Category Archives: Coleoptera

Beetle | Semanotus sinoauster Gressitt

California Pest Rating for
Beetle | Semanotus sinoauster Gressitt
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

 


 

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Semanotus sinoauster is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Semanotus sinoauster is a beetle that measure 1.3 to 2 cm in length and is black to reddish-brown with black and yellow bands on the elytra (Niisato, 2004).  The larvae feed in the wood of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) (Cupressaceae).  This beetle is reported to be a pest of this tree, which suggests that living trees are attacked, but definite information has not been found regarding the condition of the trees attacked (e.g., healthy, dead, or compromised).  This beetle may also attack Fokienia hodginsii (Cupressaceae) (Niisato, 2004).  Other Semanotus species are reported to attack living trees as well as recently-killed trees, for example, those brought down by wind.  For example, Semanotus laurasii was introduced to Europe from Africa and it is reported to attack, injure, and kill cypress trees in Spain, and Semanotus japonicus is reported to attack live Japanese cedar and cypress trees (Martínez-Blay et al., 2014; Togashi, 1985).  Experiments with S. japonicus larvae demonstrated that larvae can only develop in fresh wood, likely because of the higher nutritional content, but they can be killed with resin flow by healthy trees.  This suggests that Semanotus species in general (including S. sinoauster) could take advantage of living trees that are weakened or otherwise unable to mount a successful defense of resin flow (Shibata, 1995).

Even if S. sinoauster only attacks dead or dying trees, it could still cause losses to timber.  Other Semanotus species are reported to cause such damage.  For example, S. litogiosus was reported to be the most important source of borer-induced timber deterioration in wind-thrown firs in California (Wickman, 1965).

Other Semanotus species are reported not to require maturation feeding (pre-reproductive feeding by adults, typically on living tissues of trees), and S. sinoauster is presumed to be similar (Blay, 2014; Cherepanov, 1988).

Semanotus bifasciatus sinoauster Gressitt is a synonym of S. sinoauster.  Information reported for this synonym was considered in this proposal.

Worldwide Distribution:  Semanotus sinoauster is reported from and presumably native to southern China and northeast Laos (Belokobylskij et al., 2013; Niisato, 2004; Wickham et al., 2016).

Official Control: Semanotus sinoauster is considered reportable by the USDA-APHIS.

California Distribution:  Semanotus sinoauster is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Semanotus sinoauster has not been intercepted in California (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Semanotus sinoauster would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Semanotus sinoauster may be presently limited to areas with a subtropical climate. The available evidence suggests it may feed on two species of Cupressaceae.  Climate may limit the potential distribution of this species in California.  If it is capable of feeding on additional species of Cupressaceae, it may be able to become established in a limited part of California. Therefore, sinoauster receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Semanotus sinoauster is reported to feed on one species of tree, Cunninghamia lanceolata. It has been tentatively reported to feed on another species in this family as well.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Reproductive and Dispersal Potential: Semanotus sinoauster presumably flies, and it could probably be dispersed through movement of infested wood.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

3) Economic Impact: Other Semanotus species are reported to attack freshly-killed trees and degrade timber quality.  If sinoauster displays a broader host range in California than it does in its native range, it is possible that it could attack other members of Cupressaceae in CA, including incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens).  There is no data describing if living or dead trees are attacked by S. sinoauster in its native range.  If living or freshly-killed trees are attacked, this could lower timber crop yield.  If only freshly-killed trees are attacked, this could lower crop quality and could also change normal cultural practices, because the timing of the harvest of timber may have to be changed.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Semanotus sinoauster becomes established in California, it will encounter species of trees that are presumably not present in its current area of distribution. If this beetle (1) can attack living trees and (2) is capable of attacking a broader range of hosts than it is currently known to, it could attack other trees in California.  There are rare species of Hesperocyparis in California, for example, the Endangered Santa Cruz cypress (Hesperocyparis abramsiana (C. B. Wolf) Bartel) and the Threatened Tecate cypress (Hesperocyparis forbesii (Jeps.) Bartel) (Calflora).  Trees in the family Cupressaceae are used in ornamental plantings, so if this beetle can attack living trees, it could impact such plantings.    Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Semanotus sinoauster: (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Semanotus sinoauster is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

There is significant uncertainty involved with this proposal.  There is some uncertainty regarding the suitability of California’s climate for Semanotus sinoauster.  This beetle appears to be currently limited to areas with a subtropical climate.  There is also significant uncertainty regarding the possibility of this beetle to attack trees in California.  Most of the possible threats considered in this proposal depend on the possibility of this beetle displaying a broader host range in California than it does in its native range.  If it is indeed restricted to the species it is reported to attack in its native range, it will almost certainly have, at most, a minor impact in the state.  Lastly, there is uncertainty regarding whether or not this beetle attacks living trees.  If it only attacks trees that are already dead, this beetle poses much less of a risk than is reflected in this proposal.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Semanotus sinoauster belongs to a genus with species that are reported to attack living trees and also to damage timber.  If this beetle becomes established in California and displays a broader host range here, it would pose an economic and environmental threat to the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Belokobylskij, S. A., Tang, P., and Chen, X.  2013.  Chinese species of the genus Neurocrassus Šnoflak, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae), with a key to Asian species.  Annales Zoologici 63:235-249.

Blay, V. M.  2014.  Estudio de características físicas, biológicas y de movilidad de Semanotus laurasii (Lucas, 1851) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  Masters thesis.  Universitat Politécnica de València.

Calflora. 2018. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals.  Accessed May 11, 2018:  http://www.calflora.org

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database.  2018.  Semanotus sinoauster.  Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture.  Accessed May 11, 2018: https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Cherepanov, A. I.  1988.  Cerambycidae of Northern Asia.  Volume 2, Part 1.  Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Martínez-Blay, V., Martínez-Asensio, O., and Soto, A.  2014.  Dinámica estacional, biología y daños ocasionados por Semanotus laurasii (Lucas, 1851) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) en cupresáceas de la ciudad de Valencia.  Actas de Horticultura 68:84-89.

Niisato, T.  2004.  Semanotus sinoauster (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) firstly recorded from Laos.  Elytra 32:437-441.

Shibata, E.  1995.  Reproductive strategy of the Sugi bark borer, Semanotus japonicus

(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica.  Researches on Population Ecology 37:229-237.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed May 11, 2018; http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Togashi, K.  1985.  Larval size variation of the Cryptomeria bark borer, Semanotus japonicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in standing trees.  Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 67:461-463.

Wickham, J. D., Lu, W., Zhang, L. -W., Chen, Y., Zou, Y., Hanks, L. M., and Millar, J. G.  2016.  Likely aggregation-sex pheromones of the invasive beetle Callidiellum villosulum, and the related Asian species Allotraeus asiaticus, Semanotus bifasciatus, and Xylotrechus buqueti (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  Journal of Economic Entomology 2016:1-4.

Wickman, B. E.  1965.  Insect-caused deterioration of windthrown timber in northern California, 1963-1964.  Pacific Southwest Forest & Range Experiment Station Research Paper PSW-RP-20:1-14.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

6/28/18 – 8/12/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Scarab Beetle | Gymnetis stellata (Latreille)

California Pest Rating  for
Scarab Beetle | Gymnetis stellata (Latreille)
Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Gymnetis stellata is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Gymnetis stellata is a beetle that measures approximately 20 mm in length and 13 mm in width.  It is dark and velvety with a distinctive pattern of red-orange stripes that radiate from the center of its body.  It occurs in tropical forests at low elevations (below 1600 meters above sea level).  Adults are reported to feed on fruit, including banana, lemon, and guava (Juárez and González, 2015; Maes and Orozco, 2017; Oliveros-Guzmán, 2017).  Adults of other Gymnetis species are reported to feed on fruit, leaves, and flowers; feeding damage is reported to result in the loss of fruit (García, 2005; Montero and Seta, 2015; Segarra et al., 2014).  The larvae of Gymnetis stellata feed on decomposing organic matter.  Numerous larvae, pupal cells, and adults of this species were found in an accumulation of insectivorous bat guano in an unfinished building in Tabasco, Mexico.  It is likely other types of organic matter are used for development more frequently (Sánchez Soto et al., 2017).  The larvae of other species of Gymnetis are reported to feed on decomposing organic matter, including rotting logs (Montero and Seta, 2015; Neita et al., 2006).

Worldwide Distribution:  Gymnetis stellata has been reported from Mexico, Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panamá), and South America (Colombia and Peru) (Duque and Cabrera, 2013; Juárez and González, 2015; Maes and Orozco, 2017; Oliveros-Guzmán et al., 2017; Ríos and Gómez, 2011; Sánchez Soto et al., 2017).

Official Control: Gymnetis stellata is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Gymnetis stellata is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Gymnetis stellata was found outside of a produce terminal in San Francisco County in 2007 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Gymnetis stellata would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Gymnetis stellata appears to be restricted to warmer climates. It is likely that this beetle would be limited to the southern, coastal portion of California if it became established here.  Gymnetis stellata is presumed to be capable of feeding on a wide variety of fruit (and possibly flowers as well), and the larvae are known to feed on decomposing organic matter.  Presence of adult and larval food is not expected to be a significant limiting factor of the potential distribution of this species in California.  Therefore, Gymnetis stellata receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Gymnetis stellata apparently feeds on decomposing organic matter as a larva and a variety of fruits as an adult. Based on the known feeding habits of this species and others in the genus, it appears likely that a very wide variety of fruits could be fed upon by the adults.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Reproductive and Dispersal Potential: Cetoniines are typically strong fliers.  All life stages of stellata appear unlikely to be dispersed artificially, because the larvae live in rotting organic matter and the adults are large and mobile.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Adult Gymnetis stellata are reported to feed on fruit.  Other Gymnetis species have been reported to cause damage to fruit as a result of adult feeding.  For example, adult feeding by two species of Gymnetis has damaged peach, apricot, and tomato fruit in Argentina (Montero and Seta, 2015).  It is possible that stellata could feed on and damage a variety of fruits, especially soft-skinned ones.  Some Gymnetis species feed on other plant parts, including leaves and flowers, as well as fruit.  It is possible that G. stellata may share such broad feeding habits, and if it does, it could damage crops other than fruit.  Damage to crops could lower yield and increase production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Adult Gymnetis stellata feed on fruit, and they may also be capable of feeding on other plant parts, including flowers and leaves. If this beetle became established in California, it could attack native plants, which could disrupt natural communities.  In addition, if it was a pest in agricultural situations, it could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

 B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score:  3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Gymnetis stellata: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Gymnetis stellata is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that the climate of California may not be conducive to the establishment of G. stellata.  It is also possible that this beetle would not have significant economic or environmental impacts even if it did become established in the state. Although adult feeding is capable of causing damage to, and loss of fruit, there appears to be little mention of Gymnetis species as significant pests in the literature.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Gymnetis stellata is a plant-feeding insect that has the potential to damage fruit and possibly other crops, and it could have environmental impacts as well.  It is not known to be present in California.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database.  2018.  Gymnetis stellata.  Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture.  Accessed April 25, 2018: https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Duque, M. E. T. and Cabrera, S. G.  2013.  Reporte de los fondos del MEFLG: Melolόntidos del Museo Entomolόgico Francisco Luís Gallego.  Boletin del Museo Entomolόgico Francisco Luís Gallego 5:27-56.

García, C. V.  2005.  Reconocimiento fitosanitario en cinco variedades cultivadas de macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche) en la zona cafetera colombiana.  Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Agroecología 74:69-76.

Maes, J- M. and Orozco, J.  2017.  Catalogo ilustrado de los Cetoniinae y Trichiinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) de Nicaragua.  Revista Nicaraguense de Entomologia 120:1-111.

Montero, G. A. and Seta, S. A.  2015.  Daños producidos por dos especies de Gymnetis (Cetoniinae: Scarabaeidae) en frutos de tomate, damasco y durazno en el sudeste de Santa Fe.  Agromensajes 41:18-22.

Neita, J. C., Orozco A., J., and Ratcliffe, B.  2006.  Escarabajos (Scarabaeidae: Pleurosticti) de la selva baja del bosque pluvial tropical <<BP-T>>, Chocό, Colombia.  Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 22:1-32.

< lang="es">Oliveros-Guzmán, E., Ponce-Saavedra, J., and Niño-Maldonado, S.  2017.  Nuevos registros de Gymnetis stellata (Latreille, 1833) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) para los estados de Michoacán y Tamaulipas, México.  Folia Entomológica Mexicana (nueva serie) 3:9−11.

Ríos, M. A. M. and Rojas-Gómez, C. V.  2011.  Escarabajos de mayo y mayates (Insecta: Coleoptera: Melolonthidae).  pp. 391-397 in Angón, A.C. (ed.), La Biodiversidad en Veracruz.  Volumen II.  Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz, Universidad Veracruzana, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. México.

Sánchez Soto, S., Jiménez, M. M., Gόmez, W. S. S., Aguilar, J. D. L., and Méndez, A. D. J.  2017.  Sitio de reproducciόn de Gymnetis stellata en Tabasco, México.  Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle 17:16-20.

Segarra, A. E., Morales-Pérez, A, Franqui, R. A., and Ratcliffe, B. C.  2014.  First report of a South American cetoniine beetle, Gymnetis strigosa (Olivier, 1789) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), in Puerto Rico.  The Coleopterists Bulletin 68:217-218.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed January 12, 2018: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

6/25/18 – 8/09/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

Rice Beetle | Dyscinetus morator (Fabricius)

California Pest Rating  for
Rice Beetle | Dyscinetus morator (Fabricius)
Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Dyscinetus morator is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult Dyscinetus morator are beetles that measure ½ to ¾ of an inch in length.  They are black and shining with a slightly greenish sheen (Woodruff, 1999).  Adults feed on plant material aboveground, underground, and even under water.  They have been reported to feed on, burrow into, and cause significant damage (including crop losses up to 30%) to carrots and radishes in Florida (Foster et al., 1986).  Ornamental plants are also affected.  For example, tubers of caladium were attacked by D. morator adults in Florida (Price and Kring, 1991).   Adults were also reported to feed on leaves of a variety of crop species in the laboratory, including lettuce, peas, squash, and tomato. They apparently thrive in aquatic habitats and can spend several hours submerged under water while feeding on aquatic plants, including the aquatic weed Salvinia minima (Jäch and Balke, 2008; Parys et al., 2013).  Dyscinetus morator larvae are C-shaped, whitish grubs that live underground.  They are reported to feed on roots, including those of azalea (Rhododendron spp.) and juniper (Juniperus sp.) (Price and Kring, 1991; Staines, 1990).  The larvae may also feed on accumulations of decomposing organic matter, including compost (Richter, 1958).

Worldwide Distribution:  Dyscinetus morator is reported from the Caribbean (Bahamas, Cuba, and Puerto Rico) and the eastern United States (from Florida north to New York and west to Texas) (Ratcliffe and Cave, 2008; Staines, 1990).  This species is apparently native to the eastern United States, and the Caribbean records may represent introductions (Ratcliffe and Cave, 2008).

Official Control: Dyscinetus morator is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Dyscinetus morator is not known to occur in California.

California Interceptions:  Dyscinetus morator has been intercepted on a variety of items, including nursery stock, from Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and possibly other states.  This beetle was found inside a warehouse in Alameda County in 1999 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Dyscinetus morator would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Dyscinetus morator is widely distributed in the eastern United States and the Caribbean, which suggests it has broad climatic tolerances and could establish over a large portion of California. This beetle is reported to feed on a wide variety of plants, including many crops and ornamentals, and would likely find suitable host plants over a large portion of California.  Therefore, Dyscinetus morator receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dyscinetus morator has been reported to feed on a wide variety of plants in at least eight families. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Dyscinetus morator flies to light in large numbers (Woodruff, 1999).  Larvae of morator have been found in potted juniper plants, so it is possible that this beetle could be artificially dispersed through movement of potted nursery plants (Price and Kring, 1991).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Dyscinetus morator is known to cause significant damage to crop plants in certain situations.  If this beetle became established in California, it could reduce yield and increase production costs of many different crops.  The presence of this species in nurseries could trigger the loss of markets, as the larvae could occur in soil in potted plants.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Dyscinetus morator is reported to attack crop and ornamental plants. If this species became established in California, it could trigger treatment programs in agricultural settings as well as in ornamental settings, including nurseries and gardens.  This species feeds on a wide variety of plants and can tolerate a wide range of conditions.  This beetle could invade natural California ecosystems and attack native plants. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dyscinetus morator: High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dyscinetus morator is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

There appears to be little uncertainty regarding the potential for this beetle to become established in California.  Even though this beetle is often very abundant and has been reported to feed on and cause significant damage to a wide variety of crop and ornamental plants in certain situations, its significance as a pest seems to be restricted in time and space.  This could be because this species is native to most of the area that it is known to occur in and is being controlled by natural enemies (predators and parasitoids).  If this species was introduced to California, it may escape the natural enemies present in the eastern United States.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dyscinetus morator is a highly polyphagous plant-feeding beetle that is not known to occur in California.  If it became established in California, it could have severe economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database. 2018.  Dyscinetus morator. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed April 6, 2018: http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Foster, R. E., Smith, J. P., Cherry, R. H., and Hall, D.G.  1986.  Dyscinetus morator (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as a pest of carrots and radishes in Florida 69:431-432.

Jäch, M. A. and Balke, M.  2008.  Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater.  Hydrobiologia 595:419-442.

Parys, K. A., Gimmel, M. L., and Johnson, S. J.  2013.  Checklist of insects associated with Salvinia minima Baker in Louisiana, USA.  CheckList 9:1488-1495.

Price, J. F. and Kring, J. B.  1991.  Dyscinetus morator (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) flight activity, food plant acceptance, damage and control in caladium.  Florida Entomologist 74:415-421.

Ratcliffe, B. C. and Cave, R. D.  2008.  The Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of the Bahamas with a description of a new species of Cyclocephala from Great Inagua Island.  Papers in Entomology 105:1-10.

Ritcher, P. O.  1958.  Biology of Scarabaeidae.  Annual Review of Entomology 3:311-334.

Staines, C. L.  1990.  Dyscinetus morator (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) feeding on roots of azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) 101:98.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed April 6, 2018: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Woodruff, R. E.  1999.  Rice beetle, Dyscinetus morator (Fabricius) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  EENY-102.  Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

6/25/18 – 8/09/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Sugarcane Beetle | Euetheola humilis rugiceps (LeConte)

California Pest Rating  for
Sugarcane Beetle example
Sugarcane Beetle | Euetheola humilis rugiceps (LeConte)
Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae
Pest Rating: A

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Euetheola humilis rugiceps is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult sugarcane beetles are black and approximately 1.5 cm in length.  Larvae are white, C-shaped grubs that live underground (Hammond, 2002).  Adults feed underground on roots and stems of a variety of plants, including corn, sorghum, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, rice, and turfgrass.  This causes significant economic damage to these crops, especially sweet potato and corn (Billeisen and Brandenburg, 2014; Guagliumi, 1960; Smith et al., 2015).  For example, losses of up to 30% of corn plants have been reported, and damage to sweet potatoes in Louisiana was over $1 million in 2010 (Smith et al., 2015).  Adult beetles were reported to attack the trunks of young eucalyptus trees in Brazil, resulting in the death of some trees (Bernardi et al., 2008).  The larvae are suspected to feed on decomposing organic matter and roots.  Damage to the roots of rice plants was reported, but some have suggested that damage to live roots is incidental to feeding on decomposing organic matter (Buntin, 2012; Fritz et al., 2008; Hammond, 2000).  Adult feeding is considered more economically-significant than larval feeding (Catchot, 2013).

The taxonomic history of this beetle is complex (Billeisen and Brandenburg, 2014).  Ratcliffe and Cave (2006) recognized Euetheola humilis (Burmeister) as a valid species and Ligyrus rugiceps LeConte as a synonym.  The sugarcane beetle has been referred to by several names, including Eutheola rugiceps (LeConte), Eutheola humilus (Burmeister), and Euetheola humilis (Burmeister) (note the difference in the spelling of the genus).  Some workers have recognized two separate entities: the subspecies E. humilis Burmeister, in Arizona, Mexico, Central America, and South America, and E. humilis rugiceps LeConte, in the southeastern United States (Hardy, 1991; Smith, 2008).  In this proposal, biological information that was attributed in references to beetles referred to by the names Euetheola humilis and E. rugiceps, (including any subspecies recognized in such references) was considered.

Worldwide Distribution:  The origin of the sugarcane beetle is not known.  However, it was found in the United States as early as 1856, and it is possible that it is native to the entirety of its current distribution (Billeisen and Brandenburg, 2014).  The sugarcane beetle is present in the southeastern United States, southeastern Mexico, Central America (including Panama), and South America (including Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) (Billeisen and Brandenburg, 2014).

Official Control: Euetheola humilis rugiceps is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Euetheola humilis rugiceps is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Euetheola humilis rugiceps was intercepted at border stations on squash and in a trailer from Arkansas and Georgia (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).

The risk Euetheola humilis rugiceps would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The sugarcane beetle has a broad climatic tolerance. It occurs from the southeastern United States south to Argentina, where it is exposed to temperate, subtropical, and tropical climates.  This beetle feeds on a wide variety of plants, including grasses.  The species could become established over a large portion of California, although probably not in colder, mountainous or northern areas.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The sugarcane beetle is reported to feed on at least three families of plants. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Reproductive and Dispersal Potential: The sugarcane beetle flies.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The sugarcane beetle is a pest of many different crops, including corn and sweet potatoes, which are grown in California.  If this beetle became established in California, it could attack these crops, which could lower crop yield and increase production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The sugarcane beetle damages a wide variety of plants through adult and larval feeding. The species could impact native California plants, and as a result, disrupt natural communities.  The feeding on eucalyptus trees by adult sugarcane beetles, reported by Bernardi et al. (2008), demonstrates that trees, and not only food crops and grasses, can be impacted by this beetle.  In addition, if this beetle became a pest in agricultural, ornamental, or residential settings, it could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for sugarcane beetle: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The sugarcane beetle is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

The sugarcane beetle is widely distributed in the southeastern United States.  Yet, it has not yet become established in California.  This may indicate that the climate of California is not appropriate for this species.  There are native plants in California to which the sugarcane beetle has not been exposed yet in its current range.  The establishment of this beetle in California could have significant environmental impacts in the state not seen in its current range.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The sugarcane beetle is a reported pest of many crops, some of which are grown in California.  It is not known to be present in California, but it appears that the climate in this state would be conducive to the establishment of this beetle.  If it became established here, the sugarcane beetle could have economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bernardi, O., Garcia, M. S., Da Cunha, U. S., Back, E. C. U., Bernardi, D., Ramiro, G. A., and Finkenauer, E.  2008.  Ocorrência de Euetheola humilis (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) em Eucalyptus saligna Smith (Myrtaceae), no Rio Grande do Sul.  Neotropical Entomology 37:100-103.

Billeisen, T. L. and Brandenburg, R. L.  2014.  Biology and management of the sugarcane beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass.  Journal of Integrated Pest Management 5:1-5.

Buntin, G. D.  2012.  Grain sorghum insect pests and their management.  University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin no. 1283.

Catchot, A.  2013.  Have a plan for managing sugarcane beetles in field corn.  Mississippi State University Extension.  Accessed January 12, 2018:

Fritz, L. L., Heinrichs, E. A., Pandolfo, M., Martins de Salles, S., Vargas de Oliveira, J., and Fiuza, L. M.  2008.  Agroecossistemas orizícolas irrigados: Insetos-praga, inmigos naturais e manejo integrado.  Oecologia Brasiliensis 12:720-732.

Guagliumi, P.  1960.  Actual situation of entomology of sugar cane in Venezuela. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugarcane Technologists (10th Congress, Hawaii, 1959):1000-1010.

Hammond, A. M.  2002. Sugarcane beetle, Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte), Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera.  Publication 2892.  Louisiana State University Agricultural Center.

Smith, A. B. T.  2008.  Checklist of the Scarabaeoidea of the Nearctic Realm. Version 3.

The University of Nebraska State Museum.  Accessed: March 29, 2018:  http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/entomologypapers/3

Smith, T. P., Beuzelin, J. M., Catchot, A. L., Murillo, A. C., and Kerns, D. L.  2015.  Biology, ecology, and management of the sugarcane beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in sweetpotato and corn.  Journal of Integrated Pest Management 6:1-6.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 29, 2018: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

6/25/18 – 8/09/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls 

Slender-banded Pine Cone Longhorn Beetle | Chlorophorus strobilicola

California Pest Rating for
Chlorophorus strobilicola Champion: Slender-banded Pine Cone Longhorn Beetle
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Chlorophorus strobilicola is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Chlorophorus strobilicola is an elongate beetle that measures 7.5-9.5 mm in length and is reddish-brown with white bands on the elytra (Champion, 1919; Jackson et al., 2010).  This beetle lays eggs in living, green (second and third-year) cones of Pinus roxburghii in India (Singh et al., 2005).  The larvae burrow into and feed on the internal portions of the cone (Duffy, 1953).  This feeding damage results in loss of cone fertility and the cone can break off before it completes development (Champion, 1919).  Up to 40 percent of cones can be infested (Beeson, 1941).  The habitat of this beetle is described as pine forests at elevations of 3500-6500 feet above sea level; the climate in this area is apparently subtropical (Champion, 1919).

Worldwide Distribution:  Chlorophorus strobilicola is only known to occur in Uttarakhand, India (Kariyanna et al., 2017).

Official Control: Chlorophorus strobilicola is a Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey priority pest (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey, 2018).  Interceptions of this beetle triggered a Federal recall of pine cones imported from India in 2003-2004 (North American Plant Protection Organization, 2004).

California Distribution:  Chlorophorus strobilicola is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Chlorophorus strobilicola was intercepted on pine cones from India in Alameda and Fresno counties in 2003 and 2004 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018).  These interceptions were apparently a result of the Federal recall.

The risk Chlorophorus strobilicola would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The only known host plant of Chlorophorus strobilicola, Pinus roxburghii, may be grown in California, and it is possible that other species of pines present in this state could be utilized by this beetle as well. The native distribution in India of this beetle has a subtropical climate, and that climate might limit the potential distribution of this species in California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Chlorophorus strobilicola is only known to feed on Pinus roxburghii. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Chlorophorus strobilicola is capable of flight.  This beetle is also obviously capable of being dispersed through movement of pine cones, as proven by the interception of numerous specimens in the United States of pine cones from India.  However, this may be an unlikely mode of dispersal within California (once this species is already present in the state). Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pines are important timber trees in California.  If Chlorophorus strobilicola became established in California, it could reduce the seed yield of pines, which might lower timber yield and impact the industry.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Chlorophorus strobilicola became established in California, it could attack native pines, including some rare ones, including the threatened Santa Rosa Island torrey pine (Pinus torreyana insularis) (Calflora). Attacks on native pine trees could reduce natural regeneration of these species, which could disrupt natural communities.  Pines dominate millions of acres in California, and thus any impact on pines in California could also impact plant and animal species in these ecosystems.  Therefore, this beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Chlorophorus strobilicola: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chlorophorus strobilicola is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

There is significant uncertainty regarding the ability of Chlorophorus strobilicola to become established in California and the suitability of California pines as host plants.  This beetle appears to be restricted to an area with a subtropical climate, and it is only reported to feed on one species of pine.  This beetle could feed on additional species of pines (possibly including native California species) and could survive in at least one climate represented in California.  Champion (1919) suggested that this beetle might only be able to attack injured cones, but evidence of this was not found in other literature.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Chlorophorus strobilicola is a beetle that attacks pine cones in India.  If it can become established in California and attack pines in California, it would pose an economic and environmental threat to the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Beeson, C. F. C.  1941.  The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighboring countries.  C.F.C. Beeson.  Dehra Dun, India.

Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of California Herbaria.  Accessed March 6, 2018: http://www.calflora.org

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database. 2018. Chlorophorus strobilicola. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed April 6, 2018: http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Champion, H. G.  1919.  A cerambycid infesting pine cones from India, Chlorophorus strobilicola, n. sp.  Entomologists’s Monthly Magazine 58:219-224.

Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey.  2018.  Accessed February 28, 2018: https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/pest-lists

Duffy, E. A. J.  1953.  A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported timber beetles (Cerambycidae).  British Museum, London.

Jackson, L., Price, T., Smith, G., Campbell, N., and Stiers, E.  2010.  Exotic wood borer/bark beetle national survey guidelines.  Accessed February 28, 2018:  http://apollo.umenfa.maine.edu/SFR457_458_557/Documents/SFR458/EWB_BB%20Survey%20Manual%208_31_10.pdf

Kariyanna, B., Mohan, M., Gupta, R., and Vitali, F.  2017.  The checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from India.  Zootaxa 4345:001-317.

North American Plant Protection Organization.  2004.  Recall of various products containing pine cones from India.  Accessed February 28, 2018:  www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=99

Singh, S., Belokobylskij, S. A., Chauhan, N., and Pande, S.  2005.  Description of a new species of the genus Spasskia Belokobylskij, 1989 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from India, with first record of the genus in the Oriental region.  Annales Zoologici (Warszawa) 55:95-98.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 6, 2018: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

6/21/18 – 8/5/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Weevil | Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus Perkins

California Pest Rating for 
Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus Perkins: weevil
Coleoptera: Dryopthoridae
Pest Rating: C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  This beetle is black in color, elongate, and 4.5-6 mm in length.  The species has a short rostrum (“beak”) (Perkins, 1900).  Larvae of all species of Dryophthorus, including D. homoeorhynchus, apparently feed on rotting plant material, primarily wood.  Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is reported to feed on decomposing Chrysodracon species (Dracaenaceae) in Hawaii (Swezey, 1931; Swezey, 1954; Wagner et al., 2005).  Other species in the genus are reported to feed on rotting hardwood and conifer wood, and at least one species has been reported to feed on rotting tree fern fronds (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1928; O’Brien, 1997).

Worldwide Distribution:  This beetle is native to, and is only known to occur in Hawaii.  The species has been reported from Hawaii, Oahu, Maui, and Molokai islands (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2009; Swezey, 1954).

Official Control: This beetle is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  This beetle is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  This beetle was intercepted on pineapple from Hawaii in February 2004 (California Department of Food and Agriculture).

The risk Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is only known to occur in Hawaii. If this beetle requires the climate found in its current area of distribution, then only a small portion of California would offer a similar suitable climate.   At least one species in the family Dracaenaceae, Dracaena draco, is grown as an outdoor plant in California and could possibly serve as a host plant for homoeorhynchus.  Due to the apparent climate restrictions, it appears unlikely that this beetle could become established in more than a small portion of California.  Therefore, D. homoeorhynchus receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is only known to feed on the genus Chrysodracon. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The biology of homoeorhynchus is poorly known.  The beetle is assumed to fly.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: This beetle is only known to feed on dead plant material, as are all other members of the genus.  Negative economic impacts are unlikely if this beetle became established in California.  The species apparently feeds on decomposing plant material, not freshly-cut wood, and is known to be restricted to plants in the family Dracaenaceae, therefore there is little risk to timber. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Negative environmental impacts of this species if it became established in California appear minimal. The species feeds on dead plant material, and it appears to be restricted to a family of plants, the Dracaenaceae, that do not include any native California species.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus: Low (6)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (6)

Uncertainty:

Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus may be able to tolerate cooler temperatures than are present in its native distribution.  If this is the case, the species could become established over a greater portion of California if suitable plant material is present.  The beetle may also be able to feed on plants in families other than Dracaenaceae.  Feeding on living plant tissue, however, has not been reported in Hawaii and apparently all species in the genus Dryophthorus feed on dead, rotting plant tissue.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Dryophthorus homoeorhynchus is a tropical/subtropical beetle that feeds on dead plants in the family Dracaenaceae, and it is a member of a genus that is apparently restricted to dead, rotting plant material.  This beetle appears to pose no threat, economic or environmental, to California.  For these reasons, a “C” rating is justified.


References:

California Department of Food and Agriculture.  Pest and damage record database.  Accessed March 22, 2018. https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Hawaiian Entomological Society.  1928.  January 6, 1927; notes and exhibitions.  Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.  7: 1-31.

Natural Resources Conservation Service.  2009.  At-risk species and habitats lists.  Biology Technical Note.  22: 1-403.

O’Brien, C.W.  1997.  A catalog of the Coleoptera of America north of Mexico.  Family: Curculionidae.  Subfamilies: Acicnemidinae, Cossoninae, Rhytirrhininae, Molytinae, Petalochilinae, Trypetidinae, Dryophthorinae, Tachygoninae, Thecesterninae.  United States Department of Agriculture.  48 pp.

Perkins, R.C.L.  1900.  II.  Coleoptera Rhyncophora, Proterhinidae, Heteromera and Cioidae.  117-270 in   (D. Sharp, ed.) Fauna Hawaiiensis.  Cambridge University Press.  London.  579 pp.

Swezey, O.H.  1931.  Some new records of insects on Molokai.  Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.  7: 485-488.

Swezey, O.H.  1954.  Forest entomology in Hawaii.  Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication.  44: 1-265.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 20, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R., and Lorence, D.H.  2005.  Flora of the Hawaiian Islands.  Accessed March 20, 2018. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/30/18 – 6/14/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: C

 


Posted by ls 

Longhorned Beetle | Arhopalus pinetorum (Wollaston)

California Pest Rating for
Arhopalus pinetorum (Wollaston) |  Longhorned Beetle
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A

PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Arhopalus pinetorum is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Arhopalus pinetorum is a reddish-brown beetle that is approximately 14 mm in length (Wollaston, 1863).  Like most other cerambycids, the larvae develop in wood.  This species is apparently restricted to dead pine trees with bark; it has been reported to develop in pines that are native to its area of distribution (including Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis) as well as introduced pines (García, 2005; Vives, 2007).

Worldwide Distribution:  Arhopalus pinetorum is native to the Canary Islands of Spain and the Madeira archipelago of Portugal.  This beetle is rated as Near Threatened by the IUCN because of its small area of distribution, although it can be abundant where it occurs (Dodelin et al., 2017; Vives, 2007).

Official Control: Arhopalus pinetorum is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  This beetle is not known to be present in California, although it was found in Los Angeles County in 2001 (see California Interceptions, below) (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  This species was trapped in Los Angeles County in July 2001 (Duerr, 2005; Rabaglia et al., 2008).

The risk Arhopalus pinetorum would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of pinetorum includes areas with Mediterranean, desert, and subtropical climates. The climate of a large portion of California could be suitable for the establishment of this species, but northern and high mountain areas may be too cold.  Pines are widely distributed in California, and A. pinetorum is not restricted to pine species that occur in its native range, so suitable host plants are likely to be present statewide.  Therefore, this species receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: This species is apparently limited to pines (Pinus species). It originally may have been restricted to the native Pinus canariensis, but has been reported to feed on other (unidentified) species as well.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Other Arhopalus species fly, and it is presumed that pinetorum can as well (Pawson et al., 2010).  Arhopalus pinetorum may be artificially dispersed through the movement of wood products, including firewood.  Arhopalus is the most commonly-intercepted genus of cerambycid in wood products and wood packing materials at United States ports of entry (Eyre and Haack, 2017).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: This beetle is apparently restricted to dead pines.  No reports were found of any Arhopalus species attacking healthy, living trees.  Cerambycids that attack dead trees (trees that have been cut or killed by fire or other causes) reduce the value of the wood, both through their tunneling as well as from staining by fungi that invade through the beetle’s tunnels (Lowell et al., 2010).  More rapid harvesting of wood is one method used to avoid such damage.  Arhopalus species are capable of degrading fire-killed trees before they can be harvested (Bradbury, 1998; Eaton and Lyon, 1955; Hosking and Bain, 1977).  Arhopalus pinetorum could impact salvage harvesting of fire-killed timber in California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Arhopalus pinetorum is only known to feed on dead pine trees. Therefore, it is not likely to threaten living trees.  However, it could compete with native wood-feeding insects, and may influence the degradation of dead pines in California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Arhopalus pinetorum: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The 2001 detection in Los Angeles County represents the only known find of this species in this state.  For the purpose of this proposal, it is assumed that A. pinetorum is not established in California.  The species receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

This beetle would possibly display broader feeding preferences in California.  There is some suggestion in the literature that Arhopalus species may sometimes attack trees that are living (but “sick” or otherwise compromised), but documented examples of such attacks were not found (Wang and Leschen, 2003).  If living (whether stressed or not) trees could be attacked in California by A. pinetorum, then the risk posed by this beetle has been underestimated in this proposal.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Arhopalus pinetorum is a beetle that feeds on dead pine trees.  This species could become established in a large portion of California, and if this occurred, it could have an impact on the timber industry and on the native decomposer fauna associated with dead pines.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bradbury, P.M.  1998.  The effects of the burnt pine longhorn beetle and wood-staining fungi on fire damaged Pinus radiata in Canterbury.  New Zealand Forestry.  43: 28-31.

Dodelin, B., Alexander, K., Audisio, P., Jansson, N., Legakis, A., Liberto, A., Makris, C., and X. Vazquez.  2017. Arhopalus pinetorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Accessed February 20, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T86803993A87310373.en

Duerr, D.A. 2005. Early detection and rapid response pilot project.  In (K.W. Gottshalk, ed.)

Proceedings, 16th United States Department of Agriculture Interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005.  USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. (pp. 16-17)

Eaton, C.B. and R.L. Lyon.  1955.  Arhopalus productus (Lec.), a borer in new buildings.  United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service California Forest and Range Experiment Station Technical Paper.  11: 1-11.

Eyre, D. and R.A. Haack.  2017.  Invasive cerambycid pests and biosecurity measures.  In (Q. Wang, ed.) Cerambycidae of the World: Biology and Pest Management.  CRC Press.  (pp. 563-618).

García, R.  2005.  Distribución de la familia Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) en la isla de La Palma.  Revista de Estudios Generales de la Isla de La Palma.  1: 141-170.

Hosking, G.P. and J. Bain.  1977.  Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae); its biology in New Zealand.  New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.  7(1): 3-15.

Lowell, E.C., Rapp, V.A., Haynes, R.W., and C. Cray.  2010.  Effects of fire, insect, and pathogen damage on wood quality of dead and dying western conifers.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.  General Technical Report PNW-GTR-816.  73 pp.

Pawson, S., Watson, M., and A. Brin.  2010.  Relative attraction of Arhopalus ferus to white and yellow site lighting at Port Tauranga.  Scion.

Rabaglia, R., Duerr, D., Acciavatti, R., and I. Ragenovich.  2008.  Early detection and rapid response for non-native bark and ambrosia beetles.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 26, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Vives, E.  2007.  Nuevo catálogo de los Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) de la Península Ibérica, islas Baleares e islas atlánticas: Canarias, Açores y Madeira.  Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa.  Zaragoza.  211 pp.

Wang, Q. and R.A.B. Leschen.  2003.  Identification and distribution of Arhopalus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Aseminae) in Australia and New Zealand.  New Zealand Entomologist.  26: 53-59.

Wollaston, T.V.  1863.  On the Canarian longicorns.  Journal of Entomology.  2(8): 99-110.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Jewel Beetle | Actenodes auronotatus (Gory & Laporte)

California Pest Rating for
Jewel Beetle | Actenodes auronotatus (Gory & Laporte)
Coleoptera: Buprestidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Actenodes auronotatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult Actenodes auronotatus are approximately 1.5 cm in length.  The upper surface is brown and slightly bronzy with metallic golden-green spots (Fisher, 1942).  The larvae of this beetle, like most buprestids, live in and feed on wood.  This beetle has been found inside (presumably having developed in) the wood of Avicennia germinans (Verbenaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), and Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) (Fisher, 1942; Hanula,1993; MacRae and Basham, 2013).  When information on the condition of the wood was given, it was reported to be dead.  Actenodes auronotatus has also been associated with (but not necessarily feeding on) Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) (Capelouto, 1949).  Other Actenodes species are associated with Acacia (Fabaceae), Acer (Aceraceae), Carya (Juglandaceae), Gleditsia (Fabaceae), Prosopis (Fabaceae), Quercus (Fagaceae), Ulmus (Ulmaceae), and Zelkova (Ulmaceae) species (Camacho-Pantoja, 2009; Hansen et al., 2012; MacRae and Bellamy, 2013; Nelson and MacRae, 1990; Westcott, 1990; Westcott et al., 1989).  Some of these records were of beetles reared from, or collected from the inside of branches of live trees, but in these cases, it was not reported if the branches themselves were alive or dead.

Worldwide Distribution:  This species is reported from Cuba, Haiti, eastern Mexico, and the southeastern United States (Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana) (Cancino and Blanco, 2002; Carlton et al., 2014; Fisher, 1942; García et al., 2010; Hespenheide and Bellamy, 2004; Peck, 2005).  Blackwelder (1944) reported A. auronotatus from Chile, but more recent reports of this species in that country were not found.

Official Control: Actenodes auronotatus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Actenodes auronotatus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Actenodes auronotatus was intercepted in a trailer from Florida in May 2006 (California Department of Food and Agriculture).

The risk Actenodes auronotatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Actenodes auronotatus is apparently restricted to areas with tropical or subtropical climates, and it seems likely that if it can establish in California, it would be restricted to a limited area. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: This beetle has been found inside and presumably developed in the wood of at least three botanical families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Actenodes auronotatus presumably flies and can be moved in infested wood, including firewood.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Actenodes auronotatus has not been reported to feed on living trees, and no reports were found of any species in this genus being a pest.  However, some species of Buprestidae that are known to primarily feed on injured or dead trees can attack apparently healthy (though possibly stressed, from drought, for example) trees (Fettig, 2016; Furniss and Carolin, 1977).  There is little information available on the biology of auronotatus or the genus Actenodes.  If A. auronotatus can attack living trees, it could lower yield of timber.   Even if A. auronotatus cannot attack living trees, it could damage cut timber, lowering its value.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: If Actenodes auronotatus can attack living trees, it could impact forest ecosystems in California. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Actenodes auronotatus: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Actenodes auronotatus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

The limited biological information available on A. auronotatus means that there is significant uncertainty in this proposal.  The most significant uncertainty is that regarding the potential for A. auronotatus to attack living trees.  Some buprestids that normally live in dying or dead trees attack living trees in dry conditions (e.g., during droughts).  Climate change may result in greater drought stress in California, which could make trees more susceptible to beetles like this one.  There is also uncertainty regarding the size range of wood that A. auronotatus utilizes.  It may only use branches, in which case the economic impact on already-cut wood would likely be minimal.  This proposal has taken a cautious approach.  It is possible that this  beetle feeds only on dead branches, in which case it would likely not pose an economic threat to California (because living trees and cut timber of larger dimensions would not be attacked).  In this case, it could still pose an environmental threat, because it would likely compete with native beetles that live inside dead wood.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Actenodes auronotatus is a member of a beetle family that includes important forest pests.  Although this species is not known to attack living trees, little is known about the biology of this species to exclude that possibility.  There is evidence that other buprestids that normally live in dead or dying trees can sometimes attack live trees.  If A. auronotatus can attack living trees or cut timber, it could have economic and environmental impacts in California, where it is not yet known to be present.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Blackwelder, R.E.  1944.  Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America.  Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 185(2): 189–341.

California Department of Food and Agriculture.  Pest and damage record database.  Accessed February 14, 2018. https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Camacho-Pantoja, A.  2009.  Árboles de importancia forestal hospedantes de Buprestidae (Coleoptera) en México.  In (A.E. Martínez, E.E. Venegas, J.A.A. Soto, and M.P.C. Grijalva, eds.): Memoria del XV Simposio Nacional de Parasitología Forestal (pp. 36-39).

Capelouto, R.  1949.  Notes on the Florida Buprestidae (Coleoptera).  The Florida Entomologist.  32(3): 109-114.

Carlton, C.E., Johnson, W., Allison, J.D., MacRae, T.C., Tishechkin, A., Virgets, W., Ferro, M.L., and J.-S. Park.  2014.  Buprestidae of Louisiana: From traditional faunistics to early detection of the Emerald Ash Borer (poster).

E.R. Cancino and J.M.C. Blanco.  2002.  Artrópodos terrestres de los estados de Tamaulipas y Nuevo León, México.  Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas.  377 pp.

Fettig, C.J.  2016.  Chapter 18: Native bark beetles and wood borers in Mediterranean forests of California.  In (T.D. Paine and F. Lieutier, eds.) Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forests (pp. 499-528).  Springer.  892 pp.

Fisher, W.S.  1942.  A revision of the North American species of buprestid beetles belonging to the tribe Chrysobothrini.  United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication.  470: 1-275.

Furniss, R.L. and V.M. Carolin.  1977.  Western forest insects. USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication, Washington, DC.

García, I.F., Reyes Sánchez, E.E., and A.D. Álvarez.  2010.  Colección entomológica “Juan C. Gundlach”: Serie Elateriformia (Coleoptera).  Poeyana.  499: 5-12.

Hansen, J.A., Basham, J.P., Oliver, J.B., Youseef, N.N., Klingeman, W.E., Moulton, J.K., and D.C. Fare.  2012.  New state and host plant records for metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Tennessee, U.S.A.  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  66(4): 337-343.

Hanula, J.L.  1993.  Relationship of wood-feeding insects and coarse woody debris.  In (J.W. McMinn and D.A. Crossley, Jr., eds.) Biodiversity and Coarse Woody Debris in Southern Forests (pp. 55-81).  United States Department of Agriculture.  146 pp.

Hespenheide, H.A. and C.L. Bellamy.  2004.  The first Antillean Pachyschelus, and a new Leiopleura, from Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  Folia Heyrovskana.  12(2-3): 105-112.

MacRae, T.C. and J.P. Basham.  2013.  Distributional, biological, and nomenclatural notes on Buprestidae (Coleoptera) occurring in the U.S. and Canada.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist.  89(3): 125-142.

MacRae, T.C. and C.L. Bellamy.  2013.  Two new species of Actenodes Dejean (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from southern Mexico, with distributional and biological notes on Buprestidae from Mexico and Central America.  Pan-Pacific Entomologist.  89(2): 102-119.

Nelson, G.H. and T.C. MacRae.  1990.  Additional notes on the biology and distribution of Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in North America.  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  44(3): 349-354.

Peck, S.B.  2005.  A checklist of the beetles of Cuba with data on distributions and bionomics.  Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas.  Volume 18.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  241pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 9, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Westcott, R.L.  1990.  Distributional, biological and taxonomic notes on North American Buprestidae (Coleoptera).  Insecta Mundi.  4(1-4): 73-80.

Westcott, R.L., Atkinson, T.H., Hespenheide, H.A., and G.H. Nelson.  1989.  New country and state records, and other notes for Mexican Buprestidae (Coleoptera).  Insecta Mundi.  3(3): 217-232.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood

California Pest Rating for
Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood
Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Hypothenemus eruditus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: This tiny (1-1.2 mm in length) bark beetle is one of the most widely-distributed and variable species in the genus Hypothenemus (Bright and Stark, 1973).  The beetle has been reported to feed on hundreds of species of plants and other materials as well, including fungus and even the cover of a book (evidently the reason for the choice of the name eruditus) (Huang, 2016; Turner and Beaver, 2015; Wood, 1982).  In plants, it is reported to feed in dying twigs and branches (Bright and Stark, 1973).  Females mate with their flightless male siblings before leaving the gallery.  Hypothenemus eruditus does not appear to cause any recognized economic or environmental impact (Huang, 2016; Turner and Beaver, 2015).  Recent work suggest that there may be multiple (>10) cryptic species that are currently identified as Hypothenemus eruditus; this is perhaps not surprising, given the many synonyms listed for it, its minute size, and its morphological variability (Huang, 2016; Kirkendall and Jordal, 2006).

Worldwide Distribution: Hypothenemus eruditus is widely distributed.  The species occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North America, Central America, and South America.  In the United States, it occurs in the eastern United States and in California (Bright and Stark, 1973; Wood, 1982.

Official Control: Hypothenemus eruditus is not known to be under any official control.

California Distribution:  Hypothenemus eruditus has been reported from Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, and Santa Barbara counties.  Records representing collections exclusive of nurseries were found for the following localities: Santa Barbara County: Arroyo Hondo Preserve (2002); Santa Rosa Island, Cherry Canyon, Torrey pines grove, and Windmill Canyon (2008); San Diego County: Santee (2012) (PDR# 1316740) (Bright and Stark, 1973; CDFA Pest and Damage Record; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions: Hypothenemus eruditus has been intercepted twice on shipments entering California: Once on dried twigs from Laos (PDR# 050455) and once on Polyscias fruticosa from Florida (PDR# 063283).  As mentioned above, this beetle was also found on avocado in a residential garden in Santee, San Diego County, California (PDR# 1316740).

The risk Hypothenemus eruditus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hypothenemus eruditus occurs widely in the United States.  The species occurs in California and on the east coast, from New Hampshire to Florida and west to Illinois and Texas.  This suggests that eruditus could become established over a significant portion of California.  The list of hosts includes hundreds of species of plants and fungi.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Hypothenemus eruditus is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants, as well as fungi. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Hypothenemus eruditus is capable of sustained flight. Females mate with their flightless male siblings, so they leave their development site ready to colonize new host material (Huang, 2016).  The beetle can also be transported in wood and wood products. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Hypothenemus eruditus is not known to be an economically-significant pest (Huang, 2016).  The species already occurs in California and the eastern United States and it has a widespread world distribution.  However, no reports have been found suggesting that it has an economic impact.  However, there is the possibility that other species, including cryptic ones, could be identified at eruditus.  Such species could pose a threat to California agriculture, for example, lowering crop yield and increasing crop production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: Medium (2)

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Hypothenemus eruditus is not known to have an environmental impact anywhere. The beetle already occurs in California and the eastern United States and no reports were found of it having an environmental impact.  However, this could reflect a lack of research rather than a lack of impact.  In addition, there is the possibility that other species of Hypothenemus, including cryptic ones, could be identified at eruditus.  Such species could pose a threat to the environment, for example, by disrupting natural communities.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: Medium (2)

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Hypothenemus eruditus: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although this species is likely present in additional areas of California, Hypothenemus eruditus has been reported from outdoor, non-nursery localities in Santa Barbara and San Diego Counties.  It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

The most significant uncertainty regarding Hypothenemus eruditus is the species identity itself.  There is evidence that there are actually multiple (>10) species that are currently recognized as H. eruditus.  There is a risk that a species with biological characteristics differing from those considered for H. eruditus could be intercepted and not be regulated because it is identified as that species.  Such a cryptic species could have greater (than is recognized for H. eruditus) potential for economic and/or environmental impact.  Systematic research on Hypothenemus is needed.  There is also a significant likelihood that H. eruditus is more widespread in California than is currently known.  It is a tiny beetle and is not easy to identify.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Hypothenemus eruditus is widely distributed and is not known to have any economic or environmental impacts.  However, there is evidence that multiple cryptic species of Hypothenemus may be currently identified as H. eruditus.  A cautious approach has been taken and a “B” rating is justified.


References:

Bright Jr., D.E. and R.W. Stark.  1973.  The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of California.  University of California Press.  169 pp.

Huang, Y.T.  2016.  Featured creatures: Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood.  University of Florida. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/trees/beetles/Hypothenemus_eruditus.htm

Kirkendall, L. R. and B.H. Jordal.  2006.  The bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) of Cocos Island, Costa Rica and the role of mating systems in island zoogeography.  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.  89: 729-743.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed 5 February 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Turner, C.R. and R.A. Beaver.  2015.  Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood and Hypothenemus seriatus (Eichhoff) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Cryphalini) in Britain.  The Coleopterist.  24(1): 12-15.

Wood, S.L.  1982.  The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph.  Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs.  6: 1-1356.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls 

Granulate Ambrosia Beetle | Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky

California Pest Rating for
Granulate Ambrosia Beetle  |  Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky
Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Xylosandrus crassiusculus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Xylosandrus crassiusculus is a moderate-sized (adult females are 2-2.9 mm in length) ambrosia beetle that feeds on over 200 species of plants in 41 families, including alder, azalea, beech, cottonwood, elm, hickory, oaks, pines, maples, and carob (Sargent et al., 2008).  It attacks both stressed and apparently healthy trees, including seedlings, and is considered a pest of ornamental trees in the United States.  The beetle also utilizes freshly-cut wood (Sargent et al., 2008).  Like other ambrosia beetles, the adults and larvae feed on a symbiotic fungus rather than the wood itself.  Adult females mate with males before leaving their gallery, and they can also reproduce via arrhenotokous parthenogenesis (An unmated female lays unfertilized eggs that develop into males. The female mates with her male progeny and then deposits fertilized eggs, which develop into females) (Wood, 1982).

Worldwide Distribution:  Xylosandrus crassiusculus is thought to be native to Southeast Asia.  The species has been introduced to Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, South America, Hawaii, and the eastern United States (Flechtmann and Atkinson, 2016; United Kingdom Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs, 2015).  Specimens were collected in 1999, 2000, and (in larger numbers) 2004 at a location in Oregon.  The source was apparently wood from the southeastern United States imported for use in railroad ties.  This led to an eradication effort that was reported to be successful in 2010.  In 2015 and 2016, however, more X. crassiusculus were found in the same area, which led to another eradication effort.  This beetle appears to have been successfully eradicated from the area by the end of 2016 (LaBonte, 2010; LaBonte, 2016; LaBonte et al., 2005).

Official Control:  Xylosandrus crassiusculus does not appear to be under official control anywhere, although it is on the EPPO Alert List, and it was the subject of eradication efforts in Oregon.

California Distribution:  Xylosandrus crassiusculus is not known to occur in California (Bright and Stark, 1973; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Xylosandrus crassiusculus has been intercepted on plant material (including cut flowers and foliage) from Florida and Hawaii (PDR # 023370, 1396560, 1256568, 1251403, 1252446, 053195, and 150P06086553).  One interception was made from incense cedar boards that possibly originated in Louisiana (PDR # 1312482).

The risk Xylosandrus crassiusculus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Xylosandrus crassiusculus has become established in many areas of the world representing a wide variety of climates. The species may be limited to forests, as it feeds on wood and because the symbiotic fungus probably requires a certain range of humidity.  The range expansion in the eastern United States has been limited to approximately the distribution of the eastern deciduous forests, but the species apparently became established at a location in Oregon before it was eradicated there, which suggests that more humid areas on the west coast would be suitable for this species (Flechtmann and Atkinson, 2016).  The beetle feeds on many species of trees, including pines and oaks.  All of this suggests that it could become established over a wide portion of California.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Xylosandrus crassiusculus is known to feed on over 200 species of plants in 41 families. A wide host range is not unusual for an ambrosia beetle, probably because the fungal symbiosis releases the beetle from some of the constraints of a more typical bark beetle lifestyle (i.e., phloem feeding).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adult female Xylosandrus crassiusculus Sibling mating and arrhenotokous parthenogenesis mean a single female can found a population.  This species is evidently capable of being moved with wood shipments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Xylosandrus crassiusculus is a pest of ornamental and fruit trees in the United States.  The species causes wilting and death, especially in young trees.  In addition, as an ambrosia beetle, crassiusculus inoculates its galleries with a fungus that serves as food for adults and larvae.  This fungus may not be pathogenic, but other fungi are also carried by the beetles, including known plant pathogens.  In addition, beetle damage can allow other, opportunistic (and sometimes pathogenic) fungi to infect the tree.  This beetle also uses cut logs for development, and is known to damage them and lower their value.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

Environmental Impact: Xylosandrus crassiusculus has not been reported to have a significant impact on the environment anywhere it has been introduced. However, in tests, crassiusculus was attracted to California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) and was apparently able to develop on this tree (Mayfield et al., 2013).  Therefore, it is possible that Xyleborus crassiusculus could pose a threat to California forests.  In addition, this beetle is known to cause damage to ornamental trees.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xylosandrus crassiusculus: High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Xylosandrus crassiusculus is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Lack of evidence for environmental impact may only reflect environmental impact receiving less attention and research than economic impact, so it is possible that this species has an impact on the environment in areas to which it has been introduced.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Xylosandrus crassiusculus is a highly polyphagous pest that has demonstrated an ability to become established over a wide area and has become a pest of ornamental trees.  The species is not known to be present in California, and its potential introduction to this state poses a risk of economic and environmental damage.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bright Jr., D.E. and R.W. Stark.  1973.  The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of California.  University of California Press.  169 pp.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.  2015.  EPPO Alert List.  Accessed February 14, 2018. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Flechtmann, C.A.H. and T.H. Atkinson.  2016.  First records of Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) from South America, with notes on its distribution and spread in the New World.  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  70(1): 79-83.

LaBonte, J.R.  2010.  Eradication of an ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), in Oregon.  In (K. McManus and K.W. Gottschalk, eds.) 2010 Research Forum on Invasive Species (pp. 41-43).

LaBonte, J.R.  2016.  Exotic wood boring insects program.  Oregon Department of Agriculture, Plant Protection & Conservation Programs, Annual Report.  2016: 24-25.

LaBonte, J.R., Mudge, A.D., and K.J.R. Johnson.  2005.  Nonindigenous woodboring Coleoptera (Cerambycidae, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) new to Oregon and Washington, 1999-2002: Consequences of the intracontinental movement of raw wood products and solid wood packing materials.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  107(3): 554-564.

Mayfield, A.E., MacKenzie, M., Cannon, P.G., Oak, S.W., Horn, S., Hwang, J., and P.E. Kendra.  2013.  Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.  Agricultural and Forest Entomology.  15: 227-235.

Sargent, C., Raupp, M., Sardanelli, S., Shrewsbury, P., Clement, D., and M.K. Malinoski.  2008.  Granulate ambrosia beetle; Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  University of Maryland Entomology Bulletin.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 14, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

United Kingdom Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.  2015.  Rapid pest risk analysis (PRA) for Xylosandrus crassiusculus. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/downloadExternalPra.cfm?id=3939

Wood, S.L.  1982.  The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph.  Brigham Young University.  1359 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/24/18 – 6/8/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Xyleborus pfeilii (Ratzeburg)

California Pest Rating for
Xyleborus pfeilii (Ratzeburg)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Xyleborus pfeilii is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Xyleborus pfeilii is a moderate-sized ambrosia beetle.  Females are 3-3.6 mm in length; males are smaller, but rare (Vandenberg et al., 2010).  Reported host trees include alder, beech, elm, maple, oak, pawpaw (Asimina triloba), poplar, and some conifers (Vandenberg et al., 2010; Wood & Bright, 1992).  A broad range of hosts is characteristic of ambrosia beetles, in contrast to more “typical” phloeophagous (phloem-feeding) scolytines.  As in other ambrosia beetles, the larvae feed on fungus in galleries excavated by adult beetles.  Females mate with males prior to dispersing (Kirkendall & Faccoli, 2010).  Little information is available on the biology of this species, but there is nothing in the literature suggesting that it has a significant economic or environmental impact, even though it is widespread in Europe, where it was apparently introduced almost 200 years ago (Kirkendall & Faccoli, 2010).

Worldwide Distribution:  Xyleborus pfeilii has a wide distribution, and is reported from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and New Zealand (Wood & Bright, 1992).  Historically, this species was considered to be native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa.  Recent work suggests that it is native to Asia but was introduced to Europe at an early date (before 1837) (Kirkendall & Faccoli, 2010).  The species has also been introduced to Canada and the United States, where it is now known to occur in Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Oregon (Humble, 2001; Mudge et al., 2001; Vandenberg et al., 2000)).

Official Control:  Xyleborus pfeilii is apparently not under official control by any government.

California Distribution:  Although Xyleborus pfeilii was trapped multiple times in California, there is no information available to suggest that it is still present in the state.

California Interceptions:  Xyleborus pfeilii has been trapped in Sacramento in 2005 (PDR # 1294653) and Placer County in 2003 (1368629 and 1368628).

The risk Xyleborus pfeilii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Xyleborus pfeilii occurs in areas with temperate and Mediterranean climates (Kirkendall & Faccoli, 2010). The beetle is probably capable of becoming established in much of California.  This species has been reported to feed on many tree genera; members of these genera are distributed across California.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The reported hosts of Xyleborus pfeilii include multiple genera of broadleaf as well as coniferous trees. A broad host range is typical of ambrosia beetles.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: There is evidence suggesting that ambrosia beetles that have brother-sister mating, which is the case with pfeilii, have an enhanced ability to disperse and colonize new areas. A single female can found a new population, and she does not have to be fertilized.  She can produce sons from unfertilized eggs and mate with them.  Movement of infested firewood would achieve rapid, long-distance dispersal.  In addition, X. pfeilii flies (specimens have been caught with funnel traps) (Humble, 2001; Mudge et al., 2001).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Xyleborus pfeilii does not appear to have any recognized economic impact, even though it was introduced to much of Europe and has been present there for almost 200 years.  There is some doubt that economically-important trees in California would be significantly impacted, considering that most such trees are probably members of genera well-represented in Europe, and this beetle is apparently not a significant pest there.  There is the chance that it could vector a plant-pathogenic fungus to economically-important trees.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Xyleborus pfeilii is not known to have had an environmental impact in Europe. There is a chance, however, that this species could have a different impact in the environment of California, where there are tree species not found in Europe.  Ambrosia beetles are less constrained in their host plant choices, and this makes it more difficult to predict what trees might be attacked in a new environment.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xyleborus pfeilii: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although there are a few trapping records of this beetle from more than ten years ago, there is no further evidence of its occurrence in the state of California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There is uncertainty regarding two components of this pest rating proposal.  First, there is uncertainty regarding the possible presence of this species in the state.  This beetle was trapped multiple times in two counties.  There do not appear to have been any collections of this species in California since the last of these trappings in 2005, and it is presumed that it is not established in the state.  Second, there is uncertainty regarding the possible impact of this species in California.  Lack of impact in Europe does not mean this species could not have economic and/or environmental impacts in California.  Part of this uncertainty is the possibility of X. pfeilii interacting with plant-pathogenic fungal species that are already present in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

There is no evidence that Xyleborus pfeilii causes economic or environmental damage anywhere it is known to have been introduced.  This includes the large area it has invaded in Europe over the past two centuries.  However, it seems that a cautious approach is best with possible forest pests.  The behavior of this beetle may be very different in the environments of California.  At least one introduced species in the genus Xyleborus, X. glabratus, has become a serious pest species in the southeastern United States; it is having a significant impact on the environment and it threatens the avocado industry (Hughes et al., 2016).  The fungus symbiosis in this genus raises special concerns; X. pfeilii could bring with it new (to California) pathogenic fungi, or it could interact in a new way with fungi already here.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Kirkendall, L.R. & Faccoli, M.  2010.  Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae) alien to Europe.  Zoo Keys.  56: 227-251.

Hughes, M.A., Smith, J.A., & Coyle, D.R.  2016.  Biology, ecology, and management of laurel wilt and the redbay ambrosia beetle.  Southern Regional Extension Forestry Forest Health.  November 2016: 1-6.

Humble, L.M.  2001.  Invasive bark and wood-boring beetles in British Columbia, Canada.  Pages 69-77 in R.I. Alfaro, K.R. Day, S.M. Salom, K.S.S Nair, H.F. Evans, A.M. Liebhold, F. Lieutier, M. Wagner, K. Futai, & K. Suzuki, editors. Protection of World Forests: Advances in Research, Proceedings: XXI IUFRO World Congress. August 7-12, 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. IUFRO Secretariat, Vienna, IUFRO World Series Vol. 11. 253 p.

Mercado, J.E. 2010. Bark beetle genera of the United States. Colorado State University, USDA-APHIS-PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, and USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station. http://idtools.org/id/wbb/bbgus

Mudge, A.D., LaBonte, J.R., Johnson, K.J.R., & LaGasa, E.H.  2001.  Exotic woodboring Coleoptera (Micromalthidae, Scolytidae) and Hymenoptera (Xiphyriidae) new to Oregon and Washington.  103(4): 1011-1019.

Vandenberg, N.J., Rabaglia, R.J., & Bright, D.E.  2000.  New records of two Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  102(1): 62-68.

Vega, F.E. & Hofstetter, R.W.  2014.  Bark beetles: Biology and ecology of native and invasive species.  Academic Press.  640 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/24/18 – 6/8/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Black Twig Borer | Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff)

California Pest Rating for
Black Twig Borer | Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Xylosandrus compactus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Xylosandrus compactus is a small (adult females are 1.4-1.7 mm long; males are flightless and smaller, 1-1.1 mm long) ambrosia beetle (Wood, 1982).  As in other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae feed on fungus that grows in galleries excavated by the adult beetle.  Living twigs (less than 2 cm in diameter) of healthy trees and shrubs are attacked (Wood, 1982).  Affected branches wilt and die; the symbiotic fungus may be the cause of much of this damage. Apparently, this damage does not usually result in the death of an adult tree, but death has been reported in seedlings and young trees.  For example, seedlings of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Peru and soursop (Annona muricata) in Brazil were killed (Delgado and Couturier, 2010; Oliveira et al., 2008).  Non-lethal damage by this beetle still causes economic losses, for instance, in coffee (Bittenbender and Smith, 1999; Burbano et al., 2012).  Xylosandrus compactus is reported to attack hundreds of species (in 62 families) of shrubs and trees.  Hosts include crop and ornamental trees, for example, avocado, sycamore, magnolia, dogwood, coffee, and eucalyptus (Chong et al., 2009; Greco and Wright, 2015).  In Hawaii, a variety of native trees are attacked by this species, including seedlings of Acacia koa (Burbano et al., 2012).  Native trees in Italy were attacked over an area of 13 hectares, and some trees were killed.  Tree species affected include Quercus ilex and Viburnum tinus (Vannini et al., 2017).  Adult female X. compactus mate with males before leaving their developmental gallery, and they can also reproduce via arrhenotokous parthenogenesis (an unmated female lays unfertilized eggs that develop into males; the female mates with her male progeny and then deposits fertilized eggs, which develop into females).

Worldwide Distribution:  Xylosandrus compactus is reported from tropical Africa, Europe, southeast Asia, New Zealand, tropical Pacific islands (including Micronesia), the Caribbean, South America (including Brazil, Guyana, and Peru), and the United States (Hawaii and the southeastern United States) (Wood, 2007).  The species is native to Asia, and was presumably introduced to the other portions of its current distribution, including the United States (Burbano et al., 2012).

Official Control:  Xylosandrus compactus is listed as a quarantine pest by Brazil, Israel, and the European Union (EPPO, 2017).

California Distribution:  Xylosandrus compactus is not known to occur in California (Bright and Stark, 1973; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Xylosandrus compactus has been intercepted at least six times in California on shipments of plants from Hawaii (PDR # 008573, 1238977, 1239464, 1335578, 1225854, and 053234).

The risk Xylosandrus compactus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Xylosandrus compactus has become established in many parts of the world, from Mediterranean Europe to tropical South America. This suggests that it has a wide climatic tolerance.  The beetle feeds on hundreds of species of plants in 62 families.  These facts suggest that compactus could become established over a wide portion of California.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Xylosandrus compactus is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants in 62 families. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Xylosandrus compactus Sibling mating and parthenogenesis means that a single adult female emerging from its gallery can establish a new population.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Xylosandrus compactus is considered an economically-significant pest.  The species attacks hundreds of species of plants and poses a threat to economically-important trees, including avocado and coffee, both of which are currently grown in California.  Damage to these trees could lower crop yield and increase production costs.  The beetle can kill tree seedlings, so poses a problem for tree nurseries and the establishment of trees in forests.  In addition, like all ambrosia beetles, compactus carries fungi that may be pathogenic. If established in California, this beetle could develop an association with other species of pathogenic fungi already present in the state.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Xylosandrus compactus attacks a diversity of plants and would be expected to damage numerous species of plants in California if it became established here. The fact that it is known to attack such a wide variety of plants means it is likely that some endangered plants could also be at risk.  This risk is demonstrated by the fact that this beetle attacked native trees in Italy, including species of Quercus and Viburnum, genera which include native California species.  This beetle attacks ornamental trees, causing dieback of branches (Hayato, 2007).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A, B, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

 B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xylosandrus compactus: High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Xylosandrus compactus is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There is little uncertainty regarding the potential for Xylosandrus compactus to become established in California.  There also seems to be little uncertainty regarding the potential of this species to become a pest in this state, because it has done so in other areas to which it was introduced and it attacks such a wide variety of plants.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Xylosandrus compactus is a highly polyphagous pest that has demonstrated an ability to become established in many areas worldwide and impact crop, ornamental, and native plants.  The species is not known to be present in California, and its potential introduction to this state poses a risk of economic and environmental damage.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bittenbender, H. C. and V. E. Smith. 1999. Growing coffee in Hawaii. College of tropical agriculture and human resources. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.  40 pp.

Bright Jr., D.E. and R.W. Stark.  1973.  The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of California.  University of California Press.  169 pp.

Burbano, E.G., Wright, M.G., Gillette, N.E., Mori, S., Dudley, N., Jones, T., and M. Kaufmann.  2012.  Efficacy of traps, lures, and repellents for Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles on Coffea arabica plantations and Acacia koa nurseries in Hawaii.  Environmental Entomology.  41(1): 133-140.

Chong, J.-H., Reid, L., and M. Williamson.  2009.  Distribution, host plants, and damage of the black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), in South Carolina.  Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology.  26(4): 199-208.

Delgado, C. and G. Couturier.  2010.  Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae” Scolytinae), a new pest of Swietenia macrophylla in the Peruvian Amazon.  Boletin de la Sociedad Entomolόgica Aragonesa.  47: 441-443.

EPPO.  2017.  EPPO Global Database.  Accessed October 12, 2017. https://gd.eppo.int

Greco, E.B. and M.G. Wright.  2015.  Ecology, biology, and management of Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with emphasis on coffee in Hawaii.  Journal of Integrated Pest Management.  6(1): 1-8.

Hayato, M.  2007.  Note on the dieback of Cornus florida caused by Xylosandrus compactus.  Bulletin of the Department of Forest Microbiology, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute.  6(1): 59-63.

Oliveira, C.M., Flechtmann, C.A.H., and M.R. Frizzas.  2008.  First record of Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on soursop, Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) in Brazil, with a list of host plants.  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  62(1): 45-48.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 15, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Vannini, A., Contarini, M., Faccoli, M., Della Valle, M., Rodriguez, C.M., Mazzetto, T., Guarneri, D., Vettraino, A.M., and S. Speranza.  2017.  First report of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus and associated fungi in the Mediterranean maquis in Italy, and new host–pest

Associations.  EPPO Bulletin.  0(0): 1-4.

Wood, S.L.  1982.  The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph.  Brigham Young University.  1359 pp.

Wood, S.L.  2007.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America.  Brigham Young University.  900 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/24/18 – 6/8/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls