Aromia bungii (Redneck Longhorn Beetle)

California Pest Rating
Aromia bungii  (Redneck Longhorn Beetle)
Coleoptera:  Cerambycidae
Former Pest Rating:  Q
Current Pest Rating: A
Initiating Event:  

The EPPO reporting service distributed a report by email on October 24, 2013.  The report included records of Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) being found for the first time in Lombardia region, Italy and Aichi Prefecture, Japan.  The beetle was previously intercepted in Washington State and is a fruit tree pest that feeds on a variety of trees that are specialty crops of major economic importance in California.  Aromia bungii is an invasive pest that is currently spreading in international trade and in need of a pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundAromia bungii is a wood boring beetle that feeds on a variety of trees.  Adult beetles lay eggs in bark crevasses of healthy to slightly stressed trees.  The larvae bore galleries in the trunk and branches, leading to decreased fruit production and weakening of the trees1.  In China the main host plants are species of Prunus (Rosaceae), especially peach (Prunus persica) and apricot (P. armeniaca), and to a lesser extent plum (P. domestica) and cherry (P. avium)1.  Other hosts include damson plum (P. domestica spp. institia), Japanese apricot (P. mume), Korean cherry (P. japonica), neem (Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae)), weaver’s bamboo (Bambusa textilis (Poaceae)), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana (Ebenaceae)), olive (Olea europea (Oleaceae)), white poplar (Populus alba (Salicaeae)), Chinese white poplar (P. tomentosa), Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera (Juglandaceae)), pomegranate (Punica granatum (Lythraceae)), and Schima superba (Theaceae)1.   In 2008 A. bungii was intercepted in a manufacturing plant in Seattle that imports products from China and Taiwan and in wooden pallets in a warehouse in the United Kingdom, demonstrating that it can move in international trade.

Worldwide Distribution: Aromia bungii is native to the temperate regions of China.  It has spread throughout China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Taiwan.  Recently it has been found feeding on fruit trees in the environment of two European nations where it is under eradication:  Germany (2011) and Italy (2012).  In June 2013 the beetle was confirmed to be established in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

Official Control: Aromia bungii is under official control in Europe.

California Distribution Aromia bungii has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Aromia bungii has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Aromia bungii would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:  

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Plant Hardiness zones where Aromia bungii is known to be established range from approximately zones 4 through 11, indicating that the beetle is likely to find a favorable climate in California. Furthermore, host trees of the beetle are commonly grown commercially and as ornamentals in the state.  The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Aromia bungii is known to feed on 12 species of plants in nine plant families.  The beetle receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The reproductive rate is not well known in China, but generations are said to take 2-3 years.  Adult beetles are relatively strong fliers and eggs, larvae, and pupae can be spread long distances by humans when wood or plants are moved.  Aromia bungii receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 2

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Aromia bungii were to establish in California it is expected to reduce crop yields, increase production costs, and possibly lead to quarantines.  It might also negatively change cultural practices.  The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, C, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Aromia bungii were to establish in California it would be expected to trigger additional official and private treatment programs.  It would also significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings as unmanaged host trees may be killed and many of the known host trees are common in the urban landscape.   The beetle receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aromia bungiiHigh(13)

Add up the total score and include it here. (Score)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aromia bungii has never been detected in California. It receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The host range of Aromia bungii may be much greater than is known.  It may have a higher reproductive potential (i.e. shorter generation time) in California than is reported in northern China.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aromia bungii poses an economic threat to the stone fruit, persimmon, and pomegranate industries in California.  It also poses a threat to the environment as host trees are common in the urban landscape.  The arrival of the beetle is likely to trigger additional chemical treatments and/or the death of trees.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1EPPO Alert List.  http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/Aromia_bungii.htm

2The Food & Environment Research Agency.  Rapid Pest Risk Analysis for Aromia bungiihttp://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/plantHealth/pestsDiseases/documents/aromiaBungii.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/7/2016 – 1/21/2017


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Pest Rating: A