Longhorned Beetle | Arhopalus pinetorum (Wollaston)

California Pest Rating for
Arhopalus pinetorum (Wollaston) |  Longhorned Beetle
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Pest Rating: A


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Arhopalus pinetorum is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Arhopalus pinetorum is a reddish-brown beetle that is approximately 14 mm in length (Wollaston, 1863).  Like most other cerambycids, the larvae develop in wood.  This species is apparently restricted to dead pine trees with bark; it has been reported to develop in pines that are native to its area of distribution (including Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis) as well as introduced pines (García, 2005; Vives, 2007).

Worldwide Distribution:  Arhopalus pinetorum is native to the Canary Islands of Spain and the Madeira archipelago of Portugal.  This beetle is rated as Near Threatened by the IUCN because of its small area of distribution, although it can be abundant where it occurs (Dodelin et al., 2017; Vives, 2007).

Official Control: Arhopalus pinetorum is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  This beetle is not known to be present in California, although it was found in Los Angeles County in 2001 (see California Interceptions, below) (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  This species was trapped in Los Angeles County in July 2001 (Duerr, 2005; Rabaglia et al., 2008).

The risk Arhopalus pinetorum would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of pinetorum includes areas with Mediterranean, desert, and subtropical climates. The climate of a large portion of California could be suitable for the establishment of this species, but northern and high mountain areas may be too cold.  Pines are widely distributed in California, and A. pinetorum is not restricted to pine species that occur in its native range, so suitable host plants are likely to be present statewide.  Therefore, this species receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: This species is apparently limited to pines (Pinus species). It originally may have been restricted to the native Pinus canariensis, but has been reported to feed on other (unidentified) species as well.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Other Arhopalus species fly, and it is presumed that pinetorum can as well (Pawson et al., 2010).  Arhopalus pinetorum may be artificially dispersed through the movement of wood products, including firewood.  Arhopalus is the most commonly-intercepted genus of cerambycid in wood products and wood packing materials at United States ports of entry (Eyre and Haack, 2017).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: This beetle is apparently restricted to dead pines.  No reports were found of any Arhopalus species attacking healthy, living trees.  Cerambycids that attack dead trees (trees that have been cut or killed by fire or other causes) reduce the value of the wood, both through their tunneling as well as from staining by fungi that invade through the beetle’s tunnels (Lowell et al., 2010).  More rapid harvesting of wood is one method used to avoid such damage.  Arhopalus species are capable of degrading fire-killed trees before they can be harvested (Bradbury, 1998; Eaton and Lyon, 1955; Hosking and Bain, 1977).  Arhopalus pinetorum could impact salvage harvesting of fire-killed timber in California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Arhopalus pinetorum is only known to feed on dead pine trees. Therefore, it is not likely to threaten living trees.  However, it could compete with native wood-feeding insects, and may influence the degradation of dead pines in California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Arhopalus pinetorum: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The 2001 detection in Los Angeles County represents the only known find of this species in this state.  For the purpose of this proposal, it is assumed that A. pinetorum is not established in California.  The species receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

This beetle would possibly display broader feeding preferences in California.  There is some suggestion in the literature that Arhopalus species may sometimes attack trees that are living (but “sick” or otherwise compromised), but documented examples of such attacks were not found (Wang and Leschen, 2003).  If living (whether stressed or not) trees could be attacked in California by A. pinetorum, then the risk posed by this beetle has been underestimated in this proposal.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Arhopalus pinetorum is a beetle that feeds on dead pine trees.  This species could become established in a large portion of California, and if this occurred, it could have an impact on the timber industry and on the native decomposer fauna associated with dead pines.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bradbury, P.M.  1998.  The effects of the burnt pine longhorn beetle and wood-staining fungi on fire damaged Pinus radiata in Canterbury.  New Zealand Forestry.  43: 28-31.

Dodelin, B., Alexander, K., Audisio, P., Jansson, N., Legakis, A., Liberto, A., Makris, C., and X. Vazquez.  2017. Arhopalus pinetorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Accessed February 20, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T86803993A87310373.en

Duerr, D.A. 2005. Early detection and rapid response pilot project.  In (K.W. Gottshalk, ed.)

Proceedings, 16th United States Department of Agriculture Interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005.  USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. (pp. 16-17)

Eaton, C.B. and R.L. Lyon.  1955.  Arhopalus productus (Lec.), a borer in new buildings.  United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service California Forest and Range Experiment Station Technical Paper.  11: 1-11.

Eyre, D. and R.A. Haack.  2017.  Invasive cerambycid pests and biosecurity measures.  In (Q. Wang, ed.) Cerambycidae of the World: Biology and Pest Management.  CRC Press.  (pp. 563-618).

García, R.  2005.  Distribución de la familia Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) en la isla de La Palma.  Revista de Estudios Generales de la Isla de La Palma.  1: 141-170.

Hosking, G.P. and J. Bain.  1977.  Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae); its biology in New Zealand.  New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.  7(1): 3-15.

Lowell, E.C., Rapp, V.A., Haynes, R.W., and C. Cray.  2010.  Effects of fire, insect, and pathogen damage on wood quality of dead and dying western conifers.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.  General Technical Report PNW-GTR-816.  73 pp.

Pawson, S., Watson, M., and A. Brin.  2010.  Relative attraction of Arhopalus ferus to white and yellow site lighting at Port Tauranga.  Scion.

Rabaglia, R., Duerr, D., Acciavatti, R., and I. Ragenovich.  2008.  Early detection and rapid response for non-native bark and ambrosia beetles.  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 26, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Vives, E.  2007.  Nuevo catálogo de los Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) de la Península Ibérica, islas Baleares e islas atlánticas: Canarias, Açores y Madeira.  Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa.  Zaragoza.  211 pp.

Wang, Q. and R.A.B. Leschen.  2003.  Identification and distribution of Arhopalus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Aseminae) in Australia and New Zealand.  New Zealand Entomologist.  26: 53-59.

Wollaston, T.V.  1863.  On the Canarian longicorns.  Journal of Entomology.  2(8): 99-110.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


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Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls