Tag Archives: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

Longhorned Beetle | Acalolepta aesthetica

a big longhorned beetle
California Pest Rating for
Longhorned Beetle | Acalolepta aesthetica (Olliff)
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Acalolepta aesthetica is currently Q-rated.  It was introduced to, and is now established on the island of Hawaii.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Acalolepta aesthetica is a large (approximately 3 cm in length) longhorned beetle.  The species has long antennae, which is typical of the family, and the dorsal (upper) surface is brown in color and velvety (Olliff, 1890).  As is the case with many cerambycids, the larvae feed inside tree trunks.  On the island of Hawaii, this beetle has been reported attacking Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae), Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae), Citrus x latifolia (Rutaceae), Cycas sp. (Cycadaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), and Trema orientalis (Cannabaceae).  Reports indicate that healthy trees are attacked (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Worldwide Distribution:  Acalolepta aesthetica is native to Australia and was introduced to Hawaii at least as early as 2009, when the first specimens were collected there (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Official Control: Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Acalolepta aesthetica has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Acalolepta aesthetica would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Although Acalolepta aesthetica feeds on a variety of trees, and suitable hosts may be present over much of California, this beetle appears to be limited to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate (Atlas of Living Australia). There is little evidence this species could become established in more than a small portion of California.  Therefore, Acalolepta aesthetica receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acalolepta aesthetica was reported to attack trees in six families in Hawaii. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Acalolepta aesthetica presumably flies, and due to its size, it could probably cover long distances.  Because the larvae live inside wood, this species could be dispersed artificially via movement of infested wood.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The genus Acalolepta includes several species that are known pests (Slipinski and Ascalona, 2013).  Acalolepta aesthetica is reported to damage trees, including crop trees, in Hawaii.  Citrus is one of the trees reported to be attacked.  If it became established in California, Acalolepta aesthetica could become a pest of crop trees, including citrus.  This could result in lower yield and increased production costs for citrus, and there could also be a loss of markets.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

 B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

 C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Acalolepta aesthetica is reported to attack and damage a variety of trees in six families. If this beetle became established in California, it could attack native California trees.  In addition, ornamental trees, including citrus, and cycads, could be attacked.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acalolepta aesthetica: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

7) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

There is very little information available on the biology of this species.  The most significant uncertainty regarding this species is climatic tolerance, but there could also be host range extension once it encountered the diverse flora of California.  There is a possibility that it may require a tropical or subtropical climate, in which case it may not be capable of becoming established in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Acalolepta aesthetica attacks a wide range of trees, including citrus.  The species is not known to be present in California, but if it was established here, it could become a pest of trees in agriculture and ornamental settings, and potentially in the environment.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Atlas of Living Australia website.  Accessed November 13, 2017. http://www.ala.org.au

Olliff, A.S.  1890.  Contributions towards a knowledge of the Coleoptera of Australia.  Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales.  5: 5-11.

Slipinski, A. and Escalona, H.  2013.  Australian Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Volume 1: Introduction and Subfamily Lamiinae.  CSIRO Publishing.  504 pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 13, 2017.  http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

Aromia bungii (Redneck Longhorn Beetle)

California Pest Rating for
Aromia bungii  (Redneck Longhorn Beetle)
Coleoptera:  Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:  

The EPPO reporting service distributed a report by email on October 24, 2013.  The report included records of Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) being found for the first time in Lombardia region, Italy and Aichi Prefecture, Japan.  The beetle was previously intercepted in Washington State and is a fruit tree pest that feeds on a variety of trees that are specialty crops of major economic importance in California.  Aromia bungii is an invasive pest that is currently spreading in international trade and in need of a pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAromia bungii is a wood boring beetle that feeds on a variety of trees.  Adult beetles lay eggs in bark crevasses of healthy to slightly stressed trees.  The larvae bore galleries in the trunk and branches, leading to decreased fruit production and weakening of the trees1.  In China the main host plants are species of Prunus (Rosaceae), especially peach (Prunus persica) and apricot (P. armeniaca), and to a lesser extent plum (P. domestica) and cherry (P. avium)1.  Other hosts include damson plum (P. domestica spp. institia), Japanese apricot (P. mume), Korean cherry (P. japonica), neem (Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae)), weaver’s bamboo (Bambusa textilis (Poaceae)), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana (Ebenaceae)), olive (Olea europea (Oleaceae)), white poplar (Populus alba (Salicaeae)), Chinese white poplar (P. tomentosa), Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera (Juglandaceae)), pomegranate (Punica granatum (Lythraceae)), and Schima superba (Theaceae)1.   In 2008 A. bungii was intercepted in a manufacturing plant in Seattle that imports products from China and Taiwan and in wooden pallets in a warehouse in the United Kingdom, demonstrating that it can move in international trade.

Worldwide Distribution: Aromia bungii is native to the temperate regions of China.  It has spread throughout China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Taiwan.  Recently it has been found feeding on fruit trees in the environment of two European nations where it is under eradication:  Germany (2011) and Italy (2012).  In June 2013 the beetle was confirmed to be established in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

Official Control: Aromia bungii is under official control in Europe.

California Distribution Aromia bungii has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Aromia bungii has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Aromia bungii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:  

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Plant Hardiness zones where Aromia bungii is known to be established range from approximately zones 4 through 11, indicating that the beetle is likely to find a favorable climate in California. Furthermore, host trees of the beetle are commonly grown commercially and as ornamentals in the state.  The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Aromia bungii is known to feed on 12 species of plants in nine plant families.  The beetle receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The reproductive rate is not well known in China, but generations are said to take 2-3 years.  Adult beetles are relatively strong fliers and eggs, larvae, and pupae can be spread long distances by humans when wood or plants are moved.  Aromia bungii receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 2

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Aromia bungii were to establish in California it is expected to reduce crop yields, increase production costs, and possibly lead to quarantines.  It might also negatively change cultural practices.  The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, C, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Aromia bungii were to establish in California it would be expected to trigger additional official and private treatment programs.  It would also significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings as unmanaged host trees may be killed and many of the known host trees are common in the urban landscape.   The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aromia bungiiHigh(13)

Add up the total score and include it here. (Score)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aromia bungii has never been detected in California. It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The host range of Aromia bungii may be much greater than is known.  It may have a higher reproductive potential (i.e. shorter generation time) in California than is reported in northern China.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aromia bungii poses an economic threat to the stone fruit, persimmon, and pomegranate industries in California.  It also poses a threat to the environment as host trees are common in the urban landscape.  The arrival of the beetle is likely to trigger additional chemical treatments and/or the death of trees.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1EPPO Alert List.  http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/Aromia_bungii.htm

2The Food & Environment Research Agency.  Rapid Pest Risk Analysis for Aromia bungiihttp://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/plantHealth/pestsDiseases/documents/aromiaBungii.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/7/2016 – 1/21/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Stenhomalus taiwanus Matsushita: Taiwan Slender Longhorned Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Stenhomalus taiwanus Matsushita: Taiwan Slender Longhorned Beetle
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In September 2016 the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) released a report on Stenohomalus taiwanus that recommended that USDA establish a non-reportable/non-actionable port policy for the beetle in the continental United States.  The beetle would remain actionable in Hawaii and the United States territories.  Stephen Brown requested comments on this proposal.

History & Status:

BackgroundStenhomalus taiwanus is a longhorned beetle that is only known to feed on stems and branches of two to five year old Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Sichuan pepper, Chinese pepper) and Zanthoxylum piperitum (Japanese prickly ash).  Stenhomalus taiwanus has only one generation per year.  Adult beetles emerge in summer and crawl on branches and leaves and may fly short distances.  Larvae feed on the cortex and xylem of the tree where they overwinter and pupate in spring.  The beetles may be transported long distances inside wood when infested plants or freshly cut stems and branches are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Stenhomalus taiwanus is native to China, Japan and Taiwan.  The only place it is known to have invaded is the southern United States, where it has been found in Georgia, Alabama, and Texas.

Official Control: Stenhomalus taiwanus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Stenhomalus taiwanus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Stenhomalus taiwanus has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Stenhomalus taiwanus (Taiwan slender longhorned beetle) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: There are no species of Zanthoxylum native to California and those plants are only occasionally cultivated here. If Stenhomalus taiwanus were to establish in California its distribution is likely to be very limited.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Stenhomalus taiwanus is only known to feed on two species of plants in one genus.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Stenhomalus taiwanus only has one generation per year.  It can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh stems or branches are moved.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Stenhomalus taiwanus has been present in the southern United States for more than five years and has not had any economic impacts.  If it were to establish in California it is not likely to lower crop yields, increase crop production costs, disrupt markets, negatively change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Stenhomalus taiwanus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs by residents who grow ornamental Zanthoxylum  In California the beetle is not likely to significantly affect cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Stenhomalus taiwanus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Stenhomalus taiwanus (Taiwan Slender Longhorned Beetle):  Low (7)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Stenhomalus taiwanus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

Stenhomalus taiwanus does not respond to any wood boring beetle lures and would not be found by CDFA’s exotic wood borer surveys.  In the South it is most commonly collected at light traps.  There have not been any recent comprehensive light trap surveys of California.  Interception data and finds from other states indicate that the beetle has been moving into the United States in wood products from China.  It is certain that some of these infested products also entered California.  Furthermore, it is likely that Stenhomalus taiwanus has already entered California and remains undetected.

            Although the beetle is only documented to feed on two species of Zanthoxylum, it is not known what plant(s) the beetle is using as a host in the United States.  It has been intercepted on “willow” baskets from China.  It is unknown what type of wood this actually was.  If there has been host-switching there is potential for far-reaching forestry and environmental impacts.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

If Stenhomalus taiwanus were to establish in California it is only expected to affect ornamental Zanthoxylum plants.  However, there is significant uncertainty about what host plant(s) the beetle is using in the United States as its native hosts do not occur here except as occasional ornamentals.   Until more information about the host range of this beetle is known or it is found in California an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Newton, Leslie and David Bednar. 2016.  NPAG Report Stenhomalus taiwanus Matsushita: Taiwan slender longhorn beetle.  United States Department of Agriculture New Pest Advisory Group.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

10/13/2016 – 11/27/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Trichoferus campestris Faldermann: Velvet Longhorn Beetle (VLB)

California Pest Rating for
Trichoferus campestris Faldermann: Velvet Longhorn Beetle (VLB)
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In February 2015 the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food supplied CDFA with two specimens of velvet longhorn beetle (VLB) (Trichoferus campestris) for reference use in our exotic woodborer surveys.  A pest rating proposal is required to establish a permanent pest rating for this pest.

History & Status:

BackgroundTrichoferus campestris is a wood-boring beetle whose larvae feed under the bark and within the wood of a variety of trees, including some specialty crops1.  Adults are nocturnal and emerge for flight in mid-spring1 to mid-summer2.  Adults are frequently found in high densities around cull piles associated with fruit production1.  They are attracted to both Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol lure1 as well as black light2.  Larvae feed under the bark of trees and tunnel into wood of medium to large sized trees1.  This feeding reduces fruit yield, wood marketability, and tree longevity1.  Preferred hosts include:  Rosaceae: apple and crabapple (Malus spp.1); Moraceae: mulberry (Morus spp.1).  Other living hosts include Betulaceae: birch (Betula spp.1); Fabaceae: locust (Gleditsia spp.1); Moraceae: paper mulberry (Broussonetia spp.1); Pinaceae: spruce (Picea spp.1), pine (Pinus spp.1); Rosaceae: cherry and peach (Prunus spp.1), mountain-ash (Sorbus spp.1); Salicaceae: willow (Salix spp.1).  The beetles are also polyphagous on a wide variety of dry wood2Trichoferus campestris may be transported long distances when infested wood is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Trichoferus campestris is native to Asia.  It has invaded several European nations3.  It was detected in New Jersey in 2006 and eradicated.  It was first found in Utah in 2010 and since then more than 500 beetles have been found at 15 sites in two counties1.

Official Control: Trichoferus campestris is considered a quarantine pest in Europe and Canada3.

California Distribution:  Trichoferus campestris has never been found in California.

California Interceptions:  Trichoferus campestris was intercepted once by CDFA in a warehouse on a wood pallet in Ventura County (PDR 1079984).

The risk Trichoferus campestris (VLB) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Trichoferus campestris are commonly grown in agriculture, as ornamentals, and in the environment of California. The beetles may also develop in dry wood.  VLB is likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Trichoferus campestris is only confirmed to feed on 12 species of trees in 6 families.  However, it has also been found feeding on a wide variety of dry wood.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Trichoferus campestris has a relatively slow life cycle with larvae taking up to two or more years to develop2.  Beetles are strong fliers and may be transported long distances when infested wood is moved in commerce or by residents.  VLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trichoferus campestris is likely to reduce crop yields in apple, cherry, and peach orchards as well as managed forests.  It is likely to increase crop production costs in these systems as growers and forest managers attempt to mitigate damage.  The beetle may disrupt markets for wood from California.  VLB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: VLB is likely to have significant environmental impacts including lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, and changing ecosystem processes as it feeds on forest and riparian trees.  It is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in orchards, managed forests, and by residents who wish to save infested ornamental trees.  Host trees of VLB are commonly grown as ornamentals and in home/urban gardens and are likely to be significantly impacted.  Trichoferus campestris receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Trichoferus campestris (VLB):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trichoferus campestris has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:  

In Utah there has been official confirmation of VLB emerging from live cherry and peach trees.  It was previously thought that VLB only fed on dry wood of these trees.  There are other recorded dry wood hosts of VLB such as grape (Vitis vinifera2) that may be discovered to be live hosts in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Trichoferus campestris has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Burfitt, Clinton E., Kristopher Watson, Caressa A. Pratt, and Joey Caputo. 2015. Total Records of Velvet Longhorn Beetle Trichoferus campestris Faldermann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Utah.  Utah Department of Agriculture and Food.  Plant Industry and Conservation Division.  http://ag.utah.gov/documents/Insect_Velvet_Longhorn_Beetle.pdf

2 CAPS Exotic Wood Borer/ Bark Beetle Survey Reference: Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann).  https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/webfm_send/2204

3 Dascălu, Maria-Magdalena, Rodica Serafim, and Åke Lindelöw. 2013. Range expansion of Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe with the confirmation of its presence in Romania. Entomologica Fennica 24: 142-146. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=11&ved=0CEgQFjAK&url=http%3A%2F%2Fojs.tsv.fi%2Findex.php%2Fentomolfennica%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F8981%2F6534&ei=yA8kVY3DJ4GWyATKzoHYDA&usg=AFQjCNFMd0N5q4wAbCOFancqBI34xf-DgQ&bvm=bv.89947451,d.aWw

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 4, 2016 and closed on April 18, 2016.


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Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls