California Pest Rating for
Chlorophorus strobilicola Champion: Slender-banded Pine Cone Longhorn Beetle
Pest Rating: A
PEST RATING PROFILE
Chlorophorus strobilicola is currently Q-rated. A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.
History & Status:
Background: Chlorophorus strobilicola is an elongate beetle that measures 7.5-9.5 mm in length and is reddish-brown with white bands on the elytra (Champion, 1919; Jackson et al., 2010). This beetle lays eggs in living, green (second and third-year) cones of Pinus roxburghii in India (Singh et al., 2005). The larvae burrow into and feed on the internal portions of the cone (Duffy, 1953). This feeding damage results in loss of cone fertility and the cone can break off before it completes development (Champion, 1919). Up to 40 percent of cones can be infested (Beeson, 1941). The habitat of this beetle is described as pine forests at elevations of 3500-6500 feet above sea level; the climate in this area is apparently subtropical (Champion, 1919).
Worldwide Distribution: Chlorophorus strobilicola is only known to occur in Uttarakhand, India (Kariyanna et al., 2017).
Official Control: Chlorophorus strobilicola is a Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey priority pest (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey, 2018). Interceptions of this beetle triggered a Federal recall of pine cones imported from India in 2003-2004 (North American Plant Protection Organization, 2004).
California Distribution: Chlorophorus strobilicola is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).
California Interceptions: Chlorophorus strobilicola was intercepted on pine cones from India in Alameda and Fresno counties in 2003 and 2004 (CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database, 2018). These interceptions were apparently a result of the Federal recall.
The risk Chlorophorus strobilicola would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: The only known host plant of Chlorophorus strobilicola, Pinus roxburghii, may be grown in California, and it is possible that other species of pines present in this state could be utilized by this beetle as well. The native distribution in India of this beetle has a subtropical climate, and that climate might limit the potential distribution of this species in California. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Chlorophorus strobilicola is only known to feed on Pinus roxburghii. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Chlorophorus strobilicola is capable of flight. This beetle is also obviously capable of being dispersed through movement of pine cones, as proven by the interception of numerous specimens in the United States of pine cones from India. However, this may be an unlikely mode of dispersal within California (once this species is already present in the state). Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Pines are important timber trees in California. If Chlorophorus strobilicola became established in California, it could reduce the seed yield of pines, which might lower timber yield and impact the industry. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.
Economic Impact: A
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
Economic Impact Score: 1
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: If Chlorophorus strobilicola became established in California, it could attack native pines, including some rare ones, including the threatened Santa Rosa Island torrey pine (Pinus torreyana insularis) (Calflora). Attacks on native pine trees could reduce natural regeneration of these species, which could disrupt natural communities. Pines dominate millions of acres in California, and thus any impact on pines in California could also impact plant and animal species in these ecosystems. Therefore, this beetle receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
Environmental Impact: A, B
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Environmental Impact Score: 3
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Chlorophorus strobilicola: Medium (9)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Chlorophorus strobilicola is not known to occur in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)
There is significant uncertainty regarding the ability of Chlorophorus strobilicola to become established in California and the suitability of California pines as host plants. This beetle appears to be restricted to an area with a subtropical climate, and it is only reported to feed on one species of pine. This beetle could feed on additional species of pines (possibly including native California species) and could survive in at least one climate represented in California. Champion (1919) suggested that this beetle might only be able to attack injured cones, but evidence of this was not found in other literature.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Chlorophorus strobilicola is a beetle that attacks pine cones in India. If it can become established in California and attack pines in California, it would pose an economic and environmental threat to the state. For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.
Beeson, C. F. C. 1941. The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighboring countries. C.F.C. Beeson. Dehra Dun, India.
Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of California Herbaria. Accessed March 6, 2018: http://www.calflora.org
CDFA Pest and Damage Report Database. 2018. Chlorophorus strobilicola. Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed April 6, 2018: http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
Champion, H. G. 1919. A cerambycid infesting pine cones from India, Chlorophorus strobilicola, n. sp. Entomologists’s Monthly Magazine 58:219-224.
Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. 2018. Accessed February 28, 2018: https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/pest-lists
Duffy, E. A. J. 1953. A monograph of the immature stages of British and imported timber beetles (Cerambycidae). British Museum, London.
Jackson, L., Price, T., Smith, G., Campbell, N., and Stiers, E. 2010. Exotic wood borer/bark beetle national survey guidelines. Accessed February 28, 2018: http://apollo.umenfa.maine.edu/SFR457_458_557/Documents/SFR458/EWB_BB%20Survey%20Manual%208_31_10.pdf
Kariyanna, B., Mohan, M., Gupta, R., and Vitali, F. 2017. The checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from India. Zootaxa 4345:001-317.
North American Plant Protection Organization. 2004. Recall of various products containing pine cones from India. Accessed February 28, 2018: www.pestalert.org/oprDetail_print.cfm?oprid=99
Singh, S., Belokobylskij, S. A., Chauhan, N., and Pande, S. 2005. Description of a new species of the genus Spasskia Belokobylskij, 1989 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from India, with first record of the genus in the Oriental region. Annales Zoologici (Warszawa) 55:95-98.
Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network. Accessed March 6, 2018: http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu
Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov
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6/21/18 – 8/5/18
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Pest Rating: A
Posted by ls
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