California Pest Rating for
Jewels of opar / Fameflower | Talinum paniculatum
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None
PEST RATING PROFILE
Jewels of opar was intercepted for the first time at the Needles border station in July 2017 (PRD NE0P06655879); this plant has not yet been rated. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.
History & Status:
Background: Talinum paniculatum (jewels of opar or fameflower) is a fleshy, shrubby, erect, glabrous, herbaceous plant from the purslane family (Portulacaceae) that grows up to 120 centimeters tall. Jewels of opar is probably the most widespread species of the genus, as it is frequently encountered as a weed. The small, delicate, pink flowers in cloudlike panicles contrast attractively with the golden yellow, round seed capsules and are produced almost year-round. The leaves are glossy and bright green; they are sometime used as a vegetable1.
Worldwide Distribution: Jewels of opar is native to tropical America, but is now a pantropical weed. It occurs as an adventive scattered throughout tropical Africa, and is locally cultivated in Ghana and Nigeria4. Jewels of opar is also reported from Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, South America, and the southern United States. It was introduced to central Argentina, central Africa, and southern Asia2.
United States: Jewels of opar is known from Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida2. It is generally thought to be native to the southwest and adventive eastward, where it is often weedy1, 3.
California Distribution: Jewels of opar has not yet been detected in California, although it known to occur as greenhouse weed4.
Official Control: Jewels of opar is not considered to be a noxious weed by any State government authorities5.
California Interceptions: Jewels of opar was recently intercepted at the Needles border station in July 2017 in a shipment from Texas (PRD NE0P06655879)4.
The risk Talinum paniculatum (Jewels of opar) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Jewels of oparis adapted to central and southern America and it would presumably thrive in similar climates. It may be able to establish in limited part of California but it does not seem to tolerate the summer drought found in most of CA. It receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Jewels of opardoes not require any one host, but grows wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest.
-Low (1) has a very limited host range
-Medium (2) has a moderate host range
–High (3) has a wide host range
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Jewels of opar reproduces by seed and stem cutting. The seeds are small (1 mm long), have a lenticular to comma-shape, and are produced in large numbers. There are about 5000 seeds per gram3. These seeds could be dispersed short distances by foraging animals, human activity, or by wind. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles and in contaminated agricultural produce. It receives a Medium (2) in this category
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Jewels of oparis considered to be a pantropical weed, but its invasiveness is not addressed in literature. It occurs in cultivated land, roadsides, and in forest edges. It rarely, if ever grows in dense stands, but can seed around grasslands in moist hot summer areas. It can be nuisance weed in greenhouses. It receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.
Economic Impact: D
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
Economic Impact Score 1
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Jewels of oparhas not yet naturalized in California, although it is common in heated greenhouses, especially those devoted to cacti & succulents. It receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Environmental Impact: Score: 1
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Talinum paniculatum (Jewels of opar): Low (8)
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Jewels of oparhas never been documented as naturalized in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)
Jewels of opar has never been documented as naturalized in California but it was recently intercepted at the CDFA Needles Inspection Station. The environment of California is not new for this weed. It has been in greenhouses in CA for years and has not escaped; therefore, the uncertainty about this species is low.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Nevertheless, it can be nuisance weed in greenhouses and should be include in nursery cleanliness standards. Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a low risk weed. A “C” rating is recommended.
- Encyclopedia of living forms. LLife, Online. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.llifle.com/Encyclopedia/SUCCULENTS/Family/Portulacaceae/32895/Talinum_paniculatum
- Flora of North America, Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200007021
- Philippine Medicinal Plants. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.stuartxchange.org/Talinum.html
- Plantnet online. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Talinum_paniculatum_(PROTA)
- Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
- USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed August 7, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
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Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None
Posted by ls