Tag Archives: entomology

Ananca bicolor (Fairmaire): Red-Black False Blister Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Ananca bicolor (Fairmaire): Red-Black False Blister Beetle
Coleoptera: Oedemeridae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The false blister beetle Ananca bicolor was recently intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs on a shipment of Plumeria cut flowers from Hawaii.  The beetle is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to support a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background Ananca bicolor adults are nocturnal and highly attracted to lights1,2.  They are considered a nuisance pest and may enter dwellings in large numbers.  The adult beetles feed on pollen.  The larvae are not well documented but similar beetle grubs feed on rootlets and rhizomes3Ananca bicolor may be transported long distances when infested cut flowers are moved or as a contaminating pest.

Worldwide Distribution: Ananca bicolor is Polynesian in origin4.  It is known to be established in Samoa, Tahiti, Marquesas, Tonga, Ellice Island, and New Hebrides4.  It invaded Hawaii sometime before 18854.

Official Control: Ananca bicolor is not listed on any nations’ harmful organisms lists5 and is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Ananca bicolor has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Ananca bicolor has been intercepted by CDFA four times. Three interceptions were on cut Plumeria flowers from Hawaii and one was on green vegetables.

The risk Ananca bicolor (Red-black false blister beetle) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ananca bicolor is only known to be established on tropical islands.  Almost all oedemerid larvae are limited to wet/moist environments.  This indicates that if the beetle were to establish in California it is likely to be limited to warm coastal areas.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ananca bicolor adults are polyphagous on a wide variety of pollen.  Grubs are presumed to be equally polyphagous on organic matter in soil.  The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In Hawaii Ananca bicolor occurs in large numbers indicating that it likely has a high reproductive rate.  Despite its abundance and more than a century of transoceanic commerce, Ananca bicolor has not spread beyond Polynesia, indicating that it does not often spread via trade.  Ananca bicolor receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Ananca bicolor were to establish in California it is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of cut flowers and flowering nursery stock by contaminating plants with its presence.  It is not likely to trigger lost markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Ananca bicolor receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Ananca bicolor were to establish in California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Since adult beetles are attracted to lights in large numbers, they may trigger new private treatment programs by residents who find them to be a nuisance.  The beetles are not likely to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Ananca bicolor receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ananca bicolor (Red-Black False Blister Beetle):  Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ananca bicolor has not been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty: 

California does have a rich oedemerid and melyrid fauna, which would be the direct competitors of Ananca bicolor.  If this new beetle were to establish in California it might outcompete and displace these native beetles.  It is possible that Ananca bicolor may be able to adapt to wider variety of climates and colonize a larger part of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ananca bicolor has never been found in California and is likely to have impacts on the cut-flower and nursery industries and become a nuisance to residents if it were to establish in the state.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Kinsey, Beth T. 2015. Red-black False Blister Beetle.  The Firefly Forest.  http://fireflyforest.net/firefly/2009/07/08/red-black-false-blister-beetle/

2 Tenorio, JoAnn M. and Gordon M. Nishida. 1995. What’s Bugging Me?: Identifying and Controlling Household Pests in Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 184pp.  https://books.google.com/books?id=2ehBWyagf2gC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&dq=Ananca+bicolor&source=bl&ots=ROFVnohzQs&sig=K-jbQylsU-8-EjiOcwGtf-8ARV8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-HaMVdjENIvooAS00r24Dw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q=Ananca%20bicolor&f=false

3 Arnett, Ross H. Jr. 2014. Common Name: False Blister Beetles. University of Florida Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/medical/false_blister_beetles.htm#top

4 Swezey, O.H. 1939. Notes on Oedemeridae in Hawaii and Palmyra. Proc. Haw. Ent. Soc. 10(2):263-264.  http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/15990/PHES10_263-264.pdf?sequence=1

5 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 8, 2016 and closed on April 22, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): Eucalyptus Gall Wasp

California Pest Rating for
Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): Eucalyptus Gall Wasp
Hymenoptera: Eulophidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ophelimus maskelli has been found in the environment of southern California and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundOphelimus maskelli is a species of wasp that induces galls on leaves of several species of Eucalyptus.  Uncontrolled populations can cause severe leaf damage and early leaf drop1.

Worldwide Distribution: Ophelimus maskelli is probably native to Australia.  It was first found in the Mediterranean basin in Italy in 1999 and has since spread around the region1.  It has also been found in New Zealand, Indonesia, South Africa, and Vietnam1.  Ophelimus maskelli may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Official Control: Ophelimus maskelli is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California DistributionOphelimus maskelli is found in the environment of Riverside, San Diego, and Orange County1.  It is likely present in Los Angeles County.

California InterceptionsOphelimus maskelli has been found in one nursery in Riverside County (PDR 331P06142763).

The risk Ophelimus maskelli (Eucalyptus gall wasp) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Eucalyptus trees are commonly planted as ornamentals in southern and coastal California. Ophelimus maskelli is likely to establish wherever suitable hosts are found.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ophelimus maskelli is only known to feed on the leaves of Eucalyptus trees.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ophelimus maskelli can build large populations quickly, indicating high reproductive potential.  It may be transported long distances in infested plants or fresh plant parts.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ophelimus maskelli is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of Eucalyptus nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, or injure animals.  Ophelimus maskelli receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Ophelimus maskelli is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Eucalyptus trees are common ornamentals and can be defoliated by this wasp.  Ophelimus maskelli receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ophelimus maskelli (Eucalyptus gall wasp):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ophelimus maskelli is established in Riverside, San Diego, and Orange counties1.  It is probably also present in Los Angeles County.  It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

Ophelimus maskelli was widespread and abundant in southern California when it was first observed.  It is likely much more widespread.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ophelimus maskelli is widespread and abundant in the environment of southern California and is not under official control.  Impacts are expected to be limited to disfigurement of Eucalyptus trees and possible increased insecticide use.  A “C” rating is justified.

References:

1 Burks, Roger A., Jason L. Mottern, Rebeccah Waterworth, and Timothy D. Paine. 2015. First report of the Eucalyptus gall wasp, Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an invasive pest on Eucalyptus, from the Western Hemisphere.  Zootaxa 3926(3): 448-450.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday, December 16, 2015 and closed on January 30 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls