Tag Archives: insects and mites

Formica francoeuri Bolton: Native Ant

California Pest Rating for
Formica francoeuri Bolton: Native Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On September 25, 2015 it was found that a resident of Orange County is selling queen ant starter colonies for Formica francoeuri.  An internet search reveals that this ant is commonly kept by hobbyists.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction on this pest.

History & Status:

BackgroundFormica francoeuri nests in soil and forages for honeydew from aphids and mealybugs1.  It is known to tend the larvae of at least six species of lycaenid butterflies in California2.  It is not known to have been inadvertently spread via any human assisted pathways.

Worldwide Distribution: Formica francoeuri is native to California and Baja California3.  It is not known to have invaded any other states or nations.

Official Control: Formica francoeuri is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, all ants are considered harmful organisms by Australia and Nauru4.

California DistributionFormica francoeuri is native to and widespread in California.

California InterceptionsFormica francoeuri has not been reported in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Formica francoeuri would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Formica francoeuri is native to and widespread in California and is not likely to establish in parts of the state where it does not already occur. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Formica francoeuri is a generalist feeder on honeydew and has never been documented as a plant pest.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ants typically have high reproductive rates.  Formica francoeuri has not been reported to move long distances in commerce.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Formica francoeuri is already widespread in California and it has not lowered any crop yields or reduced crop values.  Its presence has not disrupted any markets.  It has not changed cultural practices or vectored other organisms.  It is not known to have injured any animals or interfered with any water supplies.  Formica francoeuri receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Formica francoeuri is native to and widespread in California and it has not been found to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It has not affected any threatened or endangered species or disrupted critical habitats.  The ant is not known to have triggered any treatment programs or impacted cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Formica francoeuri receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Formica francoeuri (native ant): Low (6).

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Formica francoeuri is widespread in California and receives a High (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (3)

Uncertainty:

There is low uncertainty with this ant.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Formica francoeuri is a native ant that is widespread in California and is not known to have ever had any negative economic or environmental impacts.  No significant impacts are expected from hobbyists trading colonies of this ant within the state.  A “C” rating is justified.

References:

1 Robinson, William H. 2005. Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press.  https://books.google.com/books?id=aluUgDVYJ8wC&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=formica+francoeuri&source=bl&ots=HusuoBZINl&sig=UtduAv7yswlPy49d0H852RenfSQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCIQ6AEwATgUahUKEwjrzf_mm6LIAhWLTIgKHc-YCv0#v=onepage&q=formica%20francoeuri&f=false

2 Oliver, Jeffrey C. and Laura R. Stein. 2011. Evolution of influence: signaling in a lycaenid-ant interaction. Evol. Ecol. 25: 1205-1216. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Laura_Stein2/publication/251313007_Evolution_of_influence_signaling_in_a_lycaenid-ant_interaction/links/53ee51f00cf26b9b7dc793ba.pdf

3 Formica francoeuri. From AntWiki: http://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Formica_francoeuri

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Friday, October 9, 2015 and closed on November 23, 2015.


 PEST RATING:  C


Posted by ls

Hemiberlesia ithacae (Ferris): Hemlock Scale – Synonym: Abgrallaspis ithacae

California Pest Rating for
Hemiberlesia ithacae (Ferris): Hemlock Scale
Synonym: Abgrallaspis ithacae

Hemiptera:  Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On December 11, 2013 an official with Santa Cruz County contacted CDFA with questions regarding the risk associated with Abgrallaspis ithacae (Hemlock Scale).  The current destruction of large numbers of Christmas wreaths due to the presence of the scale is considered punitive by some merchants.  The insect is currently Q-rated, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:

Hemlock scale feeds on the undersides of the needles of several species of trees.  The scale is only known to feed on Canada balsam fir (Abies canadensis), grand fir (Abies grandis), Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens), douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).  Hemlock scale has two generations per year and overwinters as second-instars.

Worldwide Distribution: Hemlock scale is native to North America.  It is confirmed to be in Indiana, Maryland, New York, and Virginia2.  It is also reported from Connecticut, Georgia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and West Virginia2.  There are also published records from Idaho, Montana, Washington, and Oregon; however, these records are reported to be incorrect2.

Official Control: Hemlock scale is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California Distribution:  Hemlock scale has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Hemlock scale is often intercepted on shipments of Christmas wreaths, trees, and plants.

The risk hemlock scale (Abgrallaspis ithacae) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts of hemlock scale are restricted to the cooler parts of California but may also be grown elsewhere as ornamentals.  The scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range:  Hemlock scale feeds on trees in four genera in one plant family.  The scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential:  Armored scales can reproduce rapidly and may be transported long distances through the trade of nursery stock.  However, females have limited mobility so the trade in plant parts that are not for planting is not high risk for introducing the scale.  It is likely that infested Christmas trees and wreaths will be disposed of as green waste, some of which may end up as mulch.  However, the limited host range of this scale reduces the likelihood that the mulch will end up in close proximity to living host plants.  Furthermore, hemlock scale overwinters as second instars.  It is likely that cut trees and wreaths shipped in late fall and early winter will dry out before spring, reducing their viability as host material and eliminating the possibility of overwintering second instars completing development.  Hemlock scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact:  Heavy infestations of hemlock scale are reported to cause early leaf drop, dieback of branches, and defoliation of trees2.  This reduces vigor and severe infestations result in death of trees3.  This has the potential to lower yield and crop value and increase production costs at Christmas tree farms and some forests.  Hemlock scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact:  Hemlock scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not known to feed on any plants in genera that contain threatened or endangered species in California.  Hemlock scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  The scale could trigger some additional official or private treatment programs in Christmas tree farms or forests2,3.  The scale is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Hemlock scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Hemlock Scale (Abgrallaspis ithacae):  Medium(9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Hemlock scale has not been found in the environment of California.  It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(9)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that hemlock scale could jump to new hosts in California.  It is also possible that hemlock scale may be managed by existing IPM programs in Christmas tree farms.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Hemlock scale may have limited economic impacts to Christmas tree farms and forests.  The environmental impacts of the scale are expected to be limited to possible chemical treatments of the scale in Christmas tree farms and managed forests.  A “B”-rating is justified.

References:

1http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Hemiberlesiaithacae.htm

 2Miller, D.R. 2005. Armored Scale Insect Pests of Trees and Shrubs (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Cornell University. Ithaca, NY. p.44 http://books.google.com/books?id=PhgyeCnpklMC&pg=PA431&lpg=PA431&dq=Abgrallaspis+ithacae&source=bl&ots=ia9_oV2z0q&sig=1OK5e-3tkeZEbU_xzIWJNG4LQiU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=E0eqUsHxGYTmoAShzICIAw&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=Abgrallaspis%20ithacae&f=false

3Suomi, D.A. Scale insects on ornamentals. Washington State University Extension. http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPUBLICATIONS/EB1552E/EB1552E.PDF

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Thursday, September 21, 2015 and closed on November 5 , 2015.


 Final Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams: Waratah Scale

California Pest Rating for
Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams: Waratah Scale1
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is commonly intercepted by California’s high risk programs and occasionally by dog teams.  This armored scale insect is currently assigned a temporary rating of “Q” and is therefore in need of a permanent pest rating.

 History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is an armored scale insect that typically feeds on the underside of host plant leaves.  It is considered a minor pest of macadamia nut production and ornamental proteas1.  Known hosts include Agavaceae:  cabbage tree (Cordyline australis1), mountain cabbage tree (Cordyline indivisa1); Iridaceae: New Zealand iris (Libertia ixioides1), Libertia sp.1; Proteaceae: Chilean firetree (Embothrium coccineum1), Leucadendron sp.4, Leucospermum sp.4, river lomatia (Lomatia myricoides1), Macadamia sp.1,2, king protea (Protea cynaroides4), oleanderleaf protea (Protea nerifolia1), Protea protea4, Protea sp.4, Gippsland waratah (Telopea oreades1), waratah (Telopea speciosissima1,2), Telopea sp.1; Rutaceae: wharangi (Melicope ternata1); Xanthorrhoeaceae: New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax4).

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is native to Australia2.  From there it has spread to New Zealand2 and has been found in greenhouses in Europe3.  Interceptions also show that it is present in some plant nurseries and cut flower production sites in Hawaii.

Official Control: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, all species of Pseudaulacaspis are listed as quarantine pests by Japan and the Republic of Korea5.

California DistributionPseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between November 24, 2004 and January 5, 2015 Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei was intercepted 86 times on shipments of cut flowers and nursery stock from Hawaii.

The risk Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei (waratah scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

 Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei are commonly grown as ornamentals in coastal and southern California. The scale is expected to be able to establish wherever these are grown. Waratah scale receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is known to feed on 18 species of plants in 5 families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has demonstrated a propensity to spread long distances on cut flowers and nursery stock.  Crawlers may also spread locally by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or other animals.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is considered a minor pest of macadamia nut production and ornamental proteas1.  There are a few commercial growers of macadamia nuts in southern California who may find their yields reduced by this insect.  Proteas are also common in the nursery industry and growers may find their yields reduced as unsightly infested plants may be destroyed.  The establishment of waratah scale in California may also increase crop production costs by both macadamia nut and protea producers.  California producers of cut flowers and nursery stock may experience disruptions in trade as both Japan and Korea consider species of Pseudaulacaspis quarantine pests5.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt any critical habitats.  Waratah scale may trigger new private treatment programs by producers of macadamia nuts and ornamental proteas and by residents who find infested ornamental plants unsightly.  Proteas are common ornamental plants and could be significantly impacted by this insect.  Waratah scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei (Waratah scale):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Recent surveys for mealybugs on proteas growing in the environment of coastal and southern California would have been likely to detect populations of Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei but did not find the insect.  Nevertheless, based on the large number of interceptions it is likely that some of the scale insects remained undetected and entered California.  It is possible that some of these scales could have established in limited areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei has never been found in the environment of California and is likely to have significant economic impacts to the nursery, cut flower, and macadamia nut industries in California.  Waratah scale may also have significant environmental impacts by triggering new chemical treatments and damaging ornamental plantings.  An “A” rating is justified.

 References:

1SEL Catalog query results:  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pseudaulacaspisbrimblecombei.htm

2Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudaulacaspis/brimblecombei/

3Malumphy, C. and A.J. Halstead.  2012.  First incursions in Europe of four Australasian species of armoured scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).  British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 25(4): 193-197.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/20123419544

4California Department of Food & Agriculture Pest Detection Record Database

5USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale

California Pest Rating for
Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana): Unilobed Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis uniloba is occasionally intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis uniloba is an armored scale insect that feeds on a variety of plants.  Known hosts include: Apocynaceae: Alyxia sp1,2, maile (Alyxia olivaeformis1,2); Fabaceae: Bauhinia racemosa1,2; Magnoliaceae: Michelia sp.1,2; Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.1,2, sweet olive (Osmanthus fragrans1,2), fortune’s tea olive (Osmanthus fortunei1,2); Rutaceae: bael fruit (Aegle marmelos1,2); Theaceae: Adinandra sp.1,2, Adinandra milletti1,2, Adinandra ryukyuensis2, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica1,2), Cleyera japonica1,2, Cleyera ochnacea1,2, Eurya japonica1,2, Thea japonica1,2Pinnaspis uniloba may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis uniloba is probably native to Asia.  It has been reported in China1,2, India1,2, Japan1,2, and South Korea2.  From there it has spread to the Hawaiian Islands.

Official Control: Pinnaspis uniloba is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.

California DistributionPinnaspis uniloba has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsPinnaspis uniloba has been intercepted 92 times on plants and fresh plant material from Hawaii.  Many of these interceptions have occurred on Maile (Alyxia sp.) leaf leis.

The risk Pinnaspis uniloba (unilobed scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

Climate/Host Interaction: A few of the host plants of Pinnaspis uniloba are widely grown as ornamentals in California and the scale may be expected to establish everywhere they are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis uniloba is known to feed on 16 species of plants in six families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Pinnaspis uniloba has only one generation per year.  Armored scales may be transported long distances when infested plants are moved and may be dispersed locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of some nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis uniloba is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger chemical treatments in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested ornamentals unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pinnaspis uniloba receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis uniloba (Unilobed Scale):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis uniloba is currently not known to be present anywhere in North or South America.  It is possible that some states or nations could impose new trade restrictions if it were to become abundant in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis uniloba has never been found in California.  It is expected to have limited impacts if it were to enter the state.  The scale is most often intercepted on leis and, because of its limited host range, is unlikely to encounter suitable host material when it enters the state via this pathway.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pinnaspis/uniloba/

2 SEL Catalog.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisuniloba.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius: Banana Mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius: Banana Mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus elisae is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudococcus elisae is a polyphagous Neotropical mealybug that feeds on a variety of cultivated plants, but most often on banana and other Musaceae1.  Known hosts include: Annonaceae: sugar apple (Annona squamosa1); Araceae: Aglaonema spp.1, Dieffenbachia spp.1; Musaceae: Musa spp.1, latundan banana (Musa sapientum1), plantain (Musa paradisiaca1); Rubiaceae: robusta coffee (Coffea canephora1), arabica coffee (Coffea arabica1), Ixora spp.1; Rutaceae: key lime (Citrus aurantifolia1).  Pseudococcus elisae may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus elisae is native to the Neotropical region.  It is established in Mexico3, Guatemala3, Honduras3, Panama3, Colombia3, Ecuador3, Brazil3, Chile3, and Cuba3.  It was confirmed to be established in Hawaii in 19842.

Official Control: Pseudococcus elisae is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Paraguay4.

California DistributionPseudococcus elisae has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Pseudococcus elisae was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations, and dog teams 97 times.  Interceptions have occurred on bananas, cut flowers, nursery stock, and other fresh plant parts.

The risk Pseudococcus elisae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus elisae is a tropical species with a host range that includes some plants grown outdoors in the warmer regions of California (e.g. key lime, banana). If the mealybug were to enter the state it would likely be limited to regions where these host plants are available.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2)  Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus elisae is known to feed on 10 species of plants in 5 families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Pseudococcus elisae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Pseudococcus elisae may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  Several of California’s trading partners consider the mealybug a harmful organism.  It is possible that Pseudococcus elisae could disrupt markets for nursery stock and fresh fruit.  The mealybug receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agri5)  cultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus elisae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pseudococcus elisae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudococcus elisae:  Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus elisae has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the host range of Pseudococcus elisae could be greater than is presently known.  It is also possible that most of the climate of California could be unsuitable for establishment of the species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus elisae has never been found in California.  If it were to enter the state significant economic impacts could be expected on the nursery and fruit industries.  An “A” rating is justified.

 References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/validname/Pseudococcus/elisae/

2 Beardsley, John W. 1986. Taxonomic Notes on Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, a Mealybug New to the Hawaiian Fauna (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal Series no. 2942 of the Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resource. 26(1): 31-34.  https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/11188/26_31-34.pdf?sequence=1

3 CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Pseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug). http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/45085

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale

California Pest Rating for
Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui is frequently intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAulacaspis yasumatsui is an armored scale insect that is considered a serious pest of cycads in Florida, Hawaii, Guam, Palau, Taiwan and Indonesia1,2,3.  The scale infests both the fronds and the roots of its host plants at depths of up to 60cm in the soil2.  Clean plants that are infested by the scales show chlorotic leaves within a month1.  Both sides of fronds on untreated plants become white with layers of scales1.  Within 270 days plants are heavily desiccated and brown and within a year they are dead1.  Even if infestations are managed they usually reduce the value of nursery stock, as dead scales are difficult to remove from fronds2.  Infestations are also persistent, they likely to return from deep on the roots to the fronds of treated plants2.  Since it feeds deep beneath soil, Aulacaspis yasumatsui can easily be transported long distances when infested host plants are moved.  Known hosts include:  Boweniaceae: Bowenia sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas media1, Cycas micronesica1, Cycas panzhihuaensis1, Cycas revoluta1, Cycas rumphii1, Cycas seemannii1, Cycas sp.1, Cycas szechuanensis1, Cycas taitungensis1, Cycas thouarsii1, Cycas wadei1; Stangeriaceae: Stangeria eripus1, Stangeria sp.1; Zamiaceae: Dioon califanoi1, Dioon edule1, Dioon merolae1, Dioon rzedowski1, Dioon sp.1, Dioon spinulosum1, Dioon tomasellii sonorense1, Diooon sonorense1, Encephalartos barteri1, Encephalartos ferox1, Encephalartos hildebrandtii1, Encephalartos manikensis1, Encephalartos pterogonus1, Encephalartos sp.1, Encephalartos whitelockii1, Macrozamia lucida1, Macrozamia miguelii1, Macrozamia sp.1, Microcycas colocoma1, Microcycas sp.1, Zamia integrifolia1, Zamia loddigesii Miq1.

Worldwide Distribution: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is native to South-East Asia5.  It has spread to Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and parts of the Pacific Region and Australasia.  It was first found in Florida in 19961,2 and has since spread through much of the southeastern United States, Hawaii, Guam and Palau.

Official Control: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, and Seychelles4.

California DistributionAulacaspis yasumatsui has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Aulacaspis yasumatsui was intercepted 221 times by CDFA’s high risk programs, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections.  Most of these interceptions have been on cycads from Hawaii and Florida.  Since 2009, heavy infestations of the scale have been found several times in southern California nurseries.

The risk Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Cycads are popular ornamental plants that are grown throughout much of California. Aulacaspis yasumatsui is likely able to establish wherever these hosts are grown.  The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2) Known Pest Host Range: Aulacaspis yasumatsui is known to feed on plants in eight genera in four families.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Aulacaspis yasumatsui has a high reproductive rate.  It can complete a generation in 28-41 days and each female lays about 100 eggs1,2.  The scale also has high dispersal potential.  It can be transported long distances on infested plants and can disperse locally by crawling, by wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: If Aulacaspis yasumatsui were to establish in California it would be certain to lower yields in cycad nursery stock production and reduce the value of cycad nursery stock.  It might also trigger disruptions of markets for nursery stock.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

 5)  Environmental Impact: Cycads are popular, high-value ornamental plants in California and if Aulacaspis yasumatsui were to establish in the state these plants would require new treatment programs.  These would be necessary in both the nursery industry and by residents who wish to keep cycads alive.  Aulacaspis yasumatsui would significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, and ornamental plantings.   The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aulacaspis yasumatsui (Cycad Aulacaspis Scale):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

 6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aulacaspis yasumatsui has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui commonly infests roots of host plants which can make it difficult to observe during visual inspections.  The frequent interceptions, heavy infestations found in southern California nurseries, and below ground feeding make it possible that some infested plants have been sold to consumers.  Furthermore, there have been no recent surveys of cycad pests.  It is possible that Aulacapis yasumatsui may already be found in some locations in California’s environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aulacaspis yasumatsui has not been found in the environment of California and would have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish here.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 SEL Catalog Query Results.  http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Aulacaspisyasumatsui.htm

2 Weissling, T.J. and F.W. Howard. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: Cycad Aulacaspis Scale.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/palms/cycad_scale.htm

3 Cave, R.D., Chao, J-T., Kumashiro, B., Marler, T., Miles, J., Moore, A., Muniappan, R., and Watson, G.W. (2013) Status and biological control of cycad aulacaspis scale. Biocontrol News and Information, 34(1): 1N-4N.

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 CABI Invasive Species Compendium: Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale).  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/18756

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Ochetellus glaber (Mayr): An Ant

California Pest Rating for
Ochetellus glaber (Mayr): An Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ochetellus glaber is frequently intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to establish a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundOchetellus glaber is a species of ant that is adapted for living around the interface of open and scrub habitat1.  It often nests arboreally, under stones, or in dry fallen logs1.  The ants are generalist foragers that may feed on honeydew, insects, or worms.  They sometimes forage in houses for fluids or sweets but are not considered a major house pest1.  Colonies have multiple queens and colonies may reproduce by budding when a queen and some workers move to a new area.  This allows the ants to be transported long distances when nests or queens are moved as contaminating pests in commerce.

Worldwide Distribution: Ochetellus glaber is probably native to Australia.  It was first found in New Zealand in 19271 and Hawaii in 19772.  It has also invaded Japan and parts of Asia.  It recently spread to Florida3.

Official Control: Ochetellus glaber is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations4.

California DistributionOchetellus glaber has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Ochetellus glaber was intercepted 199 times by CDFA’s high risk programs and dog teams.  These interceptions have been on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Hawaii.  The ant was also intercepted once at a border station on beehives from Florida.

The risk Ochetellus glaber would pose to California is evaluated below.

 Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ochetellus glaber is found in regions with similar climates to California. The ant can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in the state and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ochetellus glaber is a generalist forager that can feed on a wide variety of sources.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ants are capable of rapid reproduction and can disperse long distances when colonies or queens are moved.  Ochetellus glaber receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

 4) Economic Impact: Ochetellus glaber is not expected to lower crop yields or increase crop production costs.  It is not expected to disrupt any markets for Californian agricultural commodities.  It is not expected to change cultural practices or vector other pestiferous organisms.  Ochetellus glaber is known to tend honeydew producing insects and may consume parasitoids, disrupting biological control of pests such as pink hibiscus mealybug5.  The ants are not expected to interfere with water supplies.  Ochetellus glaber receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Invasive ants such as Ochetellus glaber may cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  They may also trigger new private treatment programs by residents who find infestations unacceptable and in the nursery industry.  Ochetellus glaber receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ochetellus glaber: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ochetellus glaber has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:  

Invasive ants such as argentine ant (Linepithema humile) are already widespread in California and occupy many of the niches that Ochetellus glaber might be expected to colonize.  It is possible that competition from argentine ant may help preclude establishment of other invasive species such as Ochetellus glaber.  There is some evidence that Ochetellus glaber is a species complex and should be considered two or more distinct species6.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ochetellus glaber has never been found in California and is expected to have limited economic and significant environmental impacts if it were to establish here.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua. Ochetellus glaber fact sheet.  http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/factsheets/Factsheets/ochetellus-glaber

2 Kirschenbaum, Ranit and J. Kenneth Grace. 2008. Agonistic Interactions Among Invasive Ant Species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Two Habitats on Oahu, Hawaii.  Sociobiology 51(3): 543-553.  http://manoa.hawaii.edu/ctahr/termite/aboutcontact/grace/pdfs/241.pdf

3 Deyrup, M. 2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymeoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86:43-48.  http://antkey.org/content/updated-list-florida-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5 González-Hernández, Héctor, Neil J. Reimer, and Marshall W. Johnson. 1999. Survey of the natural enemies of Dysmicoccus mealybugs on pineapple in Hawaii.  BioControl 44: 47-58.  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1009954625169#page-2

6 Hoffman, Benjamin D., Alan N. Andersen, and Xiang Zhang. 2011. Taxonomic confusion of two tramp ant species: Iridomyrmex anceps and Ochetellus glaber are really species complexes. Current Zoology.  http://www.actazool.org/site_media/onlinefirst/downloadable_file/2011/06/30/11.1_incomplete_taxonomy_hinders_invasion_research.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Kallitaxila granulata (Stål): A Planthopper

California Pest Rating for
Kallitaxila granulata (Stål):  A Planthopper
Hemiptera:  Tropiduchidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The planthopper Kallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted by CDFA on shipments of plant products from Hawaii.  This organism is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future actions on this pest.

 History & Status:

Background:  Kallitaxila granulata is a moderately polyphagous planthopper that feeds on at least 24 species of plants in at least 19 families.  Adults lay eggs singly or in clusters along leaf veins, typically on the underside of leaves2.  Nymphs and adults both feed on leaves.  Known hosts include:  ApocynaceaePlumeria acuminata (plumeria)2AsparagaceaeCordyline fruicosa (ti)2; AsteraceaeWedelia sp.3; Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera sp. (honeysuckle)3; CibotiaceaeCibotium chamissoi (hapuu)2; ConvovulaceaeIpomoea triloba (Aiea morning glory)3; EuphorbiaceaeAleurites moluccana (kukui)2, Euphorbia heterophylla3FabaceaeErythrina sandwicensis (wiliwili)3; Erythrina variegata (India coral bean)2, Lablab purpureus (lablab beans)3; GleicheniaceaeDicranopteris linearis (uluhe)2; LamiaceaeVitex sp.3; MalvaceaeThespesia populnea (milo tree)3; Moraceae: Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)3; MyrtaceaeMetrosideros polymorpha (ohia-lihua)2; Psidium guava (guava)2Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape)3; RubiaceaeCoffea sp. (coffee)3Rutaceae: Citrus paradisi (grapefruit)2, Citrus sp.3; ScrophulariaceaeMyoporum acuminatum3; Thymelaeaceae: Wikstroemia sp. (akia)3; VerbenaceaeLantana montevidensis3, .  The planthopper has the potential to spread long distances through commerce in infested plants and plant products.

Worldwide Distribution: Kallitaxila granulata is native to the Philippines.  From there it spread to Christmas Island, the Cook Islands, Vietnam, China, and Hawaii4.

Official Control:  Kallitaxila granulata is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionKallitaxila granulata has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsKallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted on shipments of plant products from Hawaii including basil, betel, curry, ginger, malangai, orchids, and ti1.

The risk Kallitaxila granulata (a planthopper) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Some of the known hosts of Kallitaxila granulata are widely grown as ornamentals (e.g., Ficus benjamina) and crops (e.g., citrus) in California. The planthopper is likely to establish wherever hosts are grown.  The insect receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kallitaxila granulata is known to feed on at least 24 species of plants in 19 plant families.  The host list for Kallitaxila granulata expanded greatly with its introduction to Hawaii.  It is likely that the plant hopper would continue to colonize new plants if it established in California.  This is likely to cause additional economic and/or environmental impacts that are not considered in this document. The planthopper receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Planthoppers have high reproductive potential and may spread long distances through the movement of infested plants or plant products.  Kallitaxila granulata receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to lower crop yields.  Because the planthopper has a limited distribution, its entry into California may disrupt some markets as it is likely to contaminate commodities with its presence.  The planthopper may increase crop production costs, especially in the nursery industry, as growers treat to ensure clean plants.  Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to negatively change cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  The planthopper receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Kallitaxila granulata is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  No plants listed as threatened or endangered species in California are expected to be hosts for the plant hopper, nor is the plant hopper expected to disrupt critical habitats.  The leaf hopper may trigger additional private treatment programs within the nursery industry as some growers may treat in order to maintain nursery stock cleanliness.  The leaf hopper is not expected to impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Kallitaxila granulata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kallitaxila granulata: High(13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kallitaxila granulata has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(13)

 Uncertainty:

Kallitaxila granulata is frequently intercepted on shipments of plant products from Hawaii.  Presumably, it has also been present on other shipments that were not intercepted and have entered the state.  There have not been any formal surveys of California for this plant hopper.  Therefore, it is likely that Kallitaxila granulata is either already present in parts of the state or that environmental conditions here are not conducive to establishment.  The places where the planthopper is known to be established have humid tropical environments.   The Mediterranean climate of California may not be suitable for the plant hopper.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kallitaxila granulata has not yet been documented to cause significant economic or environmental impacts anywhere it has established.  If the plant hopper were to enter California, economic impacts are expected to be limited to possible disruptions to host plant markets when the insect is found.  Furthermore, production costs may increase in the nursery industry as new treatments could be triggered in order to maintain plant cleanliness.  Environmental impacts are expected to be limited to these possible new chemical treatments.  However, the plant hopper greatly expanded its host range when it was introduced to Hawaii.  It is likely to continue to colonize new hosts in California.  Due to potential economic and environmental impacts of the entry of Kallitaxila granulata into California, an “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1Von Ellenrieder, Natalia.  2007.  A planthopper (Kallitaxila granulata).  California Plant Pest & Disease Report 23(1): 19.  http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdfa.ca.gov%2Fplant%2FPPD%2FPDF%2Fkallitaxila_granulata.pdf&ei=kTe8U_3KDojPiwLM-IGACQ&usg=AFQjCNH2ilXv8591Cqo7A2UW721tVhR6fg&bvm=bv.70138588,d.cGE

2Yang, Pingjun, Andrei Alyokhn, and Russell Messing.  2001.  Patterns of oviposition and parasitism of eggs of Kallitaxila granulata (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae), a newly invasive planthopper in Hawaii.  Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society 35: 77-83.  http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/8104/9Yang.pdf?sequence=1

3Asche, Manfred. 2000.  New state records of immigrant planthoppers in Hawaii (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea).  Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Society 34: 185-187.  http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/8409/Note2.pdf?sequence=1

4FLOW Hemiptera Database:  http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/?page=explorer&db=flow&lang=en&card=taxon&rank=species&id=9580

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Lycorma delicatula White: Spotted Lanternfly

California Pest Rating for
Lycorma delicatula White:  Spotted Lanternfly
Hemiptera: Fulgoridae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 30, 2014 Duane Schnabel distributed information from the National Plant Board that Lycorma delicatula has been found in four counties in Pennsylvania and may have been distributed to other states.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction on this pest.

 History & Status:

Background:  Lycorma delicatula is a fulgorid hopper that is known to feed on at least 41 species of trees and herbs1.  The spotted lanternfly has one generation per year and overwinters as eggs in an ootheca1.  In Korea, eggs hatch in mid-May and nymphs begin sucking saps from young stems and leaves1.  Nymphs do not fly and are particularly polyphagous, feeding on almost any plant they encounter.  Their feeding produces large quantities of fluid, which covers stems and leaves1.  Infestations can weaken plants and eventually kill them1.  Adult spotted lanternfly can fly but tends to spread by walking.  By September, many of the adults have moved to preferred hosts, if they are available1.  The strongly preferred host for adult feeding is tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) but they also prefer bee bee tree (Tetradium (=Evodia) daniellii) and Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense)1.  The insect will also feed on a wide variety of other plants including grapes (Vitis spp.) and stone fruit (Prunus spp.).  Oothecae are typically deposited on trees with a smooth surface structure1.  The most likely pathway for long-distance spread of Lycorma delicatula is the movement of oothecae on infested nursery stock or possibly other objects.

Partial Host List:  Betulaceae: Betula platyphylla1 (Japanese white birch); Cornaceae: Cornus controversa1 (wedding cake tree), C. kousa1 (kousa dogwood), C. officinalis1 (Japanese cornel); Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus umbellata1 (Japanese silverberry); Juglandaceae: Juglans mandshurica1 (Manchurian walnut); Meliaceae: Cedrela fissilis1, Toona sinensis1 (Chinese mahogany); Oleaceae: Syringa vulgaris1 (lilac); Pinaceae: Pinus densiflora1 (Japanese red pine); P. strobus1 (eastern white pine); Rosaceae: Prunus serrulata1 (Japanese cherry), P. yedoensis1 (yoshino cherry); Rutaceae: Phellodendron amurense1 (Amur cork tree), Tetradium daniellii1 (bee bee tree); Salicaceae: Populus alba1 (white poplar); Sapindaceae: Acer palmatum1 (Japanese maple), Acer saccharinum1 (silver maple); Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus altissima1 (tree of heaven), Picrasma quassioides1 (bitterwood); Ulmaceae: Zelkova serrata1 (keyaki); Vitaceae: Parthenocissus quinquefolia1 (Virginia creeper), Vitis amurensis1 (Amur grape), Vitis vinifera1 (grape vine).

Worldwide Distribution: Lycorma delicatula is native to the southern part of China and other subtropical regions of southeast Asia1.  It was not known to be invasive until it spread to Korea in 2006 and to Pennsylvania in 2014.

Official Control: Lycorma delicatula is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionLycorma delicatula has not been found in California.

California InterceptionsLycorma delicatula has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Lycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants are commonly grown in California and spotted lanternfly is likely to establish wherever they are found. Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

 2) Known Pest Host Range: Lycorma delicatula feeds on at least 41 species of plants in at least 14 families.  These include multiple agriculturally important crops and common ornamentals in California.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Lycorma delicatula has only one generation per year and tends to move by walking but oothecae may be dispersed long distances by the movement of infested nursery stock or other items.  Spotted lanternfly receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

 4) Economic Impact: Infestations of Lycorma delicatula may lower crop yields and increase production costs in economically important crops such as grape, stone fruit, and nursery stock.  Since it entered Korea, the insect has caused considerable damage in vineyards.  Although it is not yet under official control in any states or nations, the presence of this pest in agricultural commodities may cause trade disruptions due to its limited range in North America.  Spotted lanternfly is not expected to change normal cultural practices, vector other organisms, or interfere with water supplies.  Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Spotted lanternfly is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger new treatments in vineyards and stone fruit orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Spotted lanternfly may also significantly affect home/urban gardening by feeding on grapes and trees.  Lycorma delicatula receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Lycorma delicatula (Spotted Lanternfly):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Lycorma delicatula has not been found in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(14)

Uncertainty:

There have been no formal surveys for Lycorma delicatula in California.  It may already be present in some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) has never been found in California and is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An A-rating is justified.

References:

1Kim, Jae Geun, Eun-Hyuk Lee, Yeo-Min Seo, and Na-Yeon Kim.  Cyclic Behavior of Lycorma delicatula (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) on Host Plants.  J Insect Behav (2011) 24: 423-435.  http://ag.udel.edu/delpha/7969.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead: Fly Speck Scale

California Pest Rating for
Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead: Fly Speck Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 28, 2013 Dr. Gillian Watson identified fly speck scale, Gymnaspis aechmeae, from a sample of bromeliad plants submitted from a resident’s greenhouse in Orange County (PDR  300P06040190).  Stephen Brown recommended that the scale be run through the draft pest rating process.

History & Status:

Background:  Known colloquially in Australia as “the scourge of the bromeliads, 4” fly speck scale is considered to be a serious pest of the plants1,2,4,5,6.   Known hosts include up to 35 species of Bromeliaceae:  Acanthostachys sp., Acanthostachys strobilacea, Aechmea angustifolia, A. aquilega, A. bracteata7Aechmea chantini, A. nidularioides, A. pubescens, Aechmea sp., Ananas comosus, A. sativus, Ananas sp., Aregelia sp., Billbergia nutans, B. leopoldi, B. pyramidalis7, B. saundersii, Billbergia sp, Bromelia serra, B.pinguin2, Bromelia sp., Hogenbergia erythrostachya, H. stellata7Hogenbergia sp., Karatas amazonica, Karatas sp., Neoregelia sp., Nidularium princeps, Nidularium sp., Pitcairnia sp., Quesnelia sp., Quesnelia wittmackiana, Tillandsia sp., Vriesea sp., Vriesia platzmanni.  Other occasional hosts include Monstera sp. (Araceae), Asparagus sprengeri (Asparagaceae), Caraguata weilbachii and Chlorophytum sp. (Liliaceae), Villarsia officinalis (Menyanthaceae), and Cymbidium sp. (Orchidaceae)1.  Fly speck scale can be dispersed long distances in the trade of live plants.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of fly speck scale is uncertain.  It was first discovered on Aechmea aquilegia at Kew Gardens, London, in 18971.  It was found in Spain by 19061, Argentina by 19071, and Florida in 19175.  It has since been found in Brazil, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Cuba2, Hawaii, Japan3, Australia4,6, and in many European nations1.  Within the United States it has also been found in additional eastern and southern states (Alabama, District of Columbia, Florida, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia) and Colorado8.

Official Control: Fly speck scale is listed as a quarantine pest in Japan and the Republic of Korea9.

California Distribution:  Fly speck scale has never been found outdoors in California.

California Interceptions:  Fly speck scale was found once in a nursery in San Diego county in 2012 (PDR 1422842).

The risk fly speck scale (Gymnaspis aechmeae) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1)  Climate/Host Interaction: Known outdoor habitats of fly speck scale correspond with tropical, humid environments. The scale is not likely to establish outdoors in California.  However, bromeliads are produced and kept in greenhouses and the scale is likely to establish in these environments.  Fly speck scale receives a Low(1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2)  Known Pest Host Range: Fly speck scale is primarily a pest of bromeliads, but it has been found on 41 species in 6 plant families.  The scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3)  Pest Dispersal Potential: Fly speck scale has only 2 generations per year1, but can produce many first instar crawlers (rather than eggs) giving the species high reproductive potential.  The crawlers are able to walk between plants6.  Furthermore, they can be spread long distances when plants are traded, on clothing, or by wind6.  Fly speck scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4)  Economic Impact: Bromeliads are produced in the nursery industry of California.  Fly speck scale is likely to lower the value of this crop by disfiguring the plants with their unsightly presence.  The scale may also increase crop production costs as nurseries are likely to treat infestations or to treat preventively.  Fly speck scale is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan and Korea9 so its presence in California could disrupt trade with those markets.  Fly speck scale may also negatively change normal cultural practices in botanical gardens and nursery greenhouses.  The scale is not expected to lower crop yield, trigger a loss of markets, vector other organisms, affect agriculturally important animals, or affect the water supply.  Fly speck scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous o rganism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: The presence of Gymnaspis aechmeae can be expected to trigger regular, preventive private chemical treatment of bromeliads to prevent unsightly plants4 and eradicate known infestations.  Fly speck scale can also be expected to impact cultural practices in home/urban gardening as bromeliad collectors institute quarantine treatments as they acquire new plants4 and discard untreated, infested plants.  The scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  No hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats.  Fly speck scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Fly Speck Scale (Gymnaspis aechmeae):  Medium (12)

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Fly speck scale is known only from a single incursion into California in a greenhouse in Orange County in 2013. It has not been found anywhere else since then.  It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium(12)

Uncertainty:

Bromeliad enthusiasts may trade plants frequently and order plants from infested areas via the Internet and mail services; the scale could have a much wider distribution in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

California’s climate is expected to limit the distribution of fly speck scale to greenhouse environments.  There, the introduction of the scale is expected to have a significant economic impact by decreasing the value of contaminated bromeliads and increasing production costs.  Fly speck scale is also expected to have a significant environmental impact as it can be expected to trigger additional private chemical treatments as residents attempt to both eradicate and prevent infestations.  It will also alter cultural practices as residents will quarantine newly acquired plants and dispose of plants that become unsightly.  A “B” rating is justified for Gymnaspis aechmeae.

 References:

1http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Gymnaspisaechmeae.htm

2Novoa, N.M., G.S. Hodges, M.V. Rubio, P.C. Bonnin, and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad 14(3):181-183

3Mito, T. and T. Uesugi.  2004.  Invasive alien species in Japan:  the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects.  Global Environmental Research 8(2): 171-191.  http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CC0QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.airies.or.jp%2Fattach.php%2F6a6f75726e616c5f30382d32656e67%2Fsave%2F0%2F0%2F08_2-08.pdf&ei=YN9vUtC9IsqDiQLx2IDACg&usg=AFQjCNF_T2F8hHiHRH1hX2i0gqYjsDcT1g&bvm=bv.55123115,d.cGE

4Bromelcairns. 2009 #2 and 2010#3.  Bimonthly Newsletter of Cairns Bromeliad Society, Inc.  P.O. Box 28 Cairns, Queensland, 4870 Australia.  http://www.bromeliadsdownunder.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Bromelcairns-2009-Issue-4.pdf

http://www.bromeliadsdownunder.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Bromelcairns-2010-Issue-3.pdf

5Miller, D.R., G.L. Miller, G.S. Hodges, and J.A. Davidson. 2005.  Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. Agriculture.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107(1): 123-158. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/coccoidea/millermihoda2005.pdf

6Illawarra Bromeliad Society Inc. Club News.  October 2012.  92 Brighton Street, Bundeena, NSW 2230  http://www.bromeliad.org.au/news/Ill1012.htm

7Stephens, J.A.  1965.  Some thoughts on bromeliads.  The Bromeliad Society Bulletin.  Vol. XV(5).  http://journal.bsi.org/V15/5/

8 http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5117097

9 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday,  April 7, 2015 and closed on May 22, 2015.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus variabilis: Agave Mealybugs

California Pest Rating for
Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus variabilis: Agave Mealybugs
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Two species of mealybugs have been found outdoors in California and are often found during nursery inspections of agave plants. The two insects, Paracoccus gillianae and the undescribed Pseudococcus sp. A (the A is for agave), are presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Nothing is known of the biology of the agave mealybugs except that they appear to be mostly limited to agave in nurseries.

Worldwide Distribution: Unknown, possibly native to the southwestern United States or Mexico. The species appear to be moving about in the nursery trade. Specimens of Paracoccus gillianae have been collected in nurseries in seven counties in Florida and have been found outdoors at the Jacksonville Zoological Gardens in Duval County2.

Official Control: The agave mealybugs are not known to be under official control anywhere in the world.

California Distribution: In California Pseudococcus sp. A was found outdoors in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara Counties in the 1980’s and 1990’s. It was found outdoors again in San Diego County in 2012 (PDRs 1326984 and 1401481). Paracoccus gillianae was found outdoors in Riverside County in 2012 (PDRs 1590291 and 1590292).

California Interceptions: Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus sp. A have both been found in nurseries many times. USDA intercepted Paracoccus gillianae on plants from Mexico at Nogales in 1952 and San Diego in 1974. CDFA intercepted Paracoccus gillianae on plants that originated in Mexico in 2008 (PDR 1357956).

The risk agave mealybugs would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Agaves are popular in the nursery industry in California. Agave mealybugs are presumed likely to establish in residential areas where agaves are grown ornamentally and in desert ecosystems where native agaves grow. The agave mealybugs receive a Medium(2) rating for this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The agave mealybugs appear to feed primarily on agave plants (Agave spp.). There are also records from other plants in the Agavaceae: Pseudococcus sp. A on aloe (PDR 1554869) and Paracoccus gillianae on Hesperaloe sp. and Yucca sp. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can reproduce quickly but do not fly and therefore do not usually disperse far from their original host plant. However, mealybugs may be dispersed long distances by wind, by hitchhiking on animals or clothing, or by commerce in infested plants. The agave mealybugs receive a High (3) rating for this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The agave mealybugs have never been documented to cause economic damage anywhere, but dense infestations are unsightly and have been seen killing patches of leaf. Pseudococcus sp. A. has been found on the agave produced commercially for tequila production in Mexico. However, they are not documented as economic pests in their native range. Some nurseries are treating their agaves to prevent contamination by the mealybugs, increasing production costs. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: A widespread establishment of the agave mealybugs may result in increased pesticide use by nurseries and residents. Nurseries in Santa Barbara County have had difficulty in eradicating infestations using topical insecticide treatments resulting in repeated applications to get them under control. Other nurseries are using systemic insecticides to prevent the mealybugs from showing up on their agaves1. Therefore, if the rating were changed for the agave mealybugs it is expected to reduce pesticide use. There are no plants in the genera Agave, Aloe, Hesperaloe, or Yucca listed as threatened or endangered plants in California. There are no reports of agave mealybugs causing environmental damage anywhere in the world. The agave mealybugs receive a Low (1) rating for this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Agave Mealybugs: Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Agave mealybugs have been found in the environment of Los Angeles and Santa Barbara Counties. They receive a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the agave mealybugs could have a wider host range than is known, resulting in greater consequences from establishment. It is also likely that the mealybugs have spread to other states where Agavaceae grow.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The agave mealybugs Paracoccus gillianae and Pseudococcus sp. A have been found outdoors in California and appear to be established in the nursery system. They do not appear to be causing any economic damage (other than through their quarantine status). They are not expected to have significant environmental impacts to California. A C-rating is justified for these pests.

References:

http://www.xericworld.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2831

Von Ellenrieder, Natalia and Ian C. Stocks. 2014. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Zootaxa 3873(1):025-036.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday,  April 1, 2015 and closed on May 16, 2015.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale

California Pest Rating for
Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Unaspis citri is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Unaspis citri, citrus snow scale, is an armored scale insect that primarily feeds on the trunk and tree limbs of older citrus trees¹. Populations of the scale reduce tree vigor and fruit production¹. Prolonged high populations can cause bark to split, allowing other insect pests and pathogens to invade the tree¹. Known hosts of citrus snow scale include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica³), Mangifera sp.²,³; Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona muricata²,³); Arecaceae: Cocos sp.²,³; Bromeliaceae: Ananas sp.²,³, Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides²,³); Celastraceae: evergreen spindle (Euonymus japonicus²,³), broad-leaved spindle tree (Euonymus latifolia²,³), Fabaceae: Acacia sp.²,³, Inga sp.³; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.²,³; Musaceae: Musa sp.²,³; Myrtaceae: guava (Psidium guajava²,³); Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.²,³; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.²,³; Rosaceae: avocado (Persea americana²,³); Rutaceae: Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa²,³), Citrus sp.²,³, key lime (Citrus aurantifolia²,³), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium²,³), Citrus decumana²,³, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis²,³), mandarin (Citrus reticulata²,³), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi²,³), tangerine (Citrus nobilis²,³), citron (Citrus medica²,³), Citrus medica acida², pomelo (Citrus maxima²,³), lemon (Citrus limon²,³), Citrus grandis²,³, kumquats (Fortunella sp.²,³), Glycosmis parviflora²,³, orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata²,³), trifoliate orange (Poncirus sp.²,³), Severina sp.²,³; Sapindaceae: rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum²). Unaspis citri may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Unaspis citri is believed to have originated in Asia, but has spread through many of the citrus growing regions of the world¹.

Official Control: Unaspis citri has listed as a harmful organism by 46 nations including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela4.

California Distribution: Unaspis citri has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Unaspis citri is commonly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations on citrus fruit from Mexico and Florida.

The risk Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Citrus is widely planted across much of California and Unaspis citri can be expected to establish wherever it is grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Unaspis citri is known to feed on 34 varieties of plants in 13 families. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved. They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Unaspis citri were to establish in California it is expected that it would lower yields and increase crop production costs in citrus nursery stock and fruit industries. Citrus snow scale is also considered a quarantine pest by many of California’s trading partners. The presence of the scale in the state would disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Unaspis citri is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It may trigger additional treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested trees unsightly or diminished citrus yields unacceptable. Citrus snow scale may also significantly impact ornamental plantings. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Unaspis citri (Citrus Snow Scale): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Unaspis citri has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Management for other citrus pests may mitigate some of the damage from Unaspis citri.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Unaspis citri has never been found in California and it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Buckley, Courtney R. and Amanda C. Hodges. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: citrus snow scale. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/citrus_snow_scale.htm

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy. ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Unaspis/citri/

3 SEL Catalog. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Unaspiscitri.htm

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday, March 24, 2015 and closed on Friday, May 8, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls