Category Archives: Coleoptera

Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston): Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Dactylotrypes longicollis dorsal Collected off of Trithrinax brasiliensis (Image Citation: Steven Valley, Oregon Dept of Ag, Bugwood.org)
Dactylotrypes longicollis dorsal Collected off of Trithrinax brasiliensis
(Image Citation: Steven Valley, Oregon Dept of Ag, Bugwood.org)
Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston): Beetle
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating:  C

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 13, 2015 Dr. Andrew Cline identified two beetles collected from a Lindgren funnel trap as Dactylotrypes longicollis.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundDactylotrypes longicollis feeds on the seeds of palms including wooly jelly palm (Butia eriospatha), Mediterranean fan palm (Chamaerops humilis), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), Senegal date palm (Phoenix reclinata), Brazilian needle palm (Trithrinax brasiliensis), and lady palm (Rhapis excelsa)1.  The beetle may be transported long distances when infested palm seeds or plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Dactylotrypes longicollis is native to the Canary Islands and Madeira1.  From there it has spread to France, Italy, mainland Spain, and the Slovak Republic1.

Official Control: Dactylotrypes longicollis is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.  Dactylotrypes spp. are listed as harmful organisms by Peru2.

California DistributionDactylotrypes longicollis has only been found in Fullerton (Orange County), San Marino (Los Angeles County), and Carpinteria (Santa Barbara County).

California InterceptionsDactylotrypes longicollis has not been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Dactylotrypes longicollis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The known hosts and natural geographic range of Dactylotrypes longicollis indicate that the beetle is likely to be limited to southern California1.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dactylotrypes longicollis is only known to feed on the seeds of seven species of palms.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The biology of Dactylotrypes longicollis has not been well documented.  It is assumed to have a high reproductive rate and to be capable of dispersing long distances when infested palm fruit or plants are moved.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The California date industry produces over 40 million pounds of dates annually and employees 2,500 people.  Dactylotrypes longicollis is not known to be established in major date producing nations and it is uncertain if the industry will be affected.  It is possible that the beetle could reduce crop yield or increase crop production costs.  The beetle is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: In California Dactylotrypes longicollis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It could trigger new treatment programs in the date industry.  It is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Dactylotrypes longicollis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dactylotrypes longicollis: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dactylotrypes longicollis is known to be established in Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties. It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

We do not know how effective the Lindgren funnel is at detecting Dactylotrypes longicollis.  It is quite possible that the beetle is much more widespread in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dactylotrypes longicollis has been established across much of southern California since before 2009.  No economic or environmental impacts have been attributed to the beetle.  A “C” rating is justified.

References:

1 LaBonte, James R. and Curtis Y. Takahashi. 2012. Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): an exotic bark beetle new to California and North America.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 88(2): 222-230 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3956/2012-18.1

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus: Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB)

California Pest Rating for
Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus: Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In 2003 ambrosia beetles collected at the Whittier Narrows nature center in Los Angeles County were identified as Euwallacea fornicatus, tea shot hole borer, a new state record. In 2012 these beetles were found associated with a disease on avocado trees in Los Angeles County. Molecular analysis by UC Riverside revealed that the beetles are a distinct species from tea shot hole borer¹. They have been designated Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), pending species description. PSHB presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction on this pest.

History & Status:

Background: PSHB is an ambrosia beetle that feeds on a wide variety of trees and other large plants. Mated adult females fly in search of a host tree. They bore into the trunk or branches and inoculate the wood with several species of fungi, including Fusarium euwallaceae². Eggs are deposited in these fungal-lined galleries and larvae consume the fungi. The larvae pupate inside the galleries. The sex ratio is heavily female biased. The few males that emerge mate with siblings in their gallery. Males may crawl to other galleries on the same plant but do not fly. Females are strong fliers and may fly in search of a new host. The females are known to feed on more than 200 species of plants, but only 30-40 of these plants have been confirmed as good reproductive hosts suitable for larval development. The fungal disease vectored by the adult female beetles may eventually kill the host tree. PSHB may disperse long distances when wood or nursery stock is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Molecular evidence indicates that PSHB is native to Vietnam and other parts of southeast Asia¹. From there it has spread to Israel, South Africa, and California.

Official Control: PSHB is not known to be under official control in any states or nations. However, Euwallacea fornicatus is listed as a quarantine pest by Colombia, Honduras, Japan, South Korea, and Mexico³. All species of Euwallacea are considered quarantine pests by Japan and Peru³. These regulations are likely to also apply to PSHB.

California Distribution: PSHB has been found in the environment of Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. Molecular analysis indicates that the population in San Diego County is a separate introduction of the species. A single beetle was trapped in Santa Cruz County but was not suitable for molecular analysis to determine if it was polyphagous shot hole borer or tea shot hole borer. Tea shot hole borer is present in Hawaii and occasionally intercepted.

California Interceptions: Fusarium euwallaceae was found in one California nursery, indicating that PSHB may have been present. Infected plants were destroyed. PSHB has never been intercepted at California’s borders. Unidentified beetles (Euwallacea sp. possibly fornicatus) have been intercepted seven times on bamboo, cut flowers, ginger, macadamia, and Draceana compacta from Hawaii. PSHB is not known to occur in Hawaii so these interceptions are likely tea shot hole borer.

The risk Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus (PSHB) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: PSHB has an extremely wide host range including many street trees and native species. Protected from the environment while inside trees, the beetle can be expected to establish wherever host trees are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: PSHB is highly polyphagous, feeding on over 200 species of trees. The 30-40 known reproductive hosts account for approximately 25% of street trees in southern California. New reproductive hosts are regularly discovered and the host range of this species can be expected to grow. PSHB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: PSHB is a strong flyer and in Israel has spread naturally 10-20km/year. Populations of the beetles may also spread long distances when infested wood or nursery stock is moved. The beetles also have a high reproductive rate. PSHB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: PSHB and its associated fungal pathogens can be expected to lower the yield of avocado groves and commercial forests by triggering dieback, large scale pruning of dead branches, and removal of dead trees. The damage caused by this pest is likely to increase crop production costs by triggering new pest management programs. Euwallacea fornicatus and Euwallacea sp. are listed as quarantine pests by several of California’s trading partners. The presence of this pest on consignments may disrupt trade. PSHB also vectors several fungal pathogens that may eventually lead to the death of host plants. PSHB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: PSHB vectors fungal pathogens that may lead to the death of a wide variety of slow-growing trees that are the foundation of forest ecosystems and an integral component of the urban environment. Damage from this pest is expected to have significant environmental impacts including disrupting natural communities and changing ecosystem processes. PSHB is likely to trigger additional official and private treatment programs. It is also likely to significantly impact cultural practices and ornamental plantings. PSHB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus (PSHB): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: PSHB is known to be established in Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, and San Diego counties. It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

A single specimen identified as Euwallacea fornicatus was trapped in Santa Cruz County in 2013. This could be PSHB, or it could be tea shot hole borer. Low density populations of PSHB are difficult to detect; it could be present in other parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

PSHB is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts as it expands its range in California. However, an “A”-rating is not justified because the pest has been present in the state since 2003 and is not under official control. A “B”-rating is justified.

References:

¹Eskalen, Akif, R. Stouthamer, S.C. Lynch, P.F. Rugman-Jones, M. Twizeyimana, A. Gonzalez, and T. Thibault. 2013. “Host Range of Fusarium Dieback and Its Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) Vector in Southern California.” Plant Disease (97):938-951. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1026-RE

²Freeman, S., M. Sharon, M. Maymon, Z. Mendel, A. Protasov, T. Aoki, A. Eskalen, and K. O’Donnell. 2013. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California. Mycologia 105(6): 1595-1606. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928415

³ USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls 

Brachypeplus basalis Erichson: A sap beetle

California Pest Rating for
Brachypeplus basalis Erichson: A sap beetle
Coleoptera: Nitidulidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Brachypeplus basalis has been found feeding on pollen and pollen substitutes inside beehives in California and other states several times since 2010 and is in need of a pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  There is no information on the biology of Brachypeplus basalis.  Presumably, in Australia the beetle feeds on fungi and yeasts, but has also been found within beehives.  The species has now been found feeding on pollen in beehives in the United States several times.  Although pollen cannot be legally imported from foreign sources to feed bees, it can be imported for human consumption.  From 2002-2011 honeybees could also be imported from Australia.  It is likely that these beetles followed one of these pathways.

Worldwide Distribution:  Brachypeplus basalis is native to Australia and has never been recorded in the environment of any other nation.

Official Control:  Brachypeplus basalis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Brachypeplus basalis has been detected in beehives in Solano, Orange (unofficial record), Tehama, and Shasta counties.  Brachypeplus basalis has never been collected outside beehives in California.

California Interceptions:  Brachypeplus basalis has not been intercepted at the border stations.

The risk Brachypeplus basalis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1)  Climate/Host Interaction:  Beehives are found throughout California and are frequently moved. Brachypeplus basalis is likely to establish in beehives throughout the state. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range:  Brachypeplus basalis is currently only known to feed on pollen stores in beehives. The beetles receives a Low(1) in this category.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential:  The reproductive rate of Brachypeplus basalis is unknown; however, that of other Brachypeplus species indicates an average life cycle of 35 days (Cline et al. 2013) and suggests a multivoltine life cycle that is typical of other nitidulid species (Jelínek et al 2010). The beetles may travel long distances when beehives are moved, and are also capable of powered flight. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact:  Brachypeplus basalis has the potential to lower yield in beehives by robbing pollen stores. If severe, this could reduce the availability of beehives and have further economic costs to industries that rely on pollination services.  The sap beetles may increase production costs in beehives as beekeepers may treat the pests.  The sap beetles may be injurious to agriculturally important animals (bees) by robbing pollen. Although the beetles are not under official control, their status as an emerging pest could lead to the establishment of quarantines in the future.  B. basalis receives a High (3) in this category.

A.   The pest could lower crop yield.
B.   The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.   The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.   The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.    The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.    The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.   The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
space
Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact:  Brachypeplus basalis may trigger additional treatment programs by beekeepers. The sap beetles receives a Medium (2) in this category.

A.   The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.   The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.   The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.   The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.   The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Brachypeplus basalis: Medium(12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information:  Brachypeplus basalis is only known from incursions in beehives; it has never been found in the environment.  However, there have been no formal surveys for the beetle.  The sap beetles receive a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the presence of Brachypeplus basalis may affect the markets for queen bee exports from California. There are stingless bees in California that could be negatively affected by the introduction of these beetles. There have not been any formal surveys for the sap beetles so they are likely much more widespread, perhaps across the entire United States.  If this is the case, it is possible that the beetle is already successfully managed by beekeepers and of no economic significance.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Brachypeplus basalis may have significant economic impacts but environmental impacts are likely to be limited to chemical treatment of beehives.   A “B” rating is justified.

References:

Andy Cline (Andrew.Cline@cdfa.ca.gov)

Cline, A.R., P.E. Skelley, S.A. Kinnee, S. Rooney-Latham, and P. Audisio. 2013. Multi-trophic interactions between a sap beetle, Sabal palm, scale insect, fungi, and yeast, as well as discovery of a compound with antifungal properties. PLOS-One. [In Review: MS# PONE-D-13-37799]

Jelínek, J., C.E. Carlton, A.R. Cline, & R.A.B. Leschen. 2010. Nitidulidae Latrielle, 1802. Pp. 390-407. In Leschen, R.A.B., R.G. Beutel, & J.F. Lawrence (eds.) Handbook of Zoology. Volume IV. Arthropoda: Insecta. Part 38. Coleoptera, Beetles. 786pp.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 “N” Street, Room 221, Sacramento, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus): Cereal Leaf Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Adult Cereal Leaf Beetle (Oulema melanopus) Image Citation: Hania Berdys, bugwood.org
Adult Cereal Leaf Beetle (Oulema melanopus)
Image Citation: Hania Berdys, bugwood.org
Oulema melanopus  (Linnaeus): Cereal Leaf Beetle
Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

During late summer 2013, populations of Cereal Leaf Beetle (CLB) were found in Siskiyou and Modoc counties. Nick Condos recommended a new pest rating proposal for CLB to help determine the path forward.

History & Status:

Background: CLB is a pest of grain crops that commonly feeds on the leaves of oats, wheat, and barley. It is also reported to feed on rye, millet, corn, and many types of wild grasses. Rice is also sometimes listed as a host, but there is no evidence that CLB causes damage to rice in the scientific literature nor is CLB included in IPM guidelines for rice-producing states. Most of the damage is caused by larval beetles, known as “slugs”, feeding in the spring. Damage to leaves results in reduced photosynthetic ability in the plants and can significantly reduce grain yield. When ready to pupate, larvae drop into the soil. Adults emerge in the summer and feed briefly before entering summer aestivation. The beetles then seek out overwinter sites among the shelter of protected places such as debris and leaf litter. Historically CLB has sometimes caused severe crop losses; however, in most of the United States CLB populations are so effectively managed by introduced biological control agents, especially Tetrastichus julis, that chemical treatment is seldom required.

Worldwide Distribution:  CLB is native to Europe. It was detected in Michigan in 1962 and has since spread over much of the United States. It was detected in Oregon in 1999 and by 2013 had spread to within 11 miles of the California border.

Official Control:  CLB is listed as a regulated quarantine pest in New Zealand1, Japan2, and possibly other countries.

California Distribution:  CLB has been found in the environment of Siskiyou and Modoc counties.

California Interceptions:  CLB is commonly intercepted at California’s border stations on items such as beehives, potted plants, lumber, etc.

The risk CLB would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1)  Climate/Host Interaction:  In California, climate models suggest that CLB will only find favorable conditions in Del Norte County, Humboldt County, and a small portion of the central San Joaquin Valley4. Conditions in the southern half of California are predicted to be especially unfavorable to establishment of CLB.  CLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range:  CLB feeds on six different varieties of field crops and wild grasses. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

 Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential:   CLB only has one generation per year, but is capable of reaching damaging populations relatively quickly, in the absence of biological control agents. With help from the wind the beetles are thought to spread up to 10 miles/year on their own. They may move longer distances as hitchhikers on items such as lumber or beehives; however, evidence indicates that they are not likely to establish populations through this movement.  According to NAPIS county records all CLB spread has been along the leading edge of the population from the original introduction, with the exception of one jump across the Dakotas3.  Furthermore, wheat producing states such as Arizona and Texas do not have exterior quarantines against CLB and do not have the pest. The fact that CLB typically do not mate until after overwintering may help explain this, as mated females are unlikely to be transported while overwintering.  CLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Provided that biological control agents are introduced in California, CLB is not expected to significantly lower crop yield. CLB may increase crop production costs as fields will need to be scouted for the slugs to assess parasitism rates and growers may occasionally need to treat. CLB is considered a quarantine pest in some nations and could therefore, in some cases, trigger interruptions to trade or the implementation of new phytosanitary measures. CLB is not expected to negatively change normal cultural practices. CLB does not vector any other organisms, is not injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals, and does not interfere with water supplies. CLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

–  Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
–  Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
–  High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact:  CLB may require some new private treatment programs in California in the absence of biological control agents or in cases where the parasitism rate is found to be low.  CLB is not expected lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  CLB is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species.  CLB is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  CLB is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  CLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for CLB: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information:  Well established populations of CLB have been found in Siskiyou and Modoc counties. CLB receives a Low (-1) in this category.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that CLB will attain a wider distribution within California than is predicted by climate models. It is also possible that several species of threatened and endangered native grasses could be favorable hosts for CLB, leading to additional environmental impacts. Furthermore, CLB populations may have established in other parts of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Provided that biological control agents are introduced to California, economic impacts from CLB are expected to be limited at most to additional pest scouting, occasional treatment, and possibly limited impacts on international trade.  Environmental impacts are expected to be limited to occasional chemical treatments in cases where CLB parasitism rates are found to be low.  CLB that are transported in trade nearly always fail to establish populations, showing that quarantines do not play much of a role in limiting CLB dispersal.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 http://www.mpi.govt.nz/biosecurity-animal-welfare/pests-diseases/boric.aspx
2 http://www.pps.go.jp/english/law/list1.html
3 http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/map.php?code=INAMCMA#
4 Risk assessment for cereal leaf beetle in California through the movement of small grains, Christmas trees, and farm equipment. USDA-APHIS. 2007.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil

California Pest Rating for
Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On May 21, 2014 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a beetle collected in Escondido, San Diego County, as Pagiocerus frontalis (PDR SJ0P06003026). This beetle was also reported from San Diego County in 2010. The beetle presently has a temporary rating of Q, so Dr. Kevin Hoffman recommended a pest rating proposal to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Pagiocerus frontalis feeds and reproduces on the seeds of fallen avocado fruit and both fresh and dry corn. The species is considered a major pest of stored corn in the highlands of the Andes1,2. Beetles infest corn cobs in the field before harvest and continue feeding in storage, destroying the corn within several months1. The beetles have also been found on several other plants including coffee; however, a laboratory experiment found that these other plants were not suitable hosts for reproduction and development1. Pagiocerus frontalis is not known to have ever been intercepted, but could presumably spread long distances when infested fresh or dry corn or ripe, damaged avocados are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pagiocerus frontalis is a Neotropical beetle whose range extends from South America, through Central America and Mexico, into the southeastern United States.

Official Control: Pagiocerus frontalis is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan4 and New Zealand5.

California Distribution: In California Pagiocerus frontalis has only been found in San Diego County.

California Interceptions: Pagiocerus frontalis has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Pagiocerus frontalis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pagiocerus frontalis has a widespread distribution across a wide variety of climates from the Andes in South America to North Carolina. It can be expected to establish wherever it can find suitable host material in California. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be able to complete its reproductive cycle on corn and the seeds of fallen avocados. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pagiocerus frontalis has high reproductive potential; females lay many eggs and it can complete its entire life cycle in 3 to 4 weeks1. The beetles may theoretically disperse long distances through the movement of infested corn or inside the seeds of ripe, damaged avocados. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The value of corn produced in California was approximately $812.1 million in 2012. This includes $234.7 for grain, $454.4 for silage, and $123 million for sweet. Pagiocerus frontalis might increase production costs in these crops, especially organic sweet corn. The beetle is considered a quarantine pest by some nations. The beetle therefore has the potential to disrupt markets by contaminating corn or as a hitchhiker on other commodities. Pagiocerus frontalis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. The beetle is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. Large populations of the beetle might trigger new chemical treatments in corn when the crop is in the field or storage. Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The beetle receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pagiocerus frontalis: Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: In California, Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be established in San Diego County. The beetle receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There are a wide variety of pests that feed on both fresh and dry corn. It is possible that existing treatments, cultural practices, and modified genes will preclude any economic damage from this pest in California.  Pagiocerus frontalis also feeds on the seed of fallen avocado. These avocados are not likely to be distributed commercially; nevertheless, the presence of this beetle might disrupt markets.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pagiocerus frontalis is only known from San Diego County and has the potential to have limited economic and environmental impacts. A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Eidt-Wendt, J. and F.A. Schulz. Studies on the biology and ecology of Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infesting stored maize in Ecuador. Technical University Berlin, Department of Phytomedicine, Berlin, FRG. http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/5/61.pdf

2 Gianoli, E., I. Ramos, A. Alfaro-Tapia, Y. Valdéz, E.R. Echegaray, and E. Yábar. 2006. Benefits of a maize-bean-weeds mixed cropping system in Urubamba Valley, Peruvian Andes. International Journal of Pest Management. 52(4):283-289. http://www2.udec.cl/~egianoli/06gianintjpestman.pdf

4https://www.ippc.int/sites/default/files/documents/20130423/1309849796_qp_list_2013042321%3A18En.pdf

5 http://piorin.gov.pl/cms/upload/seed.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls