (grape vine).

Worldwide Distribution: Lycorma delicatula is native to the southern part of China and other subtropical regions of southeast Asia1.  It was not known to be invasive until it spread to Korea in 2006 and to Pennsylvania in 2014.

Official Control: Lycorma delicatula is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionLycorma delicatula has not been found in California.

California InterceptionsLycorma delicatula has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants are commonly grown in California and spotted lanternfly is likely to establish wherever they are found. Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2) Known Pest Host Range: Lycorma delicatula feeds on at least 41 species of plants in at least 14 families.  These include multiple agriculturally important crops and common ornamentals in California.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Lycorma delicatula has only one generation per year and tends to move by walking but oothecae may be dispersed long distances by the movement of infested nursery stock or other items.  Spotted lanternfly receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

 4) Economic Impact: Infestations of Lycorma delicatula may lower crop yields and increase production costs in economically important crops such as grape, stone fruit, and nursery stock.  Since it entered Korea, the insect has caused considerable damage in vineyards.  Although it is not yet under official control in any states or nations, the presence of this pest in agricultural commodities may cause trade disruptions due to its limited range in North America.  Spotted lanternfly is not expected to change normal cultural practices, vector other organisms, or interfere with water supplies.  Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Spotted lanternfly is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatments in vineyards and stone fruit orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Spotted lanternfly may also significantly affect home/urban gardening by feeding on grapes and trees.  Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Lycorma delicatula (Spotted Lanternfly):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Lycorma delicatula has not been found in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(14)

Uncertainty:

There have been no formal surveys for Lycorma delicatula in California.  It may already be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An A-rating is justified.

References:

1Kim, Jae Geun, Eun-Hyuk Lee, Yeo-Min Seo, and Na-Yeon Kim.  Cyclic Behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on Host Plants.  J Insect Behav (2011) 24: 423-435.  http://ag.udel.edu/delpha/7969.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead: Fly Speck Scale

California Pest Rating for
Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead: Fly Speck Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 28, 2013 Dr. Gillian Watson identified fly speck scale, Gymnaspis aechmeae, from a sample of bromeliad plants submitted from a resident’s greenhouse in Orange County (PDR  300P06040190).  Stephen Brown recommended that the scale be run through the draft pest rating process.

History & Status:

Background:  Known colloquially in Australia as “the scourge of the bromeliads, 4” fly speck scale is considered to be a serious pest of the plants1,2,4,5,6.   Known hosts include up to 35 species of Bromeliaceae:  Acanthostachys sp., Acanthostachys strobilacea, Aechmea angustifolia, A. aquilega, A. bracteata7Aechmea chantini, A. nidularioides, A. pubescens, Aechmea sp., Ananas comosus, A. sativus, Ananas sp., Aregelia sp., Billbergia nutans, B. leopoldi, B. pyramidalis7, B. saundersii, Billbergia sp, Bromelia serra, B.pinguin2, Bromelia sp., Hogenbergia erythrostachya, H. stellata7Hogenbergia sp., Karatas amazonica, Karatas sp., Neoregelia sp., Nidularium princeps, Nidularium sp., Pitcairnia sp., Quesnelia sp., Quesnelia wittmackiana, Tillandsia sp., Vriesea sp., Vriesia platzmanni.  Other occasional hosts include Monstera sp. (Araceae), Asparagus sprengeri (Asparagaceae), Caraguata weilbachii and Chlorophytum sp. (Liliaceae), Villarsia officinalis (Menyanthaceae), and Cymbidium sp. (Orchidaceae)1.  Fly speck scale can be dispersed long distances in the trade of live plants.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of fly speck scale is uncertain.  It was first discovered on Aechmea aquilegia at Kew Gardens, London, in 18971.  It was found in Spain by 19061, Argentina by 19071, and Florida in 19175.  It has since been found in Brazil, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Cuba2, Hawaii, Japan3, Australia4,6, and in many European nations1.  Within the United States it has also been found in additional eastern and southern states (Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia) and Colorado8.

Official Control: Fly speck scale is listed as a quarantine pest in Japan and the Republic of Korea9.

California Distribution:  Fly speck scale has never been found outdoors in California.

California Interceptions:  Fly speck scale was found once in a nursery in San Diego county in 2012 (PDR 1422842).

The risk fly speck scale (Gymnaspis aechmeae) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Known outdoor habitats of fly speck scale correspond with tropical, humid environments. The scale is not likely to establish outdoors in California.  However, bromeliads are produced and kept in greenhouses and the scale is likely to establish in these environments.  Fly speck scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Fly speck scale is primarily a pest of bromeliads, but it has been found on 41 species in 6 plant families.  The scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Fly speck scale has only 2 generations per year1, but can produce many first instar crawlers (rather than eggs) giving the species high reproductive potential.  The crawlers are able to walk between plants6.  Furthermore, they can be spread long distances when plants are traded, on clothing, or by wind6.  Fly speck scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Bromeliads are produced in the nursery industry of California.  Fly speck scale is likely to lower the value of this crop by disfiguring the plants with their unsightly presence.  The scale may also increase crop production costs as nurseries are likely to treat infestations or to treat preventively.  Fly speck scale is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan and Korea9 so its presence in California could disrupt trade with those markets.  Fly speck scale may also negatively change normal cultural practices in botanical gardens and nursery greenhouses.  The scale is not expected to lower crop yield, trigger a loss of markets, vector other organisms, affect agriculturally important animals, or affect the water supply.  Fly speck scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous o rganism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: The presence of Gymnaspis aechmeae can be expected to trigger regular, preventive private chemical treatment of bromeliads to prevent unsightly plants4 and eradicate known infestations.  Fly speck scale can also be expected to impact cultural practices in home/urban gardening as bromeliad collectors institute quarantine treatments as they acquire new plants4 and discard untreated, infested plants.  The scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  No hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats.  Fly speck scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Fly Speck Scale (Gymnaspis aechmeae):  Medium (12)

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Fly speck scale is known only from a single incursion into California in a greenhouse in Orange County in 2013. It has not been found anywhere else since then.  It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(12)

Uncertainty:

Bromeliad enthusiasts may trade plants frequently and order plants from infested areas via the Internet and mail services; the scale could have a much wider distribution in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

California’s climate is expected to limit the distribution of fly speck scale to greenhouse environments.  There, the introduction of the scale is expected to have a significant economic impact by decreasing the value of contaminated bromeliads and increasing production costs.  Fly speck scale is also expected to have a significant environmental impact as it can be expected to trigger additional private chemical treatments as residents attempt to both eradicate and prevent infestations.  It will also alter cultural practices as residents will quarantine newly acquired plants and dispose of plants that become unsightly.  A “B” rating is justified for Gymnaspis aechmeae.

 References:

1http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Gymnaspisaechmeae.htm

2Novoa, N.M., G.S. Hodges, M.V. Rubio, P.C. Bonnin, and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad 14(3):181-183

3Mito, T. and T. Uesugi.  2004.  Invasive alien species in Japan:  the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects.  Global Environmental Research 8(2): 171-191.  http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CC0QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.airies.or.jp%2Fattach.php%2F6a6f75726e616c5f30382d32656e67%2Fsave%2F0%2F0%2F08_2-08.pdf&ei=YN9vUtC9IsqDiQLx2IDACg&usg=AFQjCNF_T2F8hHiHRH1hX2i0gqYjsDcT1g&bvm=bv.55123115,d.cGE

4Bromelcairns. 2009 #2 and 2010#3.  Bimonthly Newsletter of Cairns Bromeliad Society, Inc.  P.O. Box 28 Cairns, Queensland, 4870 Australia.  http://www.bromeliadsdownunder.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Bromelcairns-2009-Issue-4.pdf

http://www.bromeliadsdownunder.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Bromelcairns-2010-Issue-3.pdf

5Miller, D.R., G.L. Miller, G.S. Hodges, and J.A. Davidson. 2005.  Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. Agriculture.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107(1): 123-158. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/coccoidea/millermihoda2005.pdf

6Illawarra Bromeliad Society Inc. Club News.  October 2012.  92 Brighton Street, Bundeena, NSW 2230  http://www.bromeliad.org.au/news/Ill1012.htm

7Stephens, J.A.  1965.  Some thoughts on bromeliads.  The Bromeliad Society Bulletin.  Vol. XV(5).  http://journal.bsi.org/V15/5/

8 http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5117097

9 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus variabilis: Agave Mealybugs

California Pest Rating for
Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus variabilis: Agave Mealybugs
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Two species of mealybugs have been found outdoors in California and are often found during nursery inspections of agave plants. The two insects, Paracoccus gillianae and the undescribed Pseudococcus sp. A (the A is for agave), are presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Nothing is known of the biology of the agave mealybugs except that they appear to be mostly limited to agave in nurseries.

Worldwide Distribution: Unknown, possibly native to the southwestern United States or Mexico. The species appear to be moving about in the nursery trade. Specimens of Paracoccus gillianae have been collected in nurseries in seven counties in Florida and have been found outdoors at the Jacksonville Zoological Gardens in Duval County2.

Official Control: The agave mealybugs are not known to be under official control anywhere in the world.

California Distribution: In California Pseudococcus sp. A was found outdoors in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara Counties in the 1980’s and 1990’s. It was found outdoors again in San Diego County in 2012 (PDRs 1326984 and 1401481). Paracoccus gillianae was found outdoors in Riverside County in 2012 (PDRs 1590291 and 1590292).

California Interceptions: Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus sp. A have both been found in nurseries many times. USDA intercepted Paracoccus gillianae on plants from Mexico at Nogales in 1952 and San Diego in 1974. CDFA intercepted Paracoccus gillianae on plants that originated in Mexico in 2008 (PDR 1357956).

The risk agave mealybugs would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Agaves are popular in the nursery industry in California. Agave mealybugs are presumed likely to establish in residential areas where agaves are grown ornamentally and in desert ecosystems where native agaves grow. The agave mealybugs receive a Medium(2) rating for this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The agave mealybugs appear to feed primarily on agave plants (Agave spp.). There are also records from other plants in the Agavaceae: Pseudococcus sp. A on aloe (PDR 1554869) and Paracoccus gillianae on Hesperaloe sp. and Yucca sp. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can reproduce quickly but do not fly and therefore do not usually disperse far from their original host plant. However, mealybugs may be dispersed long distances by wind, by hitchhiking on animals or clothing, or by commerce in infested plants. The agave mealybugs receive a High (3) rating for this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The agave mealybugs have never been documented to cause economic damage anywhere, but dense infestations are unsightly and have been seen killing patches of leaf. Pseudococcus sp. A. has been found on the agave produced commercially for tequila production in Mexico. However, they are not documented as economic pests in their native range. Some nurseries are treating their agaves to prevent contamination by the mealybugs, increasing production costs. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: A widespread establishment of the agave mealybugs may result in increased pesticide use by nurseries and residents. Nurseries in Santa Barbara County have had difficulty in eradicating infestations using topical insecticide treatments resulting in repeated applications to get them under control. Other nurseries are using systemic insecticides to prevent the mealybugs from showing up on their agaves1. Therefore, if the rating were changed for the agave mealybugs it is expected to reduce pesticide use. There are no plants in the genera Agave, Aloe, Hesperaloe, or Yucca listed as threatened or endangered plants in California. There are no reports of agave mealybugs causing environmental damage anywhere in the world. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Agave Mealybugs: Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Agave mealybugs have been found in the environment of Los Angeles and Santa Barbara Counties. They receive a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the agave mealybugs could have a wider host range than is known, resulting in greater consequences from establishment. It is also likely that the mealybugs have spread to other states where Agavaceae grow.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The agave mealybugs Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus sp. A have been found outdoors in California and appear to be established in the nursery system. They do not appear to be causing any economic damage (other than through their quarantine status). They are not expected to have significant environmental impacts to California. A C-rating is justified for these pests.

References:

http://www.xericworld.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2831

Von Ellenrieder, Natalia and Ian C. Stocks. 2014. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zootaxa 3873(1):025-036.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday,  April 1, 2015 and closed on May 16, 2015.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale

California Pest Rating for
Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Unaspis citri is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Unaspis citri, citrus snow scale, is an armored scale insect that primarily feeds on the trunk and tree limbs of older citrus trees¹. Populations of the scale reduce tree vigor and fruit production¹. Prolonged high populations can cause bark to split, allowing other insect pests and pathogens to invade the tree¹. Known hosts of citrus snow scale include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica³), Mangifera sp.²,³; Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona muricata²,³); Arecaceae: Cocos sp.²,³; Bromeliaceae: Ananas sp.²,³, Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides²,³); Celastraceae: evergreen spindle (Euonymus japonicus²,³), broad-leaved spindle tree (Euonymus latifolia²,³), Fabaceae: Acacia sp.²,³, Inga sp.³; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.²,³; Musaceae: Musa sp.²,³; Myrtaceae: guava (Psidium guajava²,³); Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.²,³; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.²,³; Rosaceae: avocado (Persea americana²,³); Rutaceae: Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa²,³), Citrus sp.²,³, key lime (Citrus aurantifolia²,³), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium²,³), Citrus decumana²,³, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis²,³), mandarin (Citrus reticulata²,³), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi²,³), tangerine (Citrus nobilis²,³), citron (Citrus medica²,³), Citrus medica acida², pomelo (Citrus maxima²,³), lemon (Citrus limon²,³), Citrus grandis²,³, kumquats (Fortunella sp.²,³), Glycosmis parviflora²,³, orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata²,³), trifoliate orange (Poncirus sp.²,³), Severina sp.²,³; Sapindaceae: rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum²). Unaspis citri may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Unaspis citri is believed to have originated in Asia, but has spread through many of the citrus growing regions of the world¹.

Official Control: Unaspis citri has listed as a harmful organism by 46 nations including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela4.

California Distribution: Unaspis citri has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Unaspis citri is commonly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations on citrus fruit from Mexico and Florida.

The risk Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Citrus is widely planted across much of California and Unaspis citri can be expected to establish wherever it is grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Unaspis citri is known to feed on 34 varieties of plants in 13 families. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved. They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Unaspis citri were to establish in California it is expected that it would lower yields and increase crop production costs in citrus nursery stock and fruit industries. Citrus snow scale is also considered a quarantine pest by many of California’s trading partners. The presence of the scale in the state would disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Unaspis citri is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It may trigger additional treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested trees unsightly or diminished citrus yields unacceptable. Citrus snow scale may also significantly impact ornamental plantings. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Unaspis citri (Citrus Snow Scale): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Unaspis citri has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Management for other citrus pests may mitigate some of the damage from Unaspis citri.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Unaspis citri has never been found in California and it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Buckley, Courtney R. and Amanda C. Hodges. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: citrus snow scale. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/citrus_snow_scale.htm

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy. ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Unaspis/citri/

3 SEL Catalog. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Unaspiscitri.htm

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday, March 24, 2015 and closed on Friday, May 8, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Delottococcus confusus (De Lotto): A Protea Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Delottococcus confusus (De Lotto): A Protea Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In association with a nursery regulatory inspection on November 20, 2012, San Luis Obispo County inspectors collected a sample of mealybugs from Protea trees in a residential neighborhood. On November 21, Dr. Natalia von Ellenrieder (CDFA) identified these mealybugs as Delottococcus confusus DeLotto (PDR 1599182).  This was the first time this species was found in an outdoor situation in California not on nursery stock.

History & Status:

Background:  Delottococcus confusus is primarily known as a pest of Proteaceae (Protea sp., P. caffra, P. cynarioides, Leucadendron sp. and Leucadendron argenteum). Other host records include Brunia and Berzelia lanuginose (Bruniaceae) (PDR 1267226), Canthium subovatum (Rubiaceae), Carissa sp. (Apocynaceae), Lycium sp. and Lycium tetrandrum (Solanaceae), Mimusops sp. and Mimusops caffra (Sapotaceae), Plectranthus sp. (Lamiaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Trichilia sp. and Trichilia emetica (Meliaceae), and Xymalos monospora (Monimiaceae)1.  Because the host plants (Proteaceae) are commonly grown for both cut flowers and landscape plants, Delottococcus confusus may be spread through international plant trade.

Worldwide Distribution:  Delottococcus confusus is native to South Africa2. The only other locality where the mealybug is known to be present is Hawaii1. Records from Portugal3 may be based on a species misidentification.

Official Control:  Delottococcus confusus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Delottococcus confusus was first found in the environment in November 2012 on protea trees in a residential neighborhood of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County. Follow-up surveys for the mealybug found it in neighboring Morro Bay (PDRs FR0P06009404 and FR0P06009408) and Escondido, San Diego County (PDR SD0P06153483).

California Interceptions:  Delottococcus confusus was first found on cut protea flowers that originated from a nursery in San Diego County in April 2003 (PDR 1254887). In December 2003 the mealybugs were found on protea plants in a nursery in Monterey County (PDR 1402552).  In 2004 they were next found on protea plants and Berzelia lanuginose in two nurseries in Ventura County (PDRs 1267227, 1267226, 1267251, 1267252, 1267253) as well as protea plants in a nursery in San Luis Obispo County (PDRs 1334145, 1334146, 1334147, 1334148, 1334139, 1334401, 1334992, 1334993 1334998, 1334999, 1335000).  In 2005 the mealybug was found on protea plants in a nursery in Santa Cruz County (PDR 1289989) and on cut protea flowers that originated from a second nursery in San Diego County (PDR 1367761).  Then in November 2006 a heavy infestation of the mealybug was found outdoors on Leucadendron argenteum trees and to a lesser extent other protea at a nursery in Sonoma County4 (PDRs 1428445, 1428417).  In 2007 CDFA began to intercept the mealybugs on shipments of cut flowers and foliage from Hawaii (PDRs 1423774, 1354945, 1556872, 1556886, 1494189, 1649533, 1509569, 1544327, 1649626, 1555754, 1555768, 1631162, 300P06039982, 300P06039987, 1544072, 1544071, 1609382, 300P06040043, 450P06001871, 1641489, 190P06058445, 300P06040121). In 2008 Delottococcus confusus resurfaced on protea plants at the same nursery in San Luis Obispo County (PDRs 1458700, 1458708). In 2009 they were found on protea plants in a greenhouse and outside at a second nursery in San Luis Obispo County (PDRs 1459343, 1335105 ) as well as at a nursery in Santa Barbara County (PDR 1555084). In 2010 they were intercepted on protea plants from a 2nd nursery in Santa Barbara County (PDR 1645051), and in 2011 they were found on protea plants at a repeat nursery (PDR 1554851) and a new nursery (PDR 1658335) in Santa Barbara County. In 2012 they were found on protea plants at a nursery in Riverside County (PDR 1590378) and intercepted on a shipment of cut flowers from a nursery in Santa Barbara County (PDR 1576404). And in November 2012 they were found in a repeat nursery in San Luis Obispo County where they were found in 2009 (PDR 1599179), as well as in a residential neighborhood near that nursery (PDR 1599182).

The risk Delottococcus confusus poses to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1)  Climate/Host Interaction:  Proteaceae are commonly grown as ornamental plants in California and are common in the nursery industry.  Delottococcus confusus is expected to be able to establish wherever these plants are grown.  D. confusus receives a High (3) rating in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

Low (1) not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California

2)  Pest Host Range:  All of the Delottococcus confusus collected in the United States to date have been on Proteaceae except for one record on Berzelia lanuginose (Bruniaceae). However, there are records of the mealybug from South Africa, verified by a taxonomic expert, on a variety of other hosts in eight other plant families1.  D. confusus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range
– High (3) has a wide host range

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential:  Delottococcus confusus has demonstrated its ability to disperse long distances through the trade of ornamental plants and flowers. Mealybugs may also be dispersed by wind. They are capable of rapid reproduction and large infestations of the mealybug have appeared relatively rapidly in California4.  D. confusus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact:  Heavy infestations of Delottococcus confusus are capable of damaging nursery stock by causing necrosis of leaves and growing tips and may kill trees4. The mealybug may also cause significant problems for proteas grown for cut flowers4 by contaminating flowers by their presence, honeydew, and sooty mold5. Cut flowers are a $477 million industry in California and other states and nations may reject infested flowers. Furthermore, D. confusus has been recorded from guava (Psidium guajava)1. Guava is a very popular tree in the Southern California landscape and there is at least some commercial guava production in California that may be affected.  D. confusus could trigger a loss of markets and may increase production costs of nursery stock and cut flowers. The mealybug receives a Medium (2) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.   The pest could lower crop yield.
B.   The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.   The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.   The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.   The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.   The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.   The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact:  There are no plants listed as threatened or endangered in California that are expected to be hosts of Delottococcus confusus. Populations of the mealybug have been found established in residential areas and outdoor nursery settings and do not appear to be triggering any additional treatment programs by residents or industry.  Furthermore there is no evidence that any residents are replacing infested plants with alternative species.  Protea plants supporting populations of D. confusus are still alive in an abandoned nursery setting in San Diego County, suggesting that unmanaged populations of D. confusus may not kill plants. D. confusus receives a Low (1) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.   The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.   The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.   The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.   The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.   The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
 Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Delottococcus confusus: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information:  Delottococcus confusus has been found to be established by survey in San Luis Obispo County and San Diego County. The mealybug receives a High (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution of pest in California. Only official records and published records identified by a taxonomic expert and backed up by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

 Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California; or is established in 1 California ecoarea
(region)
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but has not fully established in the endangered area; or pest established in 2 contiguous ecoareas
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area; or pest reported in more than 2 contiguous or non-contiguous ecoareas

Consequences of Introduction to California for Delottococcus confusus: Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-17 points

Uncertainty:

Outside of the areas where Delottococcus confusus has been found in the environment, populations of the mealybug have been found in outdoor situations in other nurseries at distant locations, sometimes in large populations. It is probable that the mealybug has escaped into the environment from some of these nurseries or other undetected, similar situations. The mealybug may have a larger distribution in the state than is realized.

Under some circumstances, heavy infestations of the pest might trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry or by residents who find infested ornamental plants unacceptable. The mealybug could also cause minor alteration of urban landscaping as some residents and landscapers may replace infested plants with alternative species. This could lead to a moderate, albeit localized, environmental impact in some cases.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Delottococcus confusus has been appearing in California’s nursery system for a decade. Surveys have now revealed that the pest is established in San Luis Obispo County and San Diego County. There is no evidence that the mealybug is significantly impacting the environment or economy. The mealybug is probably present in other parts of California and is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the state. The Low (8) consequences of the mealybug in California justify an C rating.

References:

1Miller, D.R. and J.H. Giliomee. 2011. Systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). African Entomology 19(3): 614–640. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Coccoidea/Delottococcus.pdf

2Lotto, G. De. 1977. On some African mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 40(1):13-36. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19770546873.html

3Leandro, M.J., Oliveira, M., Passarinho, A.M., Figueiredo, E., Franco, J.C., Neves-Martins, J. and Mexia, A. 2008. ASSESSMENT OF PARASITISM BY ANAGYRUS PSEUDOCOCCI AND LEPTOMASTIX DACTYLOPII ON MEALYBUGS FROM PROTEACEAE. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 805:121-126 http://www.actahort.org/books/805/805_14.htm

4Watson, Gillian. 2006. HEMIPTERA: STERNORRHYNCHA: NEW FEDERAL RECORDS. California Plant Pest and Disease Report 23(1):10. http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/CPPDR_2006_23-1.pdf

5Mazzeo, G., J.C. Franco, and A. Russo. 2009. A new Paracoccus species from Palaearctic region (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) . Zootaxa 2274: 62–68 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/zt02274p068.pdf

6Sasa, A. 2011. Arthropods associated with commercial Proteaceae in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/6805

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Monday, March 16, 2015 and closed on Thursday, April 30, 2015.


 Pest Rating: C


Posted by ls

Paracoccus hakeae Williams: A Protea Mealybug – SYNONYM: Phenacoccus hakeae

California Pest Rating for
Paracoccus hakeae Williams: A Protea Mealybug
Synonym: Phenacoccus hakeae
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In March 2013, a visual delimitation survey was conducted in a 400m radius in Los Osos (San Luis Obispo County) following the first detection of the mealybug Delottococcus confusus in California. Mealybugs collected on 10 residential properties during this survey were identified as Phenacoccus hakeae by Drs. Gillian Watson and Natalia von Ellenrieder on March 29, 2012, a new continental record.

History & Status:

Background:  Phenacoccus hakeae was described from specimens collected on Hakea sericea (Proteaceae) in New South Wales, Australia1.  It has also been intercepted by USDA-APHIS on cut flowers (Persoonia sp., Leucospermum sp., and other Proteaceae) imported from Australia and also on cut flowers (presumably Proteaceae) in shipments from the Netherlands2.  In San Luis Obispo County, the mealybugs have been collected on Leucadendron sp. (PDRs FR0P06009425, FR0P06009426, and FR0P06009430), Protea sp. (PDRs FR0P06009383, FR0P06009384, FR0P06009386, FR0P06009387, FR0P06009389, FR0P06009400, FR0P06009401, FR0P06009421, FR0P06009423, FR0P06009427, FR0P06009429, FR0P06009431, FR0P06009433, and FR0P06009434), and Grevillea sp. (PDR FR0P06009428). Because the host plants (Proteaceae) are commonly grown for both cut flowers and landscape plants, Phenacoccus hakeae may be spread through international plant trade. The biology of the mealybug is unknown.

Worldwide Distribution:  Phenacoccus hakeae is native to New South Wales, Australia. Its presence in shipments from the Netherlands suggests that it may also be present in some other countries that trade in Proteaceae.

Official Control:  Phenacoccus hakeae is listed as an injurious animal on Japan’s plant pest quarantine list3.

California Distribution:  In California, Phenacoccus hakeae was first known from an incursion into the environment of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County.  A follow-up survey indicates that the mealybug should be considered “established by survey” in San Luis Obispo County.  In addition to Los Osos, populations have been found in the cities of Morro Bay, Shell Beach, Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo, Grover Beach, Cayucos, and Pismo Beach.

California Interceptions: Phenacoccus hakeae has been found in nurseries in both San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties.

The risk Phenacoccus hakeae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1)  Climate/Host Interaction:  Proteaceae are commonly grown as ornamental plants in California and are common in the nursery industry.  Phenacoccus hakeae is expected to be able to establish wherever these plants are grown. The mealybug receives a High (3) rating in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range:  Phenacoccus hakeae is only known to feed on plants in the family Proteaceae.  P. hakeae receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential:  Phenacoccus hakeae has demonstrated its ability to disperse long distances through the trade of ornamental plants and flowers. Mealybugs may also be dispersed by wind. They are capable of rapid reproduction.  Phenacoccus hakeae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact:  Phenacoccus hakeae is not documented as a pest anywhere in scientific literature. However, mealybugs may cause significant problems for protea grown for cut flowers by contaminating flowers by their presence, honeydew, and sooty mold4.  Cut flowers are a $477 million industry in California; other states and nations might reject infested flowers.  Since Phenacoccus hakeae may increase production costs and trigger the loss of markets for proteas, the mealybug receives a Medium (2) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.   The pest could lower crop yield.
B.   The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.   The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.   The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.   The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.   The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.   The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact:  There are no plants listed as threatened or endangered in California that are expected to be hosts of Phenacoccus hakeae.  Populations of the mealybug have been found established in residential areas and a botanical garden and do not appear to be triggering any additional treatment programs. Furthermore there is no evidence that any residents are replacing infested plants with alternative species. Since Phenacoccus hakeae appears to be established in the environment and is not causing any significant environmental impacts it receives a Low (1) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.   The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.   The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.   The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.   The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.   The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Phenacoccus hakeae: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information:  Phenacoccus hakeae is widely established in the environment of San Luis Opispo County. The mealybug receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered.  Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

Several species of Hakea plants are considered invasive weeds in some places; Phenacoccus hakeae may be a valuable natural enemy of these weeds or an indicator of their presence.  Some mealybugs in one sample collected from Los Osos had been parasitized (PDR FR0P06009429).  It is possible that parasitoids, either native to California or introduced along with the mealybugs, are helping to mitigate impacts of this new pest. It is also possible that species present in additional nations may be junior synonyms of Phenacoccus hakeae, and that the worldwide distribution of the mealybug may be greater.

It is possible that the natural habitat of Phenacoccus hakeae is sufficiently remote that its host range is not well documented. It is possible that it could colonize many other plants. High populations of the mealybug might trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry or by residents who find infested ornamental plants unacceptable.  Large infestations of the mealybug could cause minor alterations of urban landscaping as residents and landscapers replace infested plants with alternative species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phenacoccus hakeae has established a widespread distribution on Proteaceae in San Luis Obispo County. It does not appear to be having any significant economic or environmental impacts. Therefore, a C rating is justified.

References:

1http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Phenacoccushakeae.htm

2http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/plant_imports/federal_order/downloads/2010/NetherlandsCutFlowersRevised.pdf

3http://www.ippc.int/file_uploaded/1359088733_qp_list_25July2012.pdf

4Mazzeo, G., J. C. Franco, and A. Russo. 2009. A new Paracoccus species from Palaearctic region (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) . Zootaxa 2274: 62–68 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2009/f/zt02274p068.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Monday, March 16, 2015 and closed on Thursday, April 30, 2015.


 Pest Rating: C


Posted by ls

Singhiella simplex (Singh): Ficus Whitefly

California Pest Rating for
Singhiella simplex (Singh): Ficus Whitefly
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 11, 2012, Los Angeles County entomologist Gevork Arakelian collected a large number of immature whiteflies on cuban laurel street trees (Ficus microcarpa) in the city of San Gabriel. He also observed large numbers of adults flying around and that five or six trees were infested. On October 16, 2012 Dr. Gillian Watson confirmed that the whiteflies were Singhiella simplex, ficus whitefly, a new state record.

History & Status:

Background: Singhiella simplex is most commonly found on weeping ficus (Ficus benjamina)1. It also feeds on cuban laurel (F. microcarpa), strangler ficus (F. aurea), banyan tree (F. benghalensis), fiddle leaf tree (F. lyrata), banana leaf ficus (F. maclellandii), false banyan tree or lofty ficus (F. altissima), cluster ficus or indian ficus (F. racemosa), and shortleaf ficus (F. citrifolia)1,2. Plants with severe infestations of Singhiella simplex exhibit yellowing of leaves, defoliation, branch dieback, and may be killed. Singhiella simplex may move long distances rapidly through commerce in infested plants.

Worldwide Distribution: Singhiella simplex is native to India, Burma, and China1,2. It was found in Florida in 2007 and had achieved a fairly widespread in distribution in the southern half of the state by 20093, presumably via the nursery industry (it was found in 20+ nurseries)4. It has recently been found in Brazil5.

Official Control: Singhiella simplex is not known to be under official control anywhere in the world8. However, it is listed as one of the whiteflies intercepted at Korean ports6, suggesting that it may be of concern to the Korean government.

California Distribution: In California, infestations of Singhiella simplex have been found on street trees in the environment of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego counties.

California Interceptions: Singhiella simplex has not been intercepted at California’s borders, but it has been found in nurseries in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties.

The risk Singhiella simplex (ficus whitefly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ficus species are very commonly grown as ornamentals in California and Singhiella simplex is expected to establish wherever they are grown. Ficus whitefly receives a High (3) rating in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Singhiella simplex is known to attack 10 species in the genus Ficus, not including commercial fig. Ficus whitefly receives a Low (1) rating in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Singhiella simplex can reproduce rapidly. Over an 8 day adult lifespan female ficus whiteflies were found to produce 37.9-46.2 offspring1. An entire life cycle may be completed in less than a month. Although whiteflies are not especially strong fliers, they can be dispersed over longer distances by wind. They may be moved long distances on nursery stock. Ficus whitefly receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Singhiella simplex has never been observed to attack commercial fig. However, it may increase the production costs of Ficus spp. nursery stock as growers are likely to treat to control infestations and insure clean nursery stock. Singhiella simplex receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Singhiella simplex is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. There are no threatened or endangered species in California that are likely to be directly affected by the whitefly. The whitefly is not expected to disrupt critical habitats. Ficus whitefly is likely to trigger additional treatment programs by the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. Furthermore, Ficus spp. are commonly grown as ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly disfigured by infestations of the whitefly. Some homeowners in Florida spend as much as $1000 for annual control of the whitefly7. This may have a significant impact on urban environments as residents replace infested plants. Singhiella simplex receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Singhiella simplex (ficus whitely): Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Singhiella simplex has established a widespread distribution in Southern California. It is known to be established in Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego counties. Ficus whitefly receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any surveys for Singhiella simplex outside of southern California and it could have a much wider distribution than is currently known.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Singhiella simplex is established in the environment of southern California. There are no known trap or treatment technologies that would lend themselves to effective eradication of this pest. However, the whitefly is expected to have significant environmental consequences to California, especially to homeowners and the urban landscape. Therefore, a B-rating is justified.

References:

1Legaspi, J.C., C. Mannion, D. Amalin, and B.C. Legaspi, Jr. 2011. Life Table Analysis and Development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Under Different Constant Temperatures. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 104(3): 451-458.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2userfiles/person/26446/life_table_analysis_2011a.pdf

2Hodges, Greg. The Ficus Whitefly Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): A New Exotic Whitefly Found on Ficus Species in South Florida. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Pest Alert. http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/pest-alerts/singhiella-simplex.html

3Distribution map of Ficus Whitefly in Florida http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/maps/Ficus_whitefly/Singhiella-simplex-Tri-County.pdf

4Powerpoint presentation by Greg Hodges http://www.freshfromflorida.com/pi/enpp/ento/images/Ficus%20Whitefly%20Hodges%20and%20Mannion%20March%20082.ppt

5Velasco, G.D.N., R.G. Moura, E. Berti Filho, and H.T.do Couto. 2011. Evaluation of the infestation of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Ficus benjamina in São Paulo city, Brazil. Revista de Agricultura. 86(2): 134-141. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search/display.do?f=2012/BR/BR1201.xml;BR2011007660

6Soo-Jung, S., G.A. Evans, and S-M Oh. 2008. A checklist of intercepted whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at the Republic of Korea ports of entry. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 11(1): 37-43. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226861508000095

7Vasquez, D. 2008. Ficus Whitefly attacks homes and wallets. Sun Sentinel. http://blogs.sun-sentinel.com/consumerblog/2008/09/08/Ficus-whitefly-at/

8 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


 Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Monday, March 16, 2015 and closed on Thursday, April 30, 2015.


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls