Mango Scale | Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead

California Pest Rating for
Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead: Mango scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A


Initiating Event:

Aulacaspis tubercularis is frequently intercepted by CDFA. It is currently rated Q, and a pest rating proposal is required to support a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Aulacaspis tubercularis is commonly known as white mango scale, mango scale and Cinnamon scale. Immatures and adult females of this scale are covered by a white scale cover that is semi-circular in females and elongate in males. Immatures and adult females feed on plant fluids. Aulacaspis tubercularis is highly polyphagous and damages a wide range of perennials, ornamentals, and fruit trees.

Mango (Mangifera indica) is the preferred host of this pest, but it has been reported to feed on a wide variety of plants in at least 30 genera in 18 families including: Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Burseraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Calophyllaceae, Iridaceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Percidae, Pittosporaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindacea and Zingiberaceae (García Morales et al. 2018).

Worldwide Distribution: Aulacaspis tubercularis is widely distributed in all tropical Africa, including Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Rodriques Island, and South Africa, and most of the Neotropical region.  In Asia it is reported from China, Japan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippine, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Egypt, Iraq and Israel (Hodges & Hamon 2016).

In the United States, this scale was reported in Florida. Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (García Morales et al. 2018).

Distribution Map by CABI
Distribution Map by CABI

Official Control: Aulacaspis tubercularis is listed as a harmful organism in Costa Rica, Korea, Seychelles, Guatemala, and Ecuador (PCIT, 2018).

California Distribution: Aulacaspis tubercularis has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Aulacaspis tubercularis was intercepted 273 times in California since 2010. Most of these interceptions were on infested mangoes coming from South American countries (CDFA PDR database).

The risk Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Aulacaspis tubercularis are grown throughout California and southern coastal weather is quite favorable for this insect to spread and become established wherever its hosts are grown. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Aulacaspis tubercularis has been reported to feed on plants in at least 30 genera in 18 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Aulacaspis tubercularis has a high reproductive rate; adult females can lay up to 200 eggs. (Miller and Davidson, 2005). This scale can be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on animals or equipment. It may also be spread long distances through the movement of infested plants or fruit. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

 Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: There is little information available on the economic importance of this pest other than that it considered a major pest of mango in many parts of the world (Miller and Davidson, 1990). Known hosts also include cucurbits, citrus, Prunus, and avocado.  The scale may lower yields in these crops and increase production costs by triggering new management programs. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Aulacaspis tubercularis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. No known hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats. It might trigger new chemical treatments in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale):  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aulacaspis tubercularis has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)


Aulacaspis tubercularis is commonly intercepted on mango shipments coming from South America and presumably has remained undetected on other consignments. It is possible that it is present in some parts of California or may have failed to establish.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aulacaspis tubercularis apparently is not present in California.  If it became established here, it could cause significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.


García Morales, M., Denno, B. D., Miller, D. R., Miller, G. L., Ben-Dov, Y., and Hardy, N. B. 2016.  Aulacaspis tubercularis.  Scale Net: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Accessed June 22, 2018:

Hodges, G. and Hamon, A. 2016.  Pest Alert Florida, FDACS-P-01697 Accessed June 22, 2018:

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT). Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Harmful organism report: Aulacaspis tubercularis. Accessed June 22, 2018:

CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2011. Aulacaspis tubercularis. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed June 22, 2018:


Javaid Iqbal, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211,[@]

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211,[@]

Comment Period:* CLOSED

8/14/18 – 9/28/18


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Pest Rating: A

Posted by ls