Category Archives: Coleoptera

A Bark Beetle | Pycnarthrum hispidum (Ferrari)

California Pest Rating for
A Bark Beetle | Pycnarthrum hispidum (Ferrari)
Coleoptera
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Pycnarthrum hispidum is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Pycnarthrum hispidum is a neotropical bark beetle that occurs at low elevations below 1300 meters above sea level.  The feeding behavior is apparently restricted to the phloem of cut, injured, or fallen limbs and trunks of fig trees (Ficus spp.).  No reports were found suggesting that it attacks living, healthy trees.  The species has been associated with the following Ficus species: F. lyrata, F. elastica, and F. retusa.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pycnarthrum hispidum occurs in the United States (south Texas and south Florida), Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, Venezuela, and Guyana.

Official Control: Pycnarthrum hispidum does not appear to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Pycnarthrum hispidum is not known to occur in California.

California Interceptions: Pycnarthrum hispidum was intercepted on Artemisia sp., Ficus sp., and Ceratonia silique from Florida (PDR # 010P06660363, 010P06660369, 010P06660366, and 010P06660375).

The risk Pycnarthrum hispidum would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pycnarthrum hispidum occurs in tropical/subtropical areas. There is a possibility that it could become established in a limited portion of California.  Ficus species are grown as ornamental trees in California and could serve as host plants.  Therefore, Pycnarthrum hispidum receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pycnarthrum hispidum is apparently restricted to the genus Ficus. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pycnarthrum hispidum is capable of sustained flight, and is attracted to light.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The available information suggests that Pycnarthrum hispidum does not impact living trees.  The two most obvious concerns regarding the possible establishment of a species that feeds on Ficus are ornamental trees and commercial fig fruit, but these concerns are not supported by evidence.  In 2016, figs were grown in 32 Mexican states and the harvest was worth approximately 514 million pesos.  Yet, there do not appear to be any reports of P. hispidum as a pest of figs there, or anywhere else.  Ficus species are also widely planted as ornamental trees, and again, no reports were found of P. hispidum as a pest.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pycnarthrum hispidum is only known to feed on Ficus species, and there are no species in this genus (or even the family Moraceae) native to California. Additionally, as explained above in Economic Impact, there does not appear to be significant potential for hispidum to become an economic pest.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact. Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pycnarthrum hispidum: Low (7)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pycnarthrum hispidum is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

There appears to be little uncertainty regarding the possible impact of Pycnarthrum hispidum in California.  The species is widely distributed and common and not a single report was found of it attacking live trees.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pycnarthrum hispidum is a common, Neotropical insect that apparently feeds on cut branches and trunks of Ficus spp.  No reports were found suggesting it is a pest in any situation.  It does not appear to pose a threat to California’s agriculture or environment.  For these reasons, a “C” rating is justified.


References:

Atkinson, T.H. and A.E. Martínez.  1985.  Notes on biology and distribution of Mexican and Central American Scolytidae (Coleoptera).  I.  Hylesininae, Scolytinae except Cryphalini and Corthylini.  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  39(3): 227-238.

Atkinson, T.H., Martínez-Fernández, E., Saucedo-Céspedes, E., and A. Burgos-Solorio.  1986.  Scolytidae y Platypodidae (Coleoptera) asociados a selva baja y comunidades derivadas en el estado de Morelos.  Folia Entomolόgica Mexicana.  69: 41-82.

Martínez, A.E. and T.H. Atkinson.  1986.  Annotated checklist of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) associated with a tropical deciduous forest at Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico.  Florida Entomologist.  69(4): 619-635.

Servicio de Informaciόn Agroalimentaria y Pesquera.  Anuario Estadístico de la Producciόn Agrícola.  http://nube.siap.gob.mx/cierre_agricola/

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN).  http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu

Valencia, A.E. and T.H. Atkinson.  1988.  Scolytidae y Platypodidae (Coleoptera) de escárcega, Campeche, México.  Biogeografia, biología, importancia econόmica y una lista comentada de especies.  Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autόnoma de México.  58: 199-220.

Wood, S.L.  1982.  The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph.  Brigham Young University.  1359 pp.

Wood, S.L.  2007.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America.  Brigham Young University.  900 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/16/2018 – 3/2/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: C

 


Posted by ls

Banded Elm Bark Beetle | Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov

California Pest Rating  for
Banded Elm Bark Beetle | Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov
Coleoptera
Pest Rating: C

 

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Scolytus schevyrewi is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Scolytus schevyrewi can be recognized by its relatively large size (2.7-4.3 mm in length), the dark band running across the median portions of the elytra, and the position and shape of the abdominal spine.  In the United States, this species attacks elms (Ulmus americana, U. pumila, U. thomasii, and U. procera).  In its native range, it has been reported feeding on trees in the genera Malus and Prunus.  These genera include important fruit trees in California.  As of 2005, however, there were no records of this beetle attacking trees other than elms in the United States.  The species appears to preferentially attack, or cause greater damage to weakened or stressed trees.  Drought stress may be associated with greater damage.  Maturation feeding (feeding by adults before mating) occurs on twigs.  This beetle is apparently capable of transmitting the Dutch elm disease fungus to otherwise healthy trees, and maturation feeding is one way this could occur.

Worldwide Distribution: Scolytus schevyrewi is native to northern China, Central Asia, and Russia.  The beetle was introduced to the United States in 1994 or earlier, as this when the first specimen was collected, but recognition of the species and the fact it was present in the United States took a decade, probably because of the similarity of this species to Scolytus multistriatus.  Scolytus schevyrewi is widely distributed in the United States and has been reported from at least 28 states.  The species has also been introduced to Canada and Mexico.

Official Control: Scolytus schevyrewi is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Scolytus schevyrewi has been found in at least 13 counties in California, ranging from Lassen County in the north to San Diego County in the south.

California Interceptions: Scolytus schevyrewi has been trapped in 9 counties from 2004-2010 (Kern, Inyo, Lassen, Los Angeles, Mono, Nevada, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Bernardino) (PDR # 5035940, 1355030, 1355032, 1355027, 1355031, 1311668, 1322007, 1322005, 1368633, 1322006).

The risk Scolytus schevyrewi would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Scolytus schevyrewi is already present in at least 13 counties in California, from Lassen County in the north to San Diego County in the south. The beetle is also widely distributed over much of the rest of the continental United States.  This suggests it has the potential to become established over much or most of the state of California.  Elms are widely planted in California.  Therefore, Scolytus schevyrewi receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Even though Scolytus schevyrewi has not been reported to attack trees other than a few species of Ulmus in the United States, it is also reported to attack trees in the Rosaceae in its native range. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scolytus schevyrewi is capable of sustained flight and it infests wood and wood products that could be moved (e.g. firewood). Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: There does not appear to be any significant economic damage associated with schevyrewi in California, even though it is present over a large portion of the state.  Elms are not a major timber tree, and the genus Prunus, which includes important fruit trees, does not appear to be affected in the United States.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Scolytus schevyrewi does not appear to have had a significant environmental impact in California, even though it is widely distributed in the State. Elms (Ulmus) are not native to California, and these are the only trees reported as being impacted by this beetle in the United States.  Even though there do not appear to be many reports of this beetle damaging planted elms in the state, it is possible that this could occur during periods of drought.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact. Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Scolytus schevyrewi: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Scolytus schevyrewi has already spread to at least 13 counties in California.  The full extent of its distribution in the state is not known, and it is likely that its distribution will continue to expand.  The current range represents a large enough area to consider the species fully established for the purposes of this pest rating proposal.  It receives a High (-3) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

The host range of S. schevyrewi in the United States was considered, for the purposes of this pest rating proposal, to be significantly narrower than what has been reported for this species’ native distribution.  This was based on the available information.  Because S. schevyrewi is already so widespread in the United States, it seemed that, if it had a broader host range in this country, it would have been reflected in the literature, especially considering how much attention this species has received.  It is possible that S. schevyrewi does attack other genera and/or species of trees in the United States, but this has escaped attention.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

When it was initially determined, in the mid-2000s, that Scolytus schevyrewi was present in the United States, there was much concern regarding the possible impact of this species on elms (and possibly on fruit trees as well).  However, over a decade has elapsed and there is very little evidence of major economic or environmental impacts resulting from the species.  It is apparently already widely distributed in California, and there is little evidence of significant impacts in the state.  A “C” rating is justified.


References:

Campos-Bolaños, R., Atkinson, T.H., Cibrian-Tovar, D., and T. Méndez-Montiel.  2015.  Primer registro de Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov 1902 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) en Mexico.  Acta Zoologica Mexicana.  31(1): 146-148.

LaBonte, J.R.  2010.  The banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America; a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America.  ZooKeys.  56: 207-218.

Lee, J.C., Negrόn, J.F., McElwey, S.J., Witcosky, J.J., and S.J. Seybold.  2006.  Pest Alert: Banded elm beetle – Scolytus schevyrewi.  United States Department of Agriculture.  https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev2_026555.pdf

Negrόn, J.F., Witcosky, J.J., Cain, R.J., LaBonte, J.R., and Duerr II, D.A., McElwey, S.J., Lee, J.C., and S.J. Seybold.  2005.  The banded elm bark beetle: A new threat to elms in North America.  American Entomologist.  51(2): 84-94.

Seybold, S.J., Penrose, R.L., and A.D. Graves.  2016.  Chapter 21: Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems.  In Paine, T.D. and F. Lieutier (Eds.), Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems (pp. 583-662).  Springer.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/16/2018 – 3/2/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: C

 


Posted by ls

Small Spruce Bark Beetle | Polygraphus poligraphus (L.)

California Pest Rating for
Small Spruce Bark Beetle |  Polygraphus poligraphus (L.)
Coleoptera
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Polygraphus poligraphus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Polygraphus poligraphus has been reported to feed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris).  Apparently, it prefers weakened trees but can attack healthy ones as well.  Healthier trees may be attacked when population levels of the beetle are high, probably because tree defenses can be overwhelmed through mass attack.  Polygraphus poligraphus, like many or most bark beetles, is associated with multiple species of fungi, and some of these may be pathogenic to trees.

Worldwide Distribution: Polygraphus poligraphus is native to Europe and has a wide distribution there, being found from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean and Eastern Europe.

Official Control: Although this species is considered a pest, it does not appear to be under official control in any country.

California Distribution:  This species is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions: Polygraphus poligraphus has apparently been intercepted one time in California, on wood from Belgium or Germany (PDR # 798650).

The risk Polygraphus poligraphus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Although Polygraphus poligraphus has a wide distribution in Europe, extending from northern Europe to the Mediterranean, it appears that climates represented by much of its distribution may be colder than what is present in most of California. However, spruce and pine trees occur throughout California and are potential host trees of this beetle.  Therefore, Polygraphus poligraphus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Polygraphus poligraphus is known to attack at least two genera of coniferous trees. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Polygraphus poligraphus is capable of sustained flight. The species can also be artificially dispersed via movement of wood (including wood packing), as shown in one study where poligraphus emerged in a Canadian quarantine facility from wood packing from Norway.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: There are challenges to predict the possible economic impact of Polygraphus poligraphus.  The literature suggests that living trees are attacked by this species, and multiple species of fungi (some of them apparently pathogenic) can be vectored by it.  If established, poligraphus could reduce the quality and/or yield of timber, which could result in the loss of markets for California timber.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: As stated above, there is evidence that Polygraphus poligraphus attacks living trees and could vector harmful fungi. This could have a significant impact on California forest ecosystems.  There are several rare pines in California that could be impacted by the establishment of this beetle.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Polygraphus poligraphus: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Polygraphus poligraphus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

Polygraphus poligraphus is a bark beetle that primarily feeds on trees that are damaged or weakened, but some sources suggest that it can attack healthy trees.  Hence, the impact of this species on natural and managed forests in California is difficult to predict.  There is a possibility that the ability of P. poligraphus to overcome the defenses of healthy trees and the impact of its vectored fungi (as well as any interactions between this beetle and fungi already present in California) in California could be different from what is seen in Europe.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

As mentioned above, there are uncertainties regarding the possible impact of this species.  However, the fact that it does not yet occur in California, the evidence that it can (at least in some situations) attack living trees, and the fact that it can vector fungi suggest that an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Allen, E.A. and L.M. Humble.  2002.  Nonindigenous species introductions: A threat to Canada’s forests and forest economy.  Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology.  24: 103-110.

Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A., Kníñek, M., and S. Vit.  2017.  Polygraphus poligraphus (Linnaeus).  Fauna Europaea version 2017.06 https://fauna-eu.org

Kärvemo, S., Björkman, C., Johansson, T., Weslien, J., and J. Hjälten.  2017.  Forest restoration as a double-edged sword: the conflict between biodiversity conservation and pest control.  Journal of Applied Ecology.  1-11.

Krokene, P. and H. Solheim.  1996.  Fungal associates of five bark beetle species colonizing Norway spruce.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  26: 2115-2122.

Vojtěch, O., Křenová, Z., and J. Rastislav.  2013.  Species of bark beetles (Scolytinae) collected in the Bohemian Forest at Smrčina/Hochficht two years after the Kyrill hurricane.  Silva Gabreta.  19(3): 149-164.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/16/2018 – 3/2/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Strangulate Weevil | Trochorhopalus strangulatus (Gyllenhal)

California Pest Rating for
Strangulate Weevil | Trochorhopalus strangulatus (Gyllenhal)
Coleoptera
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Trochorhopalus strangulatus was recently reported to be established on the island of Hawaii (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  The species is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Trochorhopalus strangulatus is a weevil that is widely distributed in tropical sugarcane-growing areas.  Adults are reported to be 6-10 mm in length and are black with a coating of short, brown/gold setae (Corbett, 1932; Hustache, 1920; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  This species is considered a pest of sugarcane.  The larvae bore into and feed in the stalks of the plant (Magarey et al., 2002).  However, some reports suggest it is of minor significance.  For example, it is reported to primarily attack sugar cane that is damaged or weak in Fiji (Imperial Bureau of Entomology, 1920).  The beetle has been reported to attack coconut palm; details on the damage inflicted are sparse, but one report suggests this beetle may provide conditions allowing other, more serious pests to attack trees (Corbett 1932).  This species was also reported to be associated with, and possibly damage bananas, although no further details were found (Harmer, 1912; Mararuai, 2010).  Lastly, this species is apparently often found associated with dead palm trees (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Worldwide Distribution:  Trochorhopalus strangulatus is known from islands in the Indian Ocean (Republic of Seychelles and the Mascarene Islands), Southeast Asia (Indonesia and Philippines), Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Hawaii (Hustache, 1920; Magarey et al., 2002; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Pemberton, 1963; Senterre et al., 2011; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).  The native distribution is unknown, although one report states it is indigenous to the Seychelles (Senterre et al., 2011).  The distribution has presumably been expanded as a result of cultivation and transport of sugarcane in Southeast Asia and Pacific islands, which began thousands of years ago, and it is assumed that at least some localities represent introductions (Artschwager and Brandes, 1958).

Official Control: Trochorhopalus strangulatus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Trochorhopalus strangulatus is not known to occur in California.

California Interceptions:  Trochorhopalus strangulatus has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Trochorhopalus strangulatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Trochorhopalus strangulatus has been reported to feed on sugarcane, banana, and palms. Of these, ornamental palms are the most obvious possible host plant in California, and they are present throughout much of the state.  Based on the current distribution of T. strangulatus (tropical areas), it appears unlikely that this species could become established in more than a very limited portion of California.  Therefore, this species receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Trochorhopalus strangulatus is a pest of sugar cane, but has also been reported to attack coconut palm and bananas, which suggests at least three families of plants are fed upon. Unfortunately, details regarding feeding on these alternate host plants are lacking. Therefore, T. strangulatus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Trochorhopalus strangulatus presumably flies.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: This weevil is a pest of sugarcane and it has also been reported to attack banana and palms.  California industries that could be affected by the establishment of this weevil include ornamental palms and sugarcane.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California, and damage (including lowering of yield) to palms in nurseries could result if T. strangulatus became established in California (Hoddle).  Sugarcane is either currently being grown in, or is planned to be grown in the Imperial Valley, where a sugarcane-based sugar and biofuels initiative is underway.  If this weevil became established in the Imperial Valley, which may not be likely given its apparent restriction to tropical areas, it could lower yield of sugarcane there.  An extensive sugarcane industry exists in the southeastern United States, and the climate in that region would likely be more favorable for the establishment of this pest.  The possibility of the spread of this pest to the southeastern United States (and impact on sugarcane and palms there), as well as other countries, could lead to a loss of markets for ornamental palms from California.  Therefore, T. strangulatus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If this weevil was introduced to California, it could potentially spread to groves of the only species of native California palm, Washingtonia filifera, although this is somewhat unlikely, considering that this weevil is apparently restricted to tropical areas and these palms occur in the desert. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Trochorhopalus strangulatus: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trochorhopalus strangulatus is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

There is a great deal of uncertainty regarding the feeding by this species on palms and banana.  A possibility that must be considered is that some of the feeding attributed to T. strangulatus could have been the result of another species misidentified as this one.  If this is the case, it means that the feeding habits of this species may be narrower than assumed in this rating proposal.  There is also uncertainty regarding the ability of this species to become established in California, apart from the issue of host plant.  This species is apparently restricted to areas with a tropical climate, and it appears unlikely to be able to become established in California, although parts of southern California could provide adequate conditions for it.  This beetle could become an established pest in parts of California.  A cautious approach has been taken here because of the ability of this species to attack living plants, as shown by its status as a sugar cane pest.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Trochorhopalus strangulatus is a tropical weevil that is not known to occur in California.  The beetle is a pest of sugarcane, and reports suggest it also attacks bananas and palms.  This species poses an economic and environmental risk to California.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Artschwager, E. and E.W. Brandes.  1958.  Agriculture Handbook 122: Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.); origin, classification, characteristics, and descriptions of representative clones.  United States Department of Agriculture.  United States Government Printing Office.  307 pp.

Corbett, G.H.  1932.  Insects of coconuts in Malaya.  Bulletin General Series (Straits Settlements & Federated Malay States Department of Agriculture).  10: 1-106.

Harmer, S.F.  1912.  Department of Zoology.  VI.  Economic zoology.  Return, British Museum.  1912: 163-167.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.

Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Hustache, A.  1920.  Curculionides des iles Mascareignes.  Annales de la Société entomologique de France.  89: 113-203.

Imperial Bureau of Entomology.  1920.  Series A: Agricultural.  Review of Applied Entomology.  8: 1-40.

Magarey, R.C., Suma, S., Irawan, Kuniata, L.S., and P.G. Allsopp.  2002.  Sik na binatang bilong suka – Diseases and pests encountered during a survey of Saccharum germplasm ‘in the wild’ in Papua New Guinea.  Proceedings of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technology.  24: 219-227.

Mararuai, A.  2010.  Market access of Papua New Guinea bananas (Musa sp.) with particular respect to banana fly (Bactrocera musae (Tryon)) (Diptera: Tephritidae).  Ph.D. thesis.  School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.  192 pp.

Pemberton, C.E.  1963.  Important Pacific insect pests of sugar cane.  Pacific Science.  17(2): 251-252.

Senterre, B., Henriette, E., Chong-Seng, L., Beaver, K., Mougal, J., Vel, T., and J. Gerlach.  2011.  Seychelles key biodiversity areas.  Output 1: List of species of special concern.  Report of Consultancy, UNDP-GEF project, Ministry of Environment of Seychelles, Victoria, Seychelles.  67 pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed 20 November 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Camphor Shot Borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)

California Pest Rating for
Camphor shot borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)
Curculionidae: Coleoptera
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has proposed changing the status of Cnestus mutilatus from actionable to non-actionable.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating for this beetle.

History & Status:

Background Cnestus mutilatus is a wood-boring beetle that prefers to attack stems that are 2-5 cm in diameter, including more than 20 botanical families1.  Female beetles bore into trees and inoculate them with fungi1.  Adult beetles and larvae feed on these fungi, and reside within the stems.  A wide variety of trees are attacked.

Known hosts include Aceraceae: Japanese maple (Acer palmatum)1, red maple (Acer rubrum) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) 1, maples (Acer spp.) 1, Acer sieboldianum1; Betulaceae: American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 1, Japanese hornbeam (Carpinus laxiflora) 1; Cornaceae: flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) 1, dogwood (Cornus spp.) 1; Fabaceae: Albizia spp. 1, Ormosia hosiei1; Fagaceae: beech (Fagus grandifolia) 1, chestnut (Castanea spp.) 1, Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) 1, Quercus shumardii1; Hamamelidaceae: sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) 1; Juglandaceae: hickory (Carya spp.) 1, Platycarya spp. 1; Lauraceae: camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora) 1, spicebush (Benzoin [Lindera] spp.) 1, Lindera erythrocarpa1, Lindera triloba1, Parabenzoin [Lindera] praecox1, Machilus [Persea] thunbergii1; Magnoliaceae: yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) 1; Meliaceae: Melia azedarach1; big leaved mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) 1; Oleaceae: Osmanthus fragrans1; Taxodiaceae: Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) 1; Pinaceae: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) 1; Rosaceae: black cherry (Prunus serotina) 1, wild plum (Prunus americana) 1; Theaceae: Camellia spp. 1; Ulmaceae: elm (Ulmus alata) 1; Vitaceae: muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) 1. It has also been reported on Anacardiaceae, Cupressaceae, Melastomataceae, Papilionaceae, and Styracaceae1.  The beetles can be transported long distances when infested nursery stock or firewood is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Cnestus mutilatus is native to Asia, and has invaded the eastern United States and established a widespread distribution there1.

Official Control: Cnestus mutilatus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution Cnestus mutilatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Cnestus mutilatus has never been intercepted by CDFA or County Agricultural agents.

The risk Cnestus mutilatus (Camphor shot borer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:   

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The native distribution of Cnestus mutilatus corresponds with Plant Hardiness Zones 5 through 131, which matches most of the state of California. One model predicts that this beetle will not find the western United States as favorable as the east due to precipitation and temperature requirements1,2.  However, this same model also predicted that the beetles would not find suitable habitats in other eastern states where the beetle has since been found.  Other invasive wood boring beetles with similar native Asian distributions are thriving in California.  The accuracy of predictive models for wood-boring beetle distributions could likely be improved by including data on the environment inside trees, where the beetles spend the majority of their lives.  Host trees of the beetle are widely grown as ornamentals in California.  Cnestus mutilatus can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Cnestus mutilatus is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cnestus mutilatus both disperses and overwinters as mated females so a single individual can found a new population.  Female beetles can fly 2-3km and can rapidly be transported long distances when infested nursery stock or firewood is moved1Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Cnestus mutilatus attacks nursery stock and a variety of insecticide treatments have been developed for this pest.  If this beetle were to establish in California, it is likely to affect yields of nurseries and increase production costs.  The beetles also vector symbiotic fungi from tree to tree.  Known hosts of the beetle include cherry, plum, and grapes (Prunus serotina, Prunus americana, and Vitis rotundifolia).  If the beetles are able to feed on grapevines and other stone fruit trees, it could have significant impacts on California’s $5.58 billion grape industry and $21 billion fruit and nut crop industries.  Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact:  A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Cnestus mutilatus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The beetle is likely to trigger new chemical treatments by the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Many host trees of the beetle are planted as ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Cnestus mutilatus (Camphor shot borer):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Cnestus mutilatus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

In some cases, Cnestus mutilatus is attracted to gasoline mixed with ethanol3.  Female beetles can bore into plastic fuel storage containers, causing fuel to leak out3.  This could potentially increase the risk of fire in California3.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Cnestus mutilatus has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:

1 PPQ. 2017. DEEP report for Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)—Camphor shot borer. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, NC. 5 pp.  To request a copy of this report please contact USDA.

2 Olatinwo, R., D. Streett, and C. Carlton. 2014. Habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for the exotic ambrosia beetle, Cnestus mutilatus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in the southeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(4):782-788.  https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/2014/ja_2014_olatinwo_004.pdf

3 Carlton, Chris and Victoria Bayless.  2011. A case of Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) Females Damaging Plastic Fuel Storage Containers in Louisiana, U.S.A. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(3): 290-291. http://www.lsuinsects.org/resources/docs/publications/Carlton&Bayless2011Cnestus.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Ambrosia Beetle | Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)

California Pest Rating for
Ambrosia Beetle |  Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The United States Department of Agriculture’s Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Lab has proposed changing the status of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus amputatus from actionable to nonactionable1.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine the impacts that this proposed change might have on California and to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Xylosandrus amputatus is a small fungus-feeding ambrosia beetle1.  Female beetles carry a symbiotic fungus and inoculate host trees1.  Adults and larvae then feed on the fungus1.  In its native range this beetle has been collected from trees in the families Anacardiaceae, Ebenaceae, Geraniaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapindaceae, Styracaceae, and Theaceae2.  Reported hosts include maple (Acer sp.)1, sumac (Rhus trichocarpa)1, Diospyros morrisiana1, zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum)1, Actinodaphne lanciflora1 (possibly lancifolia), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora)1, Cinnamomum mairei1, Cinnamomum osmophloeum1, Machilus sp.1, Persea (Machilus) thubergii1, fig (Ficus carica)1, jujube (Ziziphus jujube)1, snowbell (Styrax suberifolium)1, and Stewartia monoderpha1 (possibly monodelpha).  The beetles can be rapidly transported long distances when infested wood products such as firewood are moved.

Worldwide Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus is native to Asia (China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan)1,2.  The beetle is only known to have invaded Florida and Georgia1.

Official Control Xylosandrus amputatus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been intercepted by CDFA or the County Agricultural Commissioners.

The risk Xylosandrus amputatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:   

1) Climate/Host Interaction:  Xylosandrus amputatus is likely able to establish throughout USDA Plant Hardiness zones 7 through 101. This is a climatic match for most of California.  Suitable host plants are grown throughout this region as well.  The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range:  Xylosandrus amputatus is known to feed on at least 314 species of plants in 9 plant families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In Florida, Xylosandrus amputatus has spread 200 miles in 7 years, demonstrating a high dispersal potential1.  The beetle could be spread through the movement of infested wood, including firewood.  Ambrosia beetles also have high reproductive potential.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: In Florida and Georgia, where Xylosandrus amputatus has become established, it has not been found attacking healthy, stressed, or dying trees1.  It has only been found in traps.  Until more information about its biology in Florida or Georgia is known, it is appropriate to consider impacts that the beetles could have on all known hosts.  Fig and jujube are both known hosts that are grown commercially in California.  If Xylosandrus amputatus were to become established in the state the beetle could lower crop yields and increase crop production costs.  Female beetles also vector a fungal symbiont, Ambrosiella beaveri1.  However, it is not known if this fungus is pestiferous1Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Xylosandrus amputatus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The beetle is not expected to feed on any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The species might trigger new treatment programs in fig and jujube orchards, however it is not likely to significantly impact cultural practices or home/urban gardens.  However, known host trees are common ornamental plants in California and may be susceptible to attack, especially if trees that are stressed due to drought.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xylosandrus amputatus:  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Although Xylosandrus amputatus is well established throughout most of Florida and part of Georgia, however the beetles are only known from traps.  There is no information as to what host plants the beetles are feeding on in these states or if host trees are healthy or stressed.  There is a possibility that they are feeding on additional host tree species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in California.  If it were to enter the state, it is likely to have significant impacts on ornamental trees and fig and jujube production.  An “A”-rating is justified.


References:

Note:  If links do not work please copy and paste URLs into your browser.

1PPQ. 2017. DEEP report for Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, North Carolina. 4 pp.  To request a copy of this report please contact USDA.

2 Cognato, Anthony I., Rachel O. Olson, and Robert J. Rabaglia. 2011. An Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini), Discovered in Florida, U.S.A. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(1): 43-45.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony_Cognato/publication/232681964_An_Asian_Ambrosia_Beetle_Xylosandrus_amputatus_Blandford_Curculionidae_Scolytinae_Xyleborini_Discovered_in_Florida_USA/links/55b7632508ae9289a08be3a5.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

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Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

 

Sri Lankan Weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus

California Pest Rating for
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus: Sri Lankan weevil
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus has been rated A by CDFA. Due to recent interceptions in California, a pest rating proposal is required.

History & Status:

Background: Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, the Sri Lankan weevil, is a plant pest with a wide range of hosts. This weevil spread from Sri Lanka into India and then to Pakistan where it is considered a pest of more than 20 crops. In the United States, the Sri Lankan weevil was first identified on citrus sp. in Pompano Beach a city in Broward County Florida1.

Adult Sri Lankan weevils vary in length from approximately 6.0 to 8.5 mm; the female weevil is slightly larger than the male by 1.0 to 2.0 mm. In this genus, 336 species recognized are from Southeast Asia. These weevils can feed on more than 80 different plants species. These include, citrus, cotton, sweet potato, fig, loquat, plum, mango and mahogany3.

Worldwide Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is native to southern India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It has been reported from Southeast Asia (including China and Japan), Africa, the Palearctic, Indonesia, Australia and the United States (Florida)3.

Official Control: The Sri Lankan weevil is listed as a harmful organism in the Republic of Korea5.

California Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is not reported in California; however, there have not been any recent surveys to confirm this.

California Interceptions: The Sri Lankan weevil was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and March, 2017, this insect was intercepted six times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida4.

The risk Sri Lankan weevil would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The Sri Lankan weevil can feed on a variety of field crops, nursery stocks, and fruits of California. The Sri Lankan weevil may establish in larger, but limited, warm agricultural and metropolitan areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The Sri Lankan weevil has a wide range of hosts and it can feed on almost 80 different kinds of plant species3.  Since, host species are grown throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Myllocerus may lay up to 360 eggs over a 24-day period, and larvae emerge in 3-5 days. The Sri Lankan weevil eggs are laid directly on organic material at the soil surface, a common substrate in California. Eggs are less than 0.5 mm, ovoid and usually laid in clusters of 3-5. The eggs are white or cream-colored at first, then gradually turn brown when they are close to hatching1. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is well-known for causing significant damage to agricultural crops and fruits products, especially young plants. Leaf-feeding adults damage the foliage of ornamental plants, fruit trees, and vegetables, whereas the larvae injure root systems; this decreases crop value and yield. Peach growers in Florida are reported to be having a difficult time managing damage from the weevil. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control infestations. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The Sri Lankan weevil receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Sri Lankan weevil: High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The Sri Lankan weevil has never been found in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not Established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The Sri Lankan weevil is intercepted six times in California. There have not been any detection surveys conducted recently to confirm its presence. The environment of California is highly favorable for the Sri Lankan weevil therefore, the uncertainty about this species is high.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:  

The Sri Lankan weevil is not established in California, it would be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Anita Neal 2013.  University of Florida.   Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/sri_lankan_weevil.htm

  1. Charles W. O’Brien, Muhammad Haseeb, Michael C. Thomas. Pest weevil from Indian Subcontinent. Florida  Dept. Of Agricultural. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/10795/141061/ent412.pdf

  1. Pest Alert. Florida dept. Of Agriculture & consumer services. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.famu.edu/cesta/iframeapps/Invasive_Weevil_Species/Desktop/Myllocerus_undatus_Marshall_-_Sri_Lanka_Weevil_or_Asian_Grey_Weevil.htm

  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.

http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 3-20-17.

https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

July 7, 2017 – August 21, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)

California Pest Rating for
Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating:  B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 18, 2016 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a sample of bark beetles obtained from an olive tree at a grape vineyard in Riverside County as Phloeotribus scarabaeoides, the olive bark beetle (OBB).  This is the first record of OBB in the Western Hemisphere and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  OBB is a bark beetle that is a well-known pest of olive1.  The species is widely distributed around the Mediterranean basin1,3 (including Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia).  Adult females bore through bark and excavate a transverse tunnel on either side of the entry point1.  Inside the twig/branch, the female lays up to 60 eggs and as larvae hatch each larva bores up or down from the entrance tunnel underneath the bark1.  This feeding causes partial to complete girdling1 of the twig/branch; thereby structurally weakening it as well as damaging vasculature.  Larvae pupate inside the feeding galleries1. OBB has 2-4 generations per year1.  Spring and early summer adults tend to lay eggs in prunings and olive wood stacked as firewood rather than living trees1.  In addition to olive, OBB also feeds on oleander (Nerium oleander) and occasionally ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris)1.  OBB may be transported long distances when infested olive wood or living plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: OBB is native to the Mediterranean basin.  Thus far, it is not known to have invaded any other regions.

Official Control: OBB is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, Paraguay, and Peru2.

California Distribution:  OBB has been found at the grape vineyard as well as a residence and 3 nurseries, all in Riverside County.  Surveys of olive trees at nurseries in other counties have not found any OBB.

California Interceptions OBB has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.  However, the beetles have been found in trees at three nurseries and might have been spreading through the nursery trade for an indefinite time period.

The risk Phloeotribus scarabaeoides [olive bark beetle (OBB)] would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Olive and oleander are grown throughout California and OBB is likely to establish throughout these areas. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: OBB feeds primarily on olive, secondarily on oleander, and occasionally on ash and lilac.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Score: 1

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: OBB has three to four generations per year and each female lays up to 60 eggs.  Adult beetles can fly and all life stages can be transported long distances when olive wood or infested plants are moved.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Score:  3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: OBB is considered a serious pest of olive that can cause heavy losses of young shoots, flowers, and fruit1.  The beetle can be expected to increase crop production costs for olive growers as they implement management strategies.  In regions with established OBB populations, growers are forced to alter cultural practices by moving olive prunings and wood far away from groves to reduce damage.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: OBB is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  OBB is likely to trigger new official and private treatment programs.  Olive and oleander are widespread ornamentals and are likely to be significantly impacted by this pest.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Olive bark beetle (OBB)):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: OBB has only been found in Riverside County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty: 

OBB might have a widespread distribution in California.  The beetles have been found in olive trees in several nurseries and it is possible that the beetles could have been spreading through the nursery industry for several years.  Secondly, there is a native bark beetle (Hylesinus californicus) that sometimes attacks stressed olive trees and was originally called the olive bark beetle in California.  However, the common name was changed to western ash bark beetle to reflect its typical host.  It is possible that OBB could be more widespread in California and its damage attributed to Hylesinus californicus.  However, adults of Phloeotribus are extremely characteristic amongst all weevils in possessing elongate terminal antennomeres and would be recognized as something new by any coleopterist.  Thirdly, the olive trees at the original detection site had been moved from San Diego County.  It is possible the beetles could be established in San Diego County, although none have been found at the origin.  This evidence suggests the possibility OBB could have a widespread distribution within southern California and possibly the entire State.

Before the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) arrived in California in 2008 the State was the source of 11% of the world’s table olives.  Most of these were produced by small growers with less than 40 acres.  These growers did not make enough profit to pay for treatment costs for olive fly and many of them have switched to less profitable olive oil.  The presence of OBB in California could be especially disastrous for the many small olive growers in the State.  This might lead growers to switch to more water intensive crops, exacerbating the effects of the State’s drought.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California’s olive industry and ornamental plantings of oleander and olive throughout the State.  However, it is established and abundant in Riverside County, is not under official control, and has likely been spreading through the nursery trade.  There are no approved treatments or survey tools for this pest and there are no plans for an interior quarantine.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Alvord, D.V. 2014.  Pests of Fruit Crops: A Color Handbook.  CRC Press.  462pp.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Knížek, M. 2011. Subfamily Scolytinae. pgs. 204-250. In Lobl, I and A. Smetana (Eds.), Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Volume 7. Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 372pp.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Bruchidius terrenus: Seed Beetle

California Pest Rating for
Bruchidius terrenus: Seed Beetle
Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Bruchidius terrenus, seed beetle, has a current rating of Q. It has been recently identified at the CDFA -Plant Pest Diagnostics Center on November 1, 2016 from an Albizia tree seed pod sample submitted from Mendocino County. This is the second time that this beetle has been found at the same location. The first time, the sample was collected on October, 2015 and was identified morphologically as Bruchidius species and Tuberculobruchus species via molecular method. The second find at the same site after a year has prompted this risk analysis to establish a permanent rating for this species.

History & Status:

Background: Bruchidius terrenus is a specialist seed predator of Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree). Adult beetles probably overwinter near host trees in plant litter. These overwintered, sexually immature adults emerge in the Southeastern U.S. in late spring and disperse to mimosa trees where they feed on pollen. Oviposition begins in early July when green pods are formed. Eggs are laid individually on young pods and hatch in 1-2 weeks. The larva emerges from the underside the pod and tunnel into developing pods. The number of instars are inferred to be four. Pupation occurs within the seed inside the closed pod and the pupal period takes 10-20 days. New generation adults chew through the seed coat and then through the pod coat to emerge in early September and feed on pollen in the fall. Bruchidius terrenus reduces seed production of the host plant. In addition to mimosa trees, it also feeds on acacia and black locust (1). Continuous spread likely can occur with infested nursery stock or seeds.

Worldwide Distribution: Bruchidius terrenus occurs widely in the eastern Palearctic region of China, Japan and Taiwan.

United States: Bruchidius terrenus has been recorded in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee.

Official Control: Bruchidius species are listed as harmful organisms in Brazil, Chile and India.

California DistributionBruchidius terrenus has been found twice at the same location in Mendocino County.

California Interceptions: Bruchidius terrenus has not been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Bruchidius terrenus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), the main host of Bruchidius terrenus, grows in gardens, disturbed areas like roadsides, forest edges and various open habitats. This plant can tolerate a variety of soil and moisture conditions. It is sparingly naturalized and widely distributed throughout California (4, 5). Mimosa tree is reported as one of the best-selling ornamental trees in southern California (3). Therefore, Bruchidius terrenus is likely to establish in all areas of California where Mimosa trees are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Bruchidius terrenus primarily feeds on mimosa tree, acacia and black locust (1). It has also been detected on Cornus foemina, Hydrangea quercifolia and Solidago sp. nationally, but these species are not known to be true hosts. It receives a Low (1) in this category

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Bruchidius terrenus is a univoltine species with just one brood of offspring per year. The eggs are laid individually on young seed pods. Emerging larva tunnel through pods to green seeds. Most seeds contain a single larva. (1) This species can spread with the movement of infested Mimosa nursery stock or through seeds in California. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Mimosa tree is a widely distributed ornamental tree and is cultivated in California. Bruchidius terrenus is considered a serious pest of Mimosa trees and can reduce seed production of the host plant significantly. Other Bruchidius species are known to reduce seed production in the host plant by as much as 80 % (2). In southern California, infection by Bruchidius terrenus may result in loss of markets. It receives a Low (1) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Bruchidius terrenus is not likely to lower biodiversity and disrupt natural communities. It is also not expected to affect threatened or endangered species. Since mimosa tree is cultivated in California for its shade, fragrant pompon-like flowers and fern-like compound leaves, infection by Bruchidius terrenus could trigger additional chemical treatment by growers. In desert areas, Mimosa tree makes a fine patio tree because of its light, filtered shade and umbrella form. If this tree were to get infested by Bruchidius terrenus, there could be impacts on home garden plantings in warmer and desert areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impacts of the pest on California using the following criterion:

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Bruchidius terrenus (Seed beetle): Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Bruchidia terrenus has been reported from Ukiah in Mendocino County in the fall of 2015 and again in 2016 during the same period. This indicates it might be establishing in that area.  It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records of specimens identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

Impacts of Bruchidius terrenus on mimosa trees in California is unknown. To date, there have been two reports of this beetle from the same area in Mendocino County. There have not been any detection surveys done in California for the presence of Bruchidius terrenus or other Bruchidius species. Since Mimosa trees are widely cultivated and naturalized in California, it is possible that this seed beetle could be affecting its host plants in other areas of California.

 Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Bruchidius terrenus is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to ornamental plantings of Mimosa trees growing areas in California. Based on all of the above evidence provided, a “B” rating is justified

References: 
  1. Hoebeke, Richard, Wheeler Jr., A.H, Kingsolver, John M and Stephan, David L 2009. First North American Records of the East Palearctic Seed Beetle Bruchidius terrenus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), A Specialist on Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin, Fabaceae). Florida Entomologist 92(3):434-440.
  2. Landry, Cynthia, 2011. National Pest Advisory Group Report: Bruchidius terrenus (Sharp): Seed Beetle http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.401.213&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  1. Redland Daily Facts: 06/24/2013: Mimosa is best-selling tree in Southern California. Accessed: 11/17/2016 http://www.redlandsdailyfacts.com/article/ZZ/20130624/NEWS/130629042
  1. Plant Invaders of Mid Atlantic Natural Area, National Park Services; US Fish and Wildlife Services: Silk Tree. Accessed: 11/17/2016 https://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEn/pubs/midatlantic/alju.htm
  1. Missouri Botanical Gardens: Albizia julibrissin. Accessed:11/17/2016 http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a848
  1. Los Angeles Arboretum Garden: Some outstanding shade trees of Southern California. Accessed: 11/17/2016 http://www.arboretum.org/some-outstanding-shade-trees-for-southern-california/
  1. Meyer, Rachelle. 2010. Albizia julibrissin. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Accessed: 11/18/2016. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/albjul/all.html
  1. Plant Maps: Interactive 2012 USDA Gardening and Plant Hardiness Zone map for California. Accessed: 11/18/2016 http://www.plantmaps.com/interactive-california-2012-usda-plant-zone-hardiness-map.php
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed: 11/17/2016 https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database: Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services; California Department of Food and Agriculture, Accessed: 11/17/2016

Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Araecerus fasciculatus: Coffee bean weevil

California Pest Rating for
Araecerus fasciculatus: Coffee bean weevil
Coleoptera: Anthribidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Araecerus fasciculatus has a current CDFA rating of B or Q. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating.

History & Status:

Background: Araecerus fasciculatus is a small dome-shaped, dark brown beetle that is commonly known as coffee bean weevil (CBW). It is found in tropical and subtropical coastal countries where it is considered as a major pest of coffee beans, corn, cocoa, nutmeg and the seeds of leguminous plants4. It can consume any stored food that is not too dry. The larvae live and feed inside the coffee beans which causes them to turn rotten. The coffee bean weevil does significant damage above 28°C but it cannot complete its development from egg to adult at temperatures below 22 °C1.

The coffee bean weevil has long legs and the long antennae has three large segments on the end forming a club. The wings do not cover the entire abdomen leaving the last segment exposed. The body is covered in fine short hairs1.

In the early 1900s, the coffee bean weevil was considered primarily a stored product pest, as it generally infests a wide variety of stored food materials. However, from the 1920s onward, there have been reports that this pest also attacks living plants or fruits, especially soft, tropical fruits. The coffee bean weevil can attack papaya (Carica papaya), citrus, as well as assorted dried foodstuffs including dried fruits, nuts, mushrooms, herbs and spices, various palm seeds including (Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Washingtonia filifera), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Corn (Zea mays ), Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans ), Kava (Piper methysticum), Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Taro (Colocasia esculenta), Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Rice (Oryza sativa), Hot peppers (Capsicum sp.), Yam (Dioscorea sp.), Bananas (Musa sp.), Ginger (Zingiber sp.) and Jujube (Ziziphus sp.)2.

Worldwide Distribution: The coffee bean weevil was originally described in 1775 from India, and it has been reported worldwide in tropical/subtropical regions (both in the field and in storage) 4. It has been reported in temperate regions only in heated facilities.  The coffee bean weevil is considered a minor pest of stored products in Asia and Australia. It has spread through many of the Southeast Asian countries and it is also present in Mexico, Belize, and Panama2.

In the United States coffee bean weevil is reported in Florida, Ohio, New Jersey, District of Columbia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas and North Carolina. In California it was collected in a residential area of Orange County in 19944.

Official Control: The coffee bean weevil is listed as a harmful organism in Iran, Egypt, Guatemala and Panama 5.

California Distribution:  The Coffee bean weevil is probably established in Los Angeles and Orange counties; however, there have not been any recent surveys to confirm this.

California Interceptions: The coffee bean weevil was intercepted five times between June, 2002 to August, 2003 in Los Angeles and San Mateo Counties (PDR-1424722, 205694, 1253758, 1253707 & 1253892)3.

The risk Coffee bean weevil would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The coffee bean weevil can feed on a variety of stored products which includes most field crops and fruits of California. The coffee bean weevil may establish in larger, but limited, warm agricultural and metropolitan areas of California, as it cannot survive at higher elevations. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The coffee bean weevil has a wide range of hosts and it can feed on almost 100 different kinds of stored products4.  Host species are grown throughout California.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female lays up to 60 eggs and the larvae emerge in 5 to 20 days. The entire life cycle can take as little as 21 days or as long as 80 days, depending on environmental conditions.  The coffee bean weevils are strong fliers and can fly long distances. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The coffee bean weevil is well-known for causing significant damage to stored agricultural products, especially those in warm storage. The tiny, grub-like larvae bore their way into any seeds or beans and excavate a cavity. Several larvae feed on each bean and end up consuming a considerable portion; this decreases the crop value. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact:  B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The coffee bean weevil is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control infestations. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The coffee bean weevil receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Coffee bean weevil:  Medium (12)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The coffee bean weevil has been intercepted five times since January, 2000. It was reported   in Orange and Los Angeles counties in 1994 &1995  It receives a Low Score (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -1

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

No detection surveys have been conducted recently. Because the host material the Coffee bean weevil attacks is found throughout California, it could easily spread and become established.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Currently the coffee bean weevil is only known from Orange and Los Angeles Counties, but it could become established and spread. It has the potential to have limited economic and environmental impacts. A “B” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Australia Wildlife site Oz animals .com   Accessed on 12-6-16.  http://www.ozanimals.com/Insect/Coffee-Bean-Weevil/Araecerus/fasciculatus.html
  1. Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines. Accessed on 12-6-16.      https://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/PAS/article/view/688/pdf_40
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database. CPPDR report 1996. Accessed on 12-6-16.  https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/CPPDR_1996_15_3-4.pdf
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 12-6-16. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
Responsible party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Metamasius hemipterus (L.): West Indian Sugarcane Weevil

California Pest Rating for
Metamasius hemipterus (L.): West Indian Sugarcane Weevil
Pest Rating:  C

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Metamasius hemipterus, West Indian sugarcane weevil, from actionable to non-actionable for the continental United States.  The weevil would remain actionable for Hawaii and the Pacific territories.  The insect is currently C-rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  The larvae of Metamasius hemipterus are borers that tunnel through the stems and petioles of tropical plants, causing extensive damage3.   They are considered an economic pest in Florida3.  The weevil feeds primarily on coconut, banana, and sugarcane2; it usually attacks plants that are already damaged.  Secondary hosts include a variety of palms, lantana, pineapple, cassava, guava, sorghum, corn, and Mora excelsa1,2Metamasius hemipterus can spread long distances through commerce in infested plants and fruit, especially bananas.

Worldwide Distribution: Metamasius hemipterus appears to be native to Central America and/or northern South America1.  From there it has spread through much of the Caribbean and Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria in Africa.  It was found in Florida in 1984.

Official Control: Metamasius hemipterus is considered a quarantine pest in Europe2.

California Distribution:  There are specimens of Metamasius hemipterus in the California State Collection of Arthropods from the following counties:  Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Contra Costa, and Calaveras.

California Interceptions:  There is only one interception of Metamasius hemipterus recorded in the PDR database.  This was at the border station in Blythe in 2001 on bananas of unknown origin.  The weevil is frequently intercepted by USDA on bananas from Central and South America.

The risk Metamasius hemipterus (West Indian sugarcane weevil) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Metamasius hemipterus corresponds to USDA plant hardiness zones 9-13. This corresponds to much of California.  The weevil receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Metamasius hemipterus is known to feed on 20 species of plants in 6 families.  The weevil receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Metamasius hemipterus has a high reproductive rate, with each female laying an average of 500 eggs3.  The weevils are reported to not disperse long distances naturally, but they can spread long distances through commerce in infested plants or fruit, especially bananas.  Metamasius hemipterus receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Metamasius hemipterus is reported to be a pest of sugarcane and ornamental palms.  However, it is present in California and is not reported to lower crop yield, lower crop values, trigger lost markets, alter cultural practices, vector other organisms, or interfere with water supplies.  The weevil receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: 1

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Metamasius hemipterus has entered California and is not known to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem practices.  It is not known to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  There are no reports of the weevil triggering treatment programs or altering cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plants.  Metamasius hemipterus receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Metamasius hemipterus (West Indian Sugarcane Weevil):  Medium(10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Metamasius hemipterus is thought to have established a widespread distribution in California.  The weevil receives a High(-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(7)

Uncertainty:

Historically some scientists have treated what is now known as Metamasius hemipterus as three distinct species2.  It is possible that there could be cryptic species in this group that are absent from California and more damaging than the weevil we have here.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Metamasius hemipterus is reported to be present in California and is not known to cause any significant economic or environmental impacts.  A C-rating is justified.

References:

1Culliney, T.W.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Metamasius hemipterus (L.): West Indian Sugarcane Weevil.

 2European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) data sheet on Metamasius hemipterushttps://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDwQFjAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.eppo.int%2FQUARANTINE%2FPest_Risk_Analysis%2FPRAdocs_insects%2Fdraft_ds%2F09-15171%2520DS%2520Metamasius%2520hemipterus.doc&ei=yRRQU8PBN8PmyQHaloC4Cw&usg=AFQjCNFWGRjZa4Q95nqilDkxnpstEbCwWw&bvm=bv.64764171,d.aWc

3Weissling, Thomas J. and Robin M. Giblin-Davis.  2013.  Featured Creatures: Silky Cane Weevil.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/silky_cane_weevil.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Diaprepes abbreviatus (Diaprepes Root Weevil)

California Pest Rating for
Diaprepes abbreviatus (Diaprepes Root Weevil)
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 9, 2013, Nick Condos recommended that we run Diaprepes abbreviatus through our pest rating process to review its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Diaprepes root weevils are well documented as a serious pest of citrus that have been the subject of numerous research programs.  This is reflected by more than 3,200 papers on Google Scholar.  The adult weevils feed on the leaves of a wide variety of plants.  They lay eggs in clusters of 30-265 between leaves.  Larvae hatch from the eggs and drop into soil, where they feed on roots.  They sometimes girdle structural roots or the root crown, leading to the death of plants.  In addition, larval feeding provides infection sites for plant pathogens, especially Phytophthora spp2.  The weevil can spread to new areas as any life stage on nursery stock or as adult hitchhikers on landscaping equipment or similar conveyances.

Worldwide Distribution: Diaprepes abbreviatus is native to the Caribbean.  It was accidentally introduced to Florida in 1964, presumably on nursery stock from Puerto Rico.  The weevil has since spread over most of the southern and central portions of the state.  It has more recently spread to Texas, Louisiana, and California, presumably via nursery stock.

Official Control: Diaprepes abbreviatus is not known to be under official control by any states or nations.

California Distribution:  Diaprepes abbreviatus has established in coastal areas of San Diego, Orange, and southern Los Angeles County.

California Interceptions:  Diaprepes abbreviatus have been found in nurseries and are sometimes intercepted on nursery stock from Florida and Puerto Rico.

The risk Diaprepes abbreviatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Cool winter temperatures are expected to limit the establishment of Diaprepes abbreviatus in California to most of San Diego and Imperial counties, eastern Riverside County, and coastal Orange and Los Angeles Counties1.  Dry soils are expected to further restrict where the weevil can establish within this endangered area3Diaprepes abbreviatus receives a Low(1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Diaprepes abbreviatus is highly polyphagous; it has been documented feeding on 270 plant species in 59 families4.  The weevil receives a High(3) in this category.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Diaprepes abbreviatus have an extremely high reproductive potential, laying an average of 5,000 eggs4.  The weevils are strong fliers but usually stay on the first host plant they encounter.  They can move long distances on nursery stock.  The weevil receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The weevil is well documented as a serious pest that feeds on a wide variety of agricultural crops including Citrus, strawberries, avocado, peach, pear, and vegetables5.  The weevil also feeds on a wide variety of ornamental plants that are popular in the nursery trade5.  Larval feeding damages roots and creates infection sites for plant pathogens such as Phytophthora spp2Diaprepes abbreviatus is not expected to lower crop value; however, it can be expected to increase production costs at farms and nurseries as growers are advised to use pesticide drenches for larvae and foliar sprays for adults and eggs4. Citrus growers in Florida spend up to $400/acre for combined Diaprepes and Phytophthora control6.  The weevil is not expected to trigger a loss of markets or significant changes to cultural practices.  The weevil is not known to vector another pestiferous organism, but larval feeding on roots does facilitate infection by plant pathogens such as Phytophthora spp..  The weevil is not injurious or poisonous to animals and is not expected to affect water supply.

Although Diaprepes abbreviatus has not been documented to have a significant economic impact in coastal southern California, these areas are considered marginal for the establishment of the species1.  Inland conditions of Imperial County are expected to be significantly more favorable to the species due to warmer winter soil temperatures1.  Nevertheless, the presence of the root weevil has already triggered some new treatments in San Diego County as at least one grove manager is Rancho Santa Fe is treating citrus with Imidacloprid7.  However, many growers in the area endangered by Diaprepes abbreviatus will already be treating with Imidacloprid to control Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri; they will therefore not be financially impacted by the weevil.  However, the root weevils are not expected to be controlled by the foliar treatments used by organic growers.  Additional chemical treatments can be expected in organic groves, increasing production costs.  Diaprepes abbreviatus receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact:  B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Environmental impacts of Diaprepes abbreviatus in California are likely to be limited by cold temperatures and dry weather.  It is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Nor is it expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or critical habitats.  Residents of the infested areas in southern California have not been reporting weevils or damage, indicating that abbreviatus is not triggering new chemical treatments in the urban landscape.  However, as it establishes in new areas the weevil is likely to trigger additional treatments by nurseries as they meet standards of cleanliness.  It is also likely to trigger additional treatments in agricultural areas of San Diego, Riverside, and especially Imperial counties.  In Florida, growers and nursery owners use pesticide drenches for larvae and foliar sprays for adults and eggs4Diaprepes abbreviatus receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Diaprepes abbreviatus: Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Diaprepes abbreviatus has established a widespread distribution in coastal areas of southern California (San Diego, Orange, and Los Angeles Counties). However, it has not fully established in the endangered area, particularly the agricultural production areas of San Diego, Riverside, and especially Imperial counties.  Diaprepes abbreviatus receives a Medium(-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(9)

Uncertainty:

D. abbreviatus may negatively change agricultural cultural practices as growers might alter irrigation and fertilization practices to promote root growth in root weevil infested areas.  Ants are believed to be major predators of Diaprepes root weevil larvae.  It is possible that future ant control practices to facilitate establishment of the ACP parasitoid Tamarixia radiata will increase the damage caused by Diaprepes abbreviatus in Southern California.  It is also possible that root-feeding by weevil larvae will help weaken citrus trees, making them more susceptible to HLB when it arrives in California, facilitating an epidemic of that disease in the state.

It is also possible that existing treatments for Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, will help preclude the establishment of Diaprepes abbreviatus in citrus production.    It is also possible that soil moisture in the agricultural production areas of San Diego, Imperial, and Riverside counties may be too low to sustain populations of Diaprepes abbreviatus.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Diaprepes abbreviatus has been established in southern California for seven years and has not spread beyond heavily irrigated coastal areas.  However, Imperial County is expected to be much more favorable for the weevils due to higher winter soil temperatures.  The weevil is likely to be managed by existing systemic treatments for Asian citrus psyllid in some conventional groves, but root feeding may increase the susceptibility of trees to pathogens such as Phytophthora spp..  The economic and environmental impacts of Diaprepes abbreviatus are likely to be limited to new chemical treatments and increased production costs in citrus groves, particularly in Imperial County.  A ‘B’ rating is justified.

References:

1Lapointe, S.L., D.M. Borchert, and D.G. Hall.  2007.  Effect of Low Temperatures on Mortality and Oviposition in Conjunction With Climate Mapping to Predict Spread of the Root Weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus and Introduced Natural Enemies. Environmental Entomology 36(1):73-82. http://www.nappfast.org/pest%20reports/Diaprepes.pdf

2Lapointe, S.L. 2000.  Thermal requirements for Development of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Environmental Entomology 29(2):150-156.  http://www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu/extension/diaprepes/bibliography/PDF/EnvEnt292.pdf

3Lapointe, S.L. and J.P. Shapiro. 1999.  Effect of soil moisture on development of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  Florida Entomologist 82(2): 291-299.  http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fe82p291.pdf

4Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., K.E. Godfrey, J.E. Pena, C.W. McCoy, and R.F. Luck.  2004. Diaprepes Root Weevil.  University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8131.  http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8131.pdf

5Knapp, J.L., S.E. Simpson, J.E. Pena, and H.N. Ngg.  2005.  Diaprepes Root Weevil Host List.  University of Florida ENY-641.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN11900.pdf

6University of California-Riverside Center for Invasive Species Research website:  http://cisr.ucr.edu/diaprepes_root_weevil.html

7Atkins, Robert and Tracy Ellis.  Personal communications.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


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Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls