Category Archives: Lepidoptera

Opogona sacchari (Bojer): Banana moth

California Pest Rating for
Opogona sacchari (Bojer):  Banana moth
Lepidoptera:  Tineidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Opogona sacchari, banana moth, from actionable to non-actionable for the United States.  The moth would remain actionable for the U.S. territories of the Pacific and Caribbean.  The insect is currently unrated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundOpogona sacchari is a polyphagous moth that feeds primarily on bananas, pineapples, bamboo, maize, and sorghum2.  It has also been found on a wide variety of ornamentals, especially Dracaena and Yucca2.  The moth larvae are borers in stems, leaves, and petioles; however, in banana it is the fruit that is affected.  The moth is rarely intercepted in trade, perhaps due to its concealed feeding behavior.  It has the potential to be transported inside a wide array of plant propagative material.

Worldwide Distribution: Opogona sacchari is native to humid tropical and subtropical regions of Africa2.  From there it has spread to China, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Bermuda, Barbados, and Honduras.  In the United States it has been found in Florida since 1963, Hawaii since 1990, and has been collected several times in California.

Official Control: Opogona sacchari is considered a quarantine pest in Europe2 and Iran3.  The DEEP report also proposes to keep the moth actionable in the U.S. territories of the Pacific and Caribbean.

California DistributionOpogona sacchari has been collected in Carmel and Manhattan Beach.

California Interceptions:  There are records of 17 interceptions since 1987 in the PDR database.  These include 14 records associated with nurseries (including at least one infestation in an outdoor situation) and 3 others on palm plants and pineapple fruit.

The risk Opogona sacchari (Banana moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Opogona sacchari corresponds to USDA plant hardiness zones 8-12, corresponding to most of California. The moth is also reported to be a greenhouse pest and may establish in these environments.  Opogona sacchari receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Opogona sacchari feeds on a variety of tropical plant hosts in 24 families and has also been reported to feed on mushrooms1.  The moth receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Opogona sacchari has a moderate reproductive rate.  Each female lays 50-200 eggs in crevasses in plant tissue and the life cycle lasts about 3 months2.  The moth can disperse a short distance by flight, but may be transported long distances in the trade of infested plant material.  Opogona sacchari receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 2

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Opogona sacchari is present in California and has not been reported to lower crop yield, reduce crop value, trigger lost markets, alter cultural practices, vector organisms, injure animals, or interfere with the supply of water.  The moth receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: 1

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Opogona sacchari is present in California and is not known to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is not known to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth is not known to have triggered treatment programs or impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Opogona sacchari receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Opogona sacchari (banana moth):  Medium(9).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Opogona sacchari has been collected in Carmel and Manhattan Beach.  An outdoor population was also found in the parking lot of a nursery in Grover Beach.  Opogona sacchari receives a Medium(-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low(7)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that Opogona sacchari will not be able to establish as widespread of a distribution in California as predicted due to the drier climate.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Opogona sacchari is present in California and is not known to have any significant economic or environmental impacts.  A C-rating is justified.

References:

1Culliney, T.W. 2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Opogona sacchari (Bojer): Banana moth.

2European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO).  Data sheet on Opogona sacchari.  https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Opogona_sacchari/OPOGSC_ds.pdf

3Cheraghian, Ahmad.  2013.  A guide for detection and diagnosis of quarantine pests:  Banana moth Opogona sacchari Bojer.  Lepidoptera:  Tineidae.  Islamic Republic of Iran Ministry of Jihad -e- Agriculture Plant Protection Organization.  http://www.ppo.ir/Uploads/English/Articles/insect/Banana-moth-Opogona-sacchari.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday): Green Garden Looper

California Pest Rating for
Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday): Green Garden Looper
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundChrysodeixis eriosoma is a polyphagous moth whose caterpillars feed on a wide variety of agricultural and ornamental plants1.  The moth has continuous overlapping generations throughout the year1,2.  Eggs are deposited singly on the underside of leaves and hatch in about 6 days1.  The young larvae consume one side of the leaf1.  As they grow larger they chew holes through the leaf and feed on the leaf margin, flowers, and fruits1.  Some of the known hosts include: Acanthaceae: acanthus (Acanthus mollis2), black-eyed susan (Thunbergia alata2); Amaranthaceae: redroot (Amaranthus hybridus2), beet (Beta vulgaris2); Araliaceae: paper plant (Fatsia japonica2); Asteraceae: Ageratum sp.2, Aster sp.2, rangiora (Brachyglottis repanda2), Chrysanthemum sp.2, scotch thistle (Cirsium vulgare2), Dahlia sp.2, sunflower (Helianthus annuus2), Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus2), lettuce (Lactuca sativa2), cineraria (Senecio cineraria2), Senecio petasitis2; Bignoniaceae: 3 kings vine (Tecomanthe speciosa2); Boraginaceae: borage (Borago officinalis2), Echium vulgare2, Chatham island lilies (Myosotidium hortensia2), forget-me-not (Myosotis spp.2); comfrey (Symphytum spp.2); Brassicaceae: horseradish (Armaracia rusticana2), cabbage and broccoli (Brassica oleracea2), Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis2), turnip (Brassica rapa2), radish (Raphanus sativus2); Buddlejaceae: buddleja (Buddeia davidii2); Caricaceae: pawpaw (Carica pubescens2); Caryophyllaceae: carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus2); Chenopodiaceae: fathen (Chenopodium album2); Convulvulaceae: morning glory (Ipomoea acuminata2), kumara (Ipomoea batatas2); Cucurbitaceae: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus2), cucumber (Cucumis sativus2); rockmelon (Cucumis melo2), pumpkin and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo2); Fabaceae: lucerne (Medicago sativa2), beans (Phaseolus spp.2), pea (Pisum sativum2); Geraniaceae: geranium (Pelargonium sp.); Lamiaceae: coleus (Coleus x hybridus2), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis2), mint (Mentha spp.2), basil (Ocimum basilicum2), majoram (Origanum majorana2), sage (Salvia spp.2), thyme (Thymus vulgaris2); Liliaceae: Renga lilies (Arthropodium cirrhatum2); Malvaceae: hibiscus (Abelmoschus esculentus2), hollyhock (Althea rosea2); Mimosaceae: Acacia spp.2; Passifloraceae: passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis2), banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima); Plantaginaceae: plantain (Plantago sp.2); Poaceae: corn (Zea mays2); Polygonaceae: willow weed (Polygonum persicaria2), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum2); Scrophulariaceae: foxglove (Digitalis purpurea2), mullein (Verbascum thapsus2); Solanaceae: bell pepper (Capsicum annum2), tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea2), Datura candida2, tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum2), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum2), cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana2), poroporo (Solanum aviculare2), woolly nightshade (Solanum mauritianum2), eggplant (Solanum melongera2), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum2), potato (Solanum tuberosum2), blue potato vine (Solanum wendlandii2); Urticaceae: nettle (Urtica sp.2); Violaceae: Viola sp.2.  Eggs, caterpillars, or pupae of Chrysodeixis eriosoma may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is probably native to Australia or New Zealand.  It has spread through much of Asia, Africa, Southern Europe, and the Pacific1.  It was first found in Hawaii in 1877 and now occurs on all islands1.

Official Control: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is listed as a harmful organism by Costa Rica and Japan3.  All species of Chrysodeixis are listed as harmful by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California DistributionChrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsChrysodeixis eriosoma has been intercepted 507 times by CDFA’s high risk programs and dog teams.  Interceptions have occurred on plants and fresh plant parts from Hawaii and Florida.

The risk Chrysodeixis eriosoma (green garden looper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Chrysodeixis eriosoma are widely grown in California and the moth may be expected to establish wherever suitable hosts are available. Green garden looper is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the state and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is polyphagous on a wide variety of plants in at least 27 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Chrysodeixis eriosoma can lay over 2000 eggs2 and can complete a generation in as little as 33-35 days1.  They are strong flyers and may be transported long distances on plants or fresh plant parts.  Green garden looper receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Chrysodeixis eriosoma may cause significant defoliation, it has never been documented to lower crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants while feeding.  Several of California’s trading partners list green garden looper as a harmful organism.  Also, the moth has a limited distribution in North and South America.  If the moth were to establish in California there could be disruptions of markets for Californian agricultural commodities.  Chrysodeixis eriosoma receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Chrysodeixis eriosoma is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened or endangered plants including Ashland thistle (Cirsium ciliolatum), fountain thistle (Cirsium fontinale fontinale), chorro creek bog thistle (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense), suisun thistle (Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum), La Graciosa thistle (Cirsium loncholepis), surf thistle (Cirsium rhothophilum), and scott’s valley polygonum (Polygonum hickmanii). The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Green garden looper may trigger treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Chrysodeixis eriosoma is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Green Garden Looper):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  It presumably enters the state undetected at other times.  There have been no recent surveys for this moth.  It could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chrysodeixis eriosoma has never been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 University of Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master.  Chryssodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday).  Green Garden Looper.  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/chrysode.htm

2 Roberts, L.I.N. 1979. Biology of Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7(1):52-58.  http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources/research-curation/projects/chalcidoids/pdf_Y/Robert979.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner): (Carnation tortrix)

California Pest Rating for
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner): (Carnation tortrix)
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In October 2013, USDA released a DEEP report proposing to deregulate Cacoecimorpha pronubana (carnation tortrix).  The insect is currently “Q”-rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background Carnation tortrix is a highly polyphagous leaf-rolling tortricid moth.  First instar larvae mine leaves or buds and later instars roll or web leaves and terminals together2.  Larvae can damage fruit by webbing leaves to fruit or feeding between adjacent fruits2.  It has been documented feeding on more than 160 plant species in 42 families including many economically important crops such as grape, tomato, strawberry, cherry, citrus, pear, peach, apple, avocado, plum, blueberry, rose, and Brassicaceae.  The moth is most commonly encountered as a pest of flowers in greenhouses2.

Worldwide Distribution: Carnation tortrix is native to Northern Africa.  It is now widespread from western Europe through Asia.  It has been introduced into South Africa and the states of Oregon in 1964 and Washington in 19742.  There are also recent reports that the moths spread to a nursery in Colorado from which they infested the Denver Zoo.  There are also unconfirmed reports of the moth from a nursery in New York.

Official Control: Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest in Europe3, China4, Japan5, and presumably additional nations.

California Distribution Carnation tortrix has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Carnation tortrix has been intercepted twice in 2010 and 2011 on holly and winter daphne plants shipped from nurseries in Oregon to California (PDR 1609360 and 1480160).

The risk carnation tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of carnation tortrix indicates that it may establish in plant hardiness zones 7-9. The moth can be expected to establish throughout much of California, excluding high elevation and warm coastal areas of Southern California.  Carnation tortrix receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Carnation tortrix feeds on more than 160 species of plants in 42 families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In warmer regions carnation tortrix has 4-6 generations per year and each female lays an average of 430 eggs.  Adults can fly, larvae can balloon by wind, and eggs and larvae can be transported long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Carnation tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Carnation tortrix has not caused significant economic damage during the nearly 60 years that it has been present in the Pacific Northwest.  This may be due to the fact that the moth is likely managed by existing IPM programs in most commercial fruit production.  However, carnation tortrix is documented to have several additional generations per year in warmer climates and may have a more significant impact in California.  One impact could be to organic agriculture; for example, tortricid larvae can evade control beneath the calyx of organic strawberries.  In greenhouses the larvae can cause serious damage by penetrating flower buds and may require control3.  Floral products are a $487 million industry in California so the impact may be significant.  Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest by several nations and its presence in California could lead to a loss of markets, particularly for nursery stock and flowers.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Because there are already leaf-rolling moths with biologies similar to carnation tortrix in California, the moth is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  However, showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) are listed as threatened or endangered plants in California and are potential hosts that could be directly affected by carnation tortrix.  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Carnation tortix may trigger some additional private treatment programs.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Carnation tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Carnation Tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Carnation tortrix has never been found in the environment of California. The record present on the internet and mentioned in the DEEP report refers to an interception on nursery stock shipped from Oregon.  Carnation tortrix receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(14)

Uncertainty:

There have been no formal surveys for carnation tortrix in California.  It could be present in some locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Carnation tortrix is an emerging pest of the nursery industry in the United States and is not known to be present in California.  Although it is likely to be managed by existing IPM programs in most fruit production, it has the potential to cause losses and trigger treatment in organic production, nurseries, and the flower industry.  Carnation tortrix is considered a quarantine pest in several nations and could lead to an interruption of markets for California agriculture.  The moth also has the potential to directly affect several threatened and endangered species and to trigger additional chemical treatments in some situations.  These economic environmental consequences justify an “A” rating for carnation tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana).

References:

1Landry, Cynthia.  2013.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Cacoecimorpha pronubana Hübner: Carnation Tortrix

2Gilligan, T.M. and M.E. Epstein. 2012.  Tortricids of Agricultural Importance: Cacoecimorpha pronubana. http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Cacoecimorpha_pronubana.htm

3http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Cacoecimorpha_pronubana/TORTPR_ds.pdf

4http://www.fas.usda.gov/ffpd/wto_sps_tbt_notifications/forest_products/CH97_pest_list.pdf

5 http://www.maff.go.jp/j/syouan/keneki/kikaku/pdf/qp_list.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/7/2016 – 1/21/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth

tomato-looper-by-Paolo-Mazzei-Bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Golden twin-spot moth
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

May 6, 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture’s New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) distributed a one-page notice highlighting the risk posed by Chrysodeixis chalcites.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundChrysodeixis chalcites is a highly polyphagous moth whose caterpillars primarily feed on foliage but may feed externally on fruit and internally in legumes1.  In many countries it is considered one of the most important Lepidopteran pests2.  It is an important pest of alfalfa, clover, corn, soybean, artichokes, tomato, sweet pepper, potato, other greenhouse and field fruits and vegetables, and ornamental plants2.  Eggs are typically deposited one or two at a time on the leaves of host plants1.  First instar larvae feed on the lower leaf surface1.  Later instars web leaves together and skeletonize them before consuming entire leaves1.  The last instar usually pupates on the underside of a leaf with folded edges but may pupate on fruit1 or in soil2.  Partial host lists have been compiled by NPAG, CAPS, and CABIChrysodeixis chalcites is capable of long migratory flights and may be transported when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Chrysodeixis chalcites is widespread in Africa, the Middle East, India, and the Mediterranean2.  Aided by wind it migrates to northern Europe2.  It has been present in Ontario, Canada since 2008.  The moth has also been found in greenhouses in Ohio, Colorado, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Oregon2.  CDFA’s interception records indicate the moth may also be present in Hawaii and New York.

Official Control: Chrysodeixis chalcites is listed as a harmful organism by Colombia, Costa Rica, Japan, and the Republic of Korea4.

California DistributionChrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsChrysodeixis chalcites has been intercepted by CDFA 84 times.  Interceptions have occurred on fresh herbs (oregano, basil, thyme, marjoram, saluyot, and ti leaves), cut flowers, and plants shipped from New York and Hawaii.  At least some of these consignments originated in Israel.  The moth was also found in one nursery inspection in Fresno County in 1990 (PDR 909394).

The risk Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:  

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Chrysodeixis chalcites has established and is widespread in latitudes between 45˚N and 35˚S. This encompasses all of California and the moth is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution in the state.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chrysodeixis chalcites is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Chrysodeixis chalcites can lay up to 1,060 eggs1.  The moths breed continuously throughout the year with 8 to 9 generations per year in Egypt1.  They are strong migratory fliers1 and may also spread long distances when infested plants, fruit, or soil are moved.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is likely to reduce crop yields in California.  The caterpillars feed on the leaves and fruit of tomato and may reduce yield 10-15%2.  It is expected to lower the value of fruit and nursery stock by feeding damage and contaminating it with its presence.  Several of California’s trading partners list the moth as a harmful organism so there could be disruptions to fresh fruit, cut flower, and nursery stock exports.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.  Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Chrysodeixis chalcites is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It may feed on threatened and endangered species such as showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific Grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new chemical treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find defoliation unacceptable.  Chrysodeixis chalcites receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chrysodeixis chalcites (Golden Twin-Spot Moth):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chrysodeixis chalcites has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

 Differentiation of Chrysodeixis chalcites and Chrysodeixis eriosoma requires molecular analysis.  It is possible that Chrysodeixis chalcites could be established in some states where Chrysodeixis eriosoma is established.  There have been no recent surveys for this pest in California so it might be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chrysodeixis chalcites has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it establishes in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Millar, Leah. 2013. NPAG Report Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper): Goldwn twin-spot moth, tomato looper.  http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/cphst/npag/downloads/Chrysodeixis_chalcitesNPAG_Report.pdf

2 CAPS Factsheet Chrysodeixis chalcites.  https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/webfm_send/2046

3 CABI Invasive Species Compendium.  Datasheet: Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth). http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/13243

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick): Tomato Leafminer

tomato-leafminer-5431766-photo-by-Marja-van-der-Straten-bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick): Tomato Leafminer
Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating for Tuta absoluta (tomato leafminer).

History & Status:

BackgroundTuta absoluta is a moth that feeds on the leaves and fruit of solanaceous plants.  Known hosts include: Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum (pepper), Datura ferox (long spined thorn apple), Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Lycium chilense (coralillo), Lycopersicum puberulum, Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Physalis angulata (gooseberry), Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry), Solanum americanum (American black nightshade), Solanum bonariense, Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), Solanum gracilius, Solanum hirtum, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Solanum muricatum (sweet cucumber), Solanum nigrum (black nightshade), Solanum melongena (eggplant), Solanum pseudo-capsicum (Jerusalem cherry), Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato)1.  Eggs are laid on all above ground parts of host plants1.  Young larvae mine leaves, stems, shoots, flowers, and developing fruit1.  Later instars may feed on mature fruit1.  Pupae can be found attached to all plant parts (leaves, stems, flowers, fruit) as well as in soil1Tuta absoluta can be transported long distances when infested plants, fruit, or reusable packing boxes are moved1.  Significant quantities of fresh host material from infested areas enters California by air through Los Angeles each year.  In 2008 570 tons of fresh tomatoes were flown into Los Angeles from the Netherlands as were 14 tons from Spain and 6 tons from Chile1.

Worldwide Distribution: Tuta absoluta is native to South America1.  Since 2008 it has invaded much of Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East1.

Official Control: Tuta absoluta is also listed as a harmful organism by Canada, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Georgia and the Russian Federation3.  It is also under official control in Mexico4.

California Distribution:  Tuta absoluta has never been found in California.

California Interceptions:  Tuta absoluta has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Tuta absoluta (tomato leafminer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Tuta absoluta is likely to establish throughout southern California, the central coast, and the San Joaquin valley. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Tuta absoluta is known to feed on 22 species of plants in one plant family.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Tuta absoluta has high reproductive potential.  It can complete 7-12 generations per year with each female laying up to 260 eggs1.  The moth can rapidly spread long distances when infested plants, fruit, or packing containers are moved.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Tuta absoluta reduces tomato yields by up to 100% and is considered one of the worst pests of processing tomatoes in Brazil1.  This moth has the potential to lower crop yields and increase production costs in California.  If Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it is also likely to disrupt markets for California fresh fruit and plants.  Tuta absoluta receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it is likely to trigger new treatment programs by growers and residents who find infested plants unacceptable.  Tomatoes are one of the most popular plants in home/urban gardens and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Tuta absoluta receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Tuta absoluta (Tomato Leafminer):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Tuta absoluta has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

A closely related Gelechiid species, Keiferia lycopersicella (the tomato pinworm) occupies the ecological niche of the tomato leafminer in the United States1,2.  It is possible that existing treatments for tomato pinworm will preclude economic and ecological impacts of Tuta absoluta.  Alternatively, it is possible that if Tuta absoluta were to establish in California it could displace our native moth, causing unknown ecological effects.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Tuta absoluta meets the threshold to likely cause unacceptable consequences of introduction and it has an overall likelihood of introduction risk rating above negligible.  The moth is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in California.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Bloem, Stephanie and Esther Spaltenstein. 2011. New Pest Response Guidelines: Tomato Leafminer (Tuta absoluta).  United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/Tuta-absoluta.pdf

2 Poe, S.L. 1999. Common name: tomato pinworm. Scientific name: Keiferia lycopersicella (Walshingham) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/tomato/tomato_pinworm.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 Dr. Julio Cesar Velázquez González. 2013. Operating instructions to implement the emergency device against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae) in Mexico.  Department of Plant Health Senasica.  https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://senasica.gob.mx/includes/asp/download.asp%3FIdDocumento%3D25489%26IdUrl%3D60944%26down%3Dtrue&prev=search


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Spodoptera eridania (Stoll): Southern Armyworm

southern-armyworm-1263059-photo-by-Central-Science-Laboratory-bugwood
California Pest Rating for
Spodoptera eridania (Stoll): Southern Armyworm
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Researchers recently applied for a USDA permit to import 60,000 eggs and larvae of Spodoptera eridania into California for field research.  Florida reports that this moth is already found in California and of no consequence here1.  A pest rating proposal is required to support the current pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundSpodoptera eridania is a polyphagous noctuid moth that feeds on the foliage, fruit, and flowers of a variety of plants1,2.  Adults and larvae are nocturnal.  Young larvae typically feed in groups on the undersides of leaves.  They often skeletonize leaves and can occasionally defoliate entire plants1,2.  As they mature they become solitary and readily bore into fruit1.  If food is scarce they will consume branches, stem tissue, and tubers near the surface of the soil1.  Agricultural crops that are damaged by the moth include avocado, beet, cabbage, carrot, citrus, collard, cowpea, eggplant, okra, peanut, pepper, potato, sunflower, sweet potato, tobacco, velvet bean, watermelon, and many ornamentals1.  The caterpillars also feed on many weeds but show a preference for pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) and pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)1.  Populations of the caterpillars sometimes build up in weedy areas then migrate to adjacent crops after favored weeds are consumed1.  The moth typically pupates in soil.  Spodoptera eridania is commonly intercepted in Europe on plants and tomato fruit2.  The moth is also a popular organism for research because it is easy to rear2 and has the potential to be spread long distances by researchers.

Worldwide Distribution: Spodoptera eridania is native to North, Central, and South America including the eastern United States as far north as Massachusets and as west as Texas1,2.  The only place it is known to have invaded is the Galapagos Islands2.

Official Control: Spodoptera eridania is listed as a harmful organism by Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Honduras, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom3.  The moth is listed as an A1 quarantine pest by the EPPO2.  In addition, all species of Spodoptera are listed as harmful organisms by Antigua and Barbuda, Bermuda, Japan, and Panama3.

California Distribution Spodoptera eridania has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Spodoptera eridania has only been intercepted four times by CDFA on bell peppers, cilantro, tree fern, and Asparagus sperengeri from Florida.  There have been 859 interceptions identified as Spodoptera sp.  Some of these interceptions could also be Spodoptera eridania.

The risk Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Spodoptera eridania is widespread across regions with a wide variety of climates. Southern armyworm would be likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Spodoptera eridania is a generalist feeder on a wide variety of plants and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Spodoptera eridania can complete a generation every 30-40 days under favorable conditions and each female lays a large number of eggs.  Adult moths may disperse locally by flying and caterpillars may crawl in large numbers to areas with better host plants.  Southern armyworm may also be transported long distances on infested plants or fresh plant parts or by scientists.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although it is usually only a minor pest, southern armyworm does sometimes have damaging infestations to crops, especially tomatoes2.  Southern armyworm caterpillars may disfigure nursery stock with feeding damage and pupate in the associated soil, reducing the value of nursery stock.  Infestations do sometimes trigger treatments, which increase crop production costs.  Spodoptera eridania is listed as a harmful organism and quarantine pest by many nations and has the potential to disrupt markets for California’s fresh fruit and nursery stock.  Southern armyworm receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Spodoptera eridania is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in agriculture and by residents.  It may also significantly affect many plants that are popular in home/urban gardens and ornamentals.  Southern armyworm receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Spodoptera eridania (Southern Armyworm): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Spodoptera eridania has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Unidentified life stages of Spodoptera are frequently intercepted by CDFA.  Presumably they go undetected at other times and enter the state.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for Spodoptera eridania in California and it could be established in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Spodoptera eridania has not been found in California and it is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Capinera, John L. 2014. University of Florida Featured Creatures. Common name: southern armyworm. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/leaf/southern_armyworm.htm

2 EPPO Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests: Spodoptera eridania. http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Spodoptera_eridania/PRODER_ds.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Aug 4, 2016 and closed on Sep 18, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius): Eastern Tent Caterpillar

California Pest Rating for
Photo Credit: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry , Bugwood.org
Photo Credit: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources – Forestry , Bugwood.org
Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius): Eastern Tent Caterpillar
Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Malacosoma americanum is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundMalacosoma americanum is a foliage-feeding moth.  The moth overwinters in egg masses of 150-424 eggs on tree branches1,2.  Egg hatch coincides with bud break.  The caterpillars from each egg mass stick together and spin a silky tent in a crotch of the tree1.  During evening, night, and early morning hours the caterpillars emerge from the tent to eat leaves1.  They feed for 4-6 weeks then move individually to protected places to pupate1.  Moths emerge about 3 weeks later to mate and lay eggs1.  There is only one generation per year1.  Preferred hosts include: Rosaceae: cherry, peach, and plum (Prunus spp.2), apple and crabapple (Malus spp.2), hawthorns (Crataegus spp.2), and sometimes pear (Pyrus spp.2).  In addition to the preferred hosts the caterpillars will also feed on a wide variety of hardwoods2.  A similar moth Malacosoma californium (western tent caterpillar) is native to and widespread in California; however, its host preferences are aspens, willows, cotton, and mountain mahogany4.  Eastern tent caterpillar poses a distinct threat to California’s specialty crops.  It may be transported into the state as a contaminating pest (cocoons or larvae) on a wide variety of objects or as egg masses on potted trees or fresh tree branches.

Worldwide Distribution: Malacosoma americanum is native to the eastern United States and Canada1.  It is not known to have invaded any other nations.

Official Control: Malacosoma americanum is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the Russian Federation, Taiwan, and Turkey3.

California DistributionMalacosoma americanum has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Malacosoma americanum was intercepted 108 times by CDFA’s border stations.  Interceptions typically occur on outdoor items and goods associated with household moves.

The risk Malacosoma americanum (eastern tent caterpillar) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

 1) Climate/Host Interaction: Malacosoma americanum is native to a wide variety of climates in eastern North America and its host plants are widely grown in California. Eastern tent caterpillar can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in this state and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Preferred hosts of Malacosoma americanum are limited to seven varieties of plants in one family.  However, it can also feed on other hardwood trees.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Malacosoma americanum has only one generation per year and each female lays an average of 293 eggs2.  Adult moths may fly short distances and caterpillars can crawl between trees.  The moths may also be transported long distances as a contaminating pest or when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  Eastern tent caterpillar receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Eastern tent caterpillar is not expected to lower crop yields.  In their native range the moths often defoliate entire trees.  They may increase crop production costs in California as orchards and nurseries treat to mitigate damage.  Malacosoma americanum is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners.  The moth could disrupt exports of nursery stock but it is not likely to follow fresh fruit pathways.  Eastern tent caterpillar is not expected to change cultural practices or vector other organisms.  Exposure to the caterpillars is thought to cause the equine disease mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) which is responsible for abortions in horses5Malacosoma americanum is not expected to disrupt water supplies.  Eastern tent caterpillar receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Malacosoma americanum is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  Eastern tent caterpillar often completely defoliates ornamental trees.  This damage is likely to trigger treatment programs by residents, orchards, and the nursery industry.  Malacosoma americanum receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Malacosoma americanum (Eastern Tent Caterpillar):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Malacosoma americanum has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Traditionally residents have treated outbreaks by dousing tents with a flammable liquid and setting them on fire during the afternoon when all of the caterpillars are inside, although this is no longer recommended1.  This treatment could cause additional significant environmental impacts in California due to the drier climate.  Existing IPM programs in orchards may preclude damage from Malacosoma americanum.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Malacosoma americanum has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Bessin, Ric. 2013. Eastern Tent Caterpillar. University of Kentucky ENTFACT-423.  http://www2.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef423.asp

2 Hyche, L.L. 1996. The Eastern Tent Caterpillar: A Guide to Recognition and Habits in Alabama. Auburn University. http://www.ag.auburn.edu/enpl/bulletins/easterntentcaterpillar/easterntentcaterpillar.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 Forest Insect Defoliators. Field Guide to Insects and Disease of Arizona and New Mexico Forests. http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/resources/health/field-guide/fid/tent-caterpillar.shtml

5 Webb, Bruce A., W.E. Barney, D.L. Dahlman, S.N. DeBorde, C. Weer, N.M. Williams, J.M. Donahue, K.J. McDowell. 2003. Eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) cause mare reproductive loss syndrome. Journal of Insect Physiology 50(2-3):185-193. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002219100300249X


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on April 7, 2016 and closed on May 22, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Terastia meticulosalis Guenée: Erythrina Twigborer

California Pest Rating for
Terastia meticulosalis Guenée: Erythrina Twigborer
Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In October 2015 larvae collected from coral tree plants at a nursery in Oceanside (San Diego County) were confirmed by molecular diagnostics to be Terastia meticulosalis, Erythrina twigborer.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction on this pest.

History & Status:

BackgroundTerastia meticulosalis is a moth that feeds on coral trees (Erythrina spp.).  Early instar caterpillars are found inside the stems, leaf stalks, and seed pods1.  Their feeding can cause the tip of the host plant to die back and gradually kill off the upper part of the plant1.  Larvae typically exit the plant to pupate on the ground.  The damage attributed to this moth is reported to make the cultivation of Erythrina nearly impossible in Florida3.  This moth may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Terastia meticulosalis is native to Central and South America1.  The moth is known to occur in the southern United States from Florida and South Carolina west to Arizona1.  Populations of Terastia spp. in other areas are presently considered to be different species1.

Official Control: Terastia meticulosalis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution The only confirmed record of this moth from the environment of California was collected in November 2015 from the Los Angeles County Arboretum.  Unofficial records indicate that the moth may be more widespread (see Uncertainty section below).

California Interceptions:  Terastia meticulosalis has only been intercepted in two nurseries in San Diego County.

The risk Terastia meticulosalis (Erythrina twigborer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host InteractionErythrina are commonly grown as ornamentals in southern and coastal California and Terastia meticulosalis is expected to establish wherever suitable hosts are available. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Terastia meticulosalis is only known to feed on coral trees in the genus Erythrina.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Terastia meticulosalis is assumed to be capable of rapid reproduction and may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved.  The moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Terastia meticulosalis were to become established in California it is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of Erythrina nursery stock and increase production costs of those trees.  The moth is not expected to disrupt any markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Terastia meticulosalis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Terastia meticulosalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem practices.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who wish to save their coral trees.  Coral trees are grown as ornamentals in southern California and may be extirpated by Terastia meticulosalis.  Erythrina twigborer receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Terastia meticulosalis (Erythrina twigborer):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The only official sample of Terastia meticulosalis in California was collected from a site in Los Angeles County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:  

Unconfirmed sightings indicate that this moth could be much more widespread in California including Long Beach (September 21, 2015 – Los Angeles County), Mount Washington (October 25, 2015 – Los Angeles County), and Irvine (November 26, 2015 – Orange County)2.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for this moth in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Terastia meticulosalis is only known to be established in Los Angeles County.  However, if it were to establish a more widespread distribution in the state it is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts to coral trees in the nursery industry and California landscape.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Sourakov, Andrei. 2012. Common name: Erythrina moths. University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/shrubs/erythrina_moths.htm

2 What’s That Bug?  http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2015/10/25/erythrina-borer-visits-wtb-offices/

3 Sourakov, Andrei. 2011. Nice partitioning, co-evolution and life histories of Erythrina moths, Terastia meticulosalis and Agathodes designalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Trop. Lepid. Res. 21(2): 84-94. http://troplep.org/TLR/21-2/Sourakov-Niche-partitioning-erythrina-moths-TLR-21-2.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 8, 2016 and closed on April 22, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls