Tag Archives: Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

 California Pest Rating for
Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:  

On December 15, 2017, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was detected in a watermelon seed sample submitted by the USDA to the CDFA Plant Pathology Lab, and collected from a seed company’s storage facility outside of California. The seed crop was produced in California.  The seed company had originally identified the pathogen and reported its findings to the USDA.  An official identification of CGMMV was made by Tongyan Tian, CDFA plant pathologist.  Subsequent investigations are currently underway.  CGMMV is a Federal Actionable Pathogen regulated by USDA.  Currently, both agencies consider CGMMV a quarantine pathogen that is temporary, transitional and under eradication, and therefore, not established within California or anywhere else in the United States.  The current status and rating for the pathogen is reassessed here.

History & Status:

Background:  Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus is an economically important, seed transmitted pathogen known to cause significant losses in cucurbitaceous crop production in many cucurbit growing regions globally. All cucurbits are susceptible to the virus, although some are more tolerant than others (Falk et al., 2017).

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus was originally described from the United Kingdom in 1935.  Since then, it has spread to several other regions mostly within Europe, Asia and the Middle East, most likely due to its seed-borne nature and trade of cucurbit seed from CGMMV-infected regions to non-infected regions globally.  CGMMV has also been recorded in Nigeria, Africa (Falk et al., 2017) and a possible detection of CGMMV in melon was reported from Brazil, South America, however, this record has not been confirmed (Choudhury & Lin, 1982).

The pathogen was first reported from North America in 2013, from California, USA and from Alberta, Canada.  A detailed account of its first and subsequent detections in California is given below (see ‘Detections in California’).  The first report of CGMMV in Alberta, Canada, was of infected mini-cucumber crops grown in greenhouse. The disease had been previously found in greenhouses in Ontario, British Columbia (Ling et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2014).  In 2014, CGMMV was reported for the first time from Australia on detection of the pathogen in commercial farm-grown watermelon plants in the Northern Territory, and in 2015 and 2016 was subsequently confirmed in Queensland and Western Australia respectively (QDAF, 2017).

Biology: The virus is a species in the genus Tobamovirus (to which also belongs the well-known Tobacco mosaic virus).  The species has a positive single-stranded RNA genome and coat protein, comprised in rod-shaped particles (virions).  Several strains or isolates of CGMMV have been reported from different countries.  All strains of the virus are extremely stable in plant sap.  Infectivity is lost at 86-100 C (Type strain at 90 C) depending on viral strain. In California, although the precise source or origin of CGMMV has not been determined, research showed that the 2013 detection in Yolo County and the 2014 detections in commercial seedless watermelon production fields represented two separate introductions, as genetic analysis of those two isolates were distinct from each other (Falk et al., 2017).  The California 2013 CGMMV isolate showed 95% DNA sequence identity to those isolates reported from Russia, Spain, and Israel (Tian et al., 2014), whereas, the California 2014 CGMMV isolates and the Canada CGMMV isolates showed very similar DNA sequence identity, thereby, suggesting that they may have originated from the same source (Falk et al., 2017). The Canada CGMMV isolate showed strong sequence identity to the CGMMV Asian isolates thereby, suggesting their likely Asian origin (Zhang et al., 2014; Ling et al., 2015).

Detections in California:  In the USA, cucumber green mottle mosaic virus has only been detected in California, from 2013 to 2017.  An up-to-date account is given of those detections and subsequent regulatory actions.

 In 2013, the Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was detected in a melon field (Cucumis melo var. Saski) in Yolo County during a phytosanitary inspection for seed production.  The pathogen was identified by Tongyan Tian, CDFA Plant Pathologist, and confirmed by the USDA APHIS.  This detection marked the first record of the pathogen in California and in the United States (Tian et al., 2014; USDA APHIS, 2013; CDFA-PEA, 2013).   Three contiguous fields planted to cucumber (2 fields) and watermelon (1 field), were also determined as positive for CGMMV.  Subsequent trace back investigations revealed that the source seed for the Yolo County melon site was grown in a seed lot in Sutter County in 2012 and later, was found positive for CGMMV. The 2013 trace back also revealed that in 2012, two sites in Sutter County produced a total of 6 melon, watermelon and cucumber seed lots, of which site 1 was positive for CGMMV in all three cucurbit hosts while site 2 was negative.  Those two sites are currently planted to non-hosts of CGMMV, and in 2013, volunteer cucumber plants in site 1 tested negative for CGMMV.   Two foreign sources of melon and cucumber seed lots planted in the two Sutter County sites were identified as Chile and Romania: no (melon) seed remained for testing from the Chilean source and the Romanian cucumber seed tested positive for CGMMV.     As for the 2013 Yolo County CGMMV positive site, County and State approved abatement measures were implemented.   Eventually, wheat, a non-host, was grown at the site and in 2014, volunteer melon plants tested positive, while volunteer watermelon plants were negative.  Monitoring of volunteer plants was implemented and those in the field are treated with herbicide and biodegraded.  Furthermore, in 2013, approximately 120 trace forward seed lots were evaluated for risk of potential infection with CGMMV.  Pathways identified as possible risk links for potential CGMMV infection were source seed, shared irrigation, proximity to a positive detection, mechanical transmission (equipment and workers), and seed processing operational steps.  Trace-forward investigations revealed that 2012 Sutter County melon seeds infested with CGMMV had been shipped to Romania and Africa.  Thirty-four trace forward and trace back seed lots were sampled and tested for CGMMV of which 3 were positive for the pathogen.  In 2014, additional cucumber seed lots belonging to the 2013 trace forward lots in Sutter County tested negative for CGMMV.

In 2014, during August and September, CGMMV was detected in watermelon plant samples collected from seven watermelon production fields in Fresno, Kern, and San Joaquin Counties.  The CDFA did a trace-back to the seed lots that were linked to the CGMMV-positive fields, but found those seed lots to be negative for the pathogen.  Subsequently, the seeds were traced back to the transplant nursery and CDFA theorized that the seed lots were cross contaminated at the transplant nursery. The CGMMV-positive watermelon fields were placed on a regulatory hold (quarantine) and an abatement order was issued to growers requiring; non-host planting, equipment sanitation, other bio-security measures, and monitoring for the virus for a period of two years (Schnabel, 2017).

In 2016, during February, a seed company reported its detection of CGMMV in imported melon seed.  Consequently, the seed company voluntarily destroyed the seed lots by deep burial at a local landfill.  Later, in June 2016, a seed company reported its detection of CGMMV in seed produced in Sutter County The field had already been disked and planted with rice at the time of the report.  Nevertheless, cucurbit volunteers from the field and adjacent fields were sampled by the County and tested negative for the virus by CDFA.  The field continues to be monitored and planted to a non-host crop.  The CGMMV-positive seeds which were stored at a facility outside of California, were seized by the USDA and destroyed by incineration.  Then, in October 2016, a seed company reported its detection of CGMMV in watermelon seed produced in Yolo County. At the time of testing and reporting, the section of the field that produced the positive detection, was already fallow.  The seed company has maintained the field as fallow and will continue to notify CDFA of any volunteers, which if present, will be sampled in spring of 2018 by CDFA.  Also, the seed was voluntarily destroyed and appropriate sanitation and biosecurity measures have been implemented by the seed company (Schnabel, 2017).

In 2017, during March, a seed company reported its detection of CGMMV in watermelon seeds produced in Colusa County.  The field had already been disked and was fallow at the time of the report.  However, cucurbit volunteers and broadleaf weeds, present at the field site, were sampled and tested negative for the pathogen.  The grower continues to use appropriate best management practices including, sanitation and biosecurity measures.  The CGMMV-positive seeds which were stored outside of California, were seized by the USDA and destroyed by incineration.  In October, a seed company reported its detection of CGMMV in a watermelon seed lot produced in Sutter County.  The production field was fallow at the time of the report and any plant material recovered from the field tested negative for CGMMV.  The field will be monitored next season and the grower will be implementing sanitary and biosecurity measures.  The seed lot was seized and destroyed.  Also, at that time, CGMMV was detected in Opo squash (Lagenaria siceraria) plants grown in a small farm in Fresno County.  Fresno County issued a regulatory hold on the field as well as an abatement notice. No host crops will be grown at the site for the next two years.  The associated seeds were collected for destruction by the County.  In November, two different seed companies provided a total of four separate reports of the detection of CGMMV in watermelon seeds.  The positive seed lots were produced in Sutter, Colusa, and Glenn Counties. Trace-investigations are currently underway for each detection.  The fields were sampled and have tested negative for CGMMV. The fields will be monitored and sanitation and biosecurity measures will be implemented.  Currently, the seed lots are on hold pending voluntary destruction (Schnabel, 2017).

Plant infection:  CGMMV gains entrance into a plant through wounds, infects a few cells, moves from cell to cell (through plasmodesmata) colonizing the plant tissues and reaches the phloem where it travels systemically and infects the entire plant.

Hosts:  All cucurbit species are susceptible to CGMMV.  Main hosts include, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), C. sativus (cucumber), C. anguria (burr gherkin), Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd), Cucurbita moschata (butternut squash), C. pepo (zucchini and button squash), C. maxima (squash), Luffa acutangula (angled luffa), L. cylindrical (smooth luffa), Benincasa hispida (winter melon), Cucumis metuliferus (horned melon), C. myriocarpus (prickly paddy melon), Citrullus colocynthis (bitter paddy melon), Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd) (CABI, 2017; Falk et al., 2017). [Cech (1980) reported that the CGMMV caused apricot bare twig and unfruitfulness disease syndrome in Prunus armeniaca (apricot) only when co-infected with strawberry latent ringspot virus.]

Several experimental hosts have been tested and susceptible hosts are in three families namely, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae.  CGMMV-indicator plant species include Chenopodium album ssp. amaranticolor, Datura stramonium, and Nicotiana benthamiana.  Weeds species may be potential alternate hosts, however, currently, the role of alternate host plants in CGMMV epidemiology is not known (Falk, 2017).  Potential CGMMV weed hosts include: Amaranthus retroflexus (red root or American pigweed), Chenopodium album (lambsquarter), Heliotropium europium (Helitrope), Portulaca oleracea (pigweed), Solanum nigrum (nightshade) and Cucumis myriocarpus (paddy melon) (Falk et al., 2017).

Symptoms: Plant symptoms may vary mainly depending on virus strain, host plant species/cultivar, plant part, time of plant growth, and environmental conditions.  In general, plant symptoms may include leaf mosaic, mottling, distortion, vein clearing, and stunted growth; infected fruit can be mottled, discolored, distorted, internally discolored and deteriorated.  Root systems may be reduced.

Some Asian cultivars of cucumber only show yield losses without showing leaf symptoms.  In cucumber, the type strain causes leaf mottling, blistering and distortion, and stunted growth.  Symptoms appear 7-14 days after infection.  Usually no symptoms are produced on fruit, however, certain strains cause fruit mottling and distortion.  On the other hand, the watermelon strain can cause slight leaf mottling and dwarfing in watermelons and necrotic lesions develop on the peduncle.  Virus infection at fruit set or soon after can result in serious internal discoloration and decomposition in the fruit.

No symptoms are produced in CGMMV infected squirting cucumber (Ecballium elaterium) (CABI, 2017) – a plant native to Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia, grown sometimes for its ornamental and medicinal value. Not present in California (acc. to USDA Natural Resources Conservation Services). It is thought that infected weed species may be asymptomatic – however, this has yet to be proven.

Seed set or appearance is not affected by CGMMV and therefore, infected seed are indistinguishable from non-infected ones (Reingold et al., 2015, 2016).

Plant symptoms due to CGMMV are similar to those of other viruses in cucurbitaceous species.  Therefore, it is difficult to definitively identify the virus solely by the symptoms its causes in host plants.  For a definitive identification, serological, molecular and/or electron microscopy tests are needed.

Damage Potential: In commercial field or greenhouse environments, losses up to 100% can occur, although 40-80% losses are common (Falk et al., 2017).  Yield losses of approximately 15% in Cucurbitaceous vegetable crops are reported (Shang et al., 2011).  In Japan, considerable economic losses in watermelon have occurred.  Severe symptoms in fruit including, fruit pulp deterioration, low sugar accumulation and flavor, and distortion make fruit unmarketable and non-consumable (CABI, 2017).    In India 75%, 80% and 100% losses are reported in watermelon, muskmelon, and bottle gourd respectively. 5-16 % losses occur in cucumber yields and fruit quality.  Increased costs in production of clean planting sites and stock can be expected.  Furthermore, since the pathogen is seedborne in cucurbits, it could negatively impact export of cucurbit seeds.

Transmission: CGMMV is contagious and is transmitted by mechanical contact with contaminated sources.  It can spread through foliage contact, when plants are handled during cultivation or through grafting, when infected rootstocks are used in watermelon or cucumber cultivation.  It can survive on plant pruning equipment, clothing, hands, and machinery and be spread by agricultural practices and mechanical means (Reingold et al., 2016; USDA, 2017).  It can be transmitted from infected plant debris in soil to uninfected plants via roots.  The virus is very stable in the sap of infected plants and therefore, is able to remain active in plant debris in soil long after the death of host plant cells.  Also, it is spread through untreated irrigation water and in recirculated greenhouse water. All of these can serve as sources of inoculum.  The virus is also transmitted by pollen and seed of CGMMV-infected cucurbit plants (Liu et al., 2014) both on and within the seed coat (Hollings, et al., 1975). However, research has shown that the rate of CGMMV infection of seedlings developing from cucurbit seeds containing the pathogen, is typically 1-5% or less, under greenhouse conditions, thereby, indicating that cucurbit seeds may contain infectious CGMMV, but the virus is not always transmitted to developing seedlings (Falk, 2017).  On the other hand, high seed-transmission rates of 76% from CGMMV-infected cucumber plants, have been reported (Liu et al., 2014).

Movement of infected seed appears to be the primary means for long-distance spread, whereas, the virus is spread locally through contact, infested crop residues, and irrigation water.

CGMMV is not spread from plant to plant by specific insect or nematode vectors.   Experimentally, the cucumber leaf beetle Raphidopalpa fevicollis was shown to be a probable vector of CGMMV to test plants, whereas, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) or cucumber leaf beetles (Aulacophora femoralis) did not transmit the virus (Rao & Varma, 1984).

Experimentally, CGMMV has been transmitted by dodder species (Hollings et al., 1975).

CGMMV was detected in cow dung manure and studies have demonstrated the ability of the virus to pass through the alimentary system of rodents without losing biological activity.

Worldwide Distribution: Asia: China, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lebanon, Myanmar, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey;

Africa: Nigeria; North America: Canada, USA (California: temporary, transitional, and under eradication); Europe: Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia (former), Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia (former); Oceania: Australia (CABI, 2017; Ling & Li, 2013; Tesoriero et al., 2016).

An unconfirmed record of CGMMV is from Brazil, South America (CABI, 2017)

Official Control: Currently, the following countries include CGMMV on their ‘Harmful Organism’ lists: Chiles, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, and Timor-Leste (USDA PCIT, 2017).

In the USA, CGMMV is a Federal Actionable Pathogen of quarantine concern and is considered temporary, transitional and under eradication.  Currently, CGMMV is an A-rated, quarantine actionable pathogen in California.

California Distribution:  CGMMV is not established in California.

California InterceptionsThere are no state reports of CGMMV detections in plant materials intercepted within or at points of entry in California.

The risk Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Since its first detection in 2013, there have been repeated incidences of field detections that directly indicate that CGMMV is likely to establish a widespread distribution in all cucurbit-growing regions within California.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: CGMMV has a moderate range of cucurbitaceous host plants which are commonly grown mostly in the warmest areas of California, such as the San Joaquin Valley, the Sacramento, Valley and the low desert valleys.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Score: 2

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: CGMMV is capable of high reproduction and widespread dispersal mainly as it is highly contagious and is easily transmitted through mechanical, plant and human contact, irrigation water and water in contact with infected crop debris.  It can be widely dispersed over long distance through infected seed, and is highly stable and remains active in infected plant debris in soil.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: CGMMV is capable of significantly lowering crop yield and value thereby, increasing crop production costs.  It can result in the loss of markets through the imposition of quarantines by domestic and international trade partners, change in cultural practices, including adoption of a non-host crop period in infested and treated fields for 3-5 or more years, and alteration of delivery and distribution of irrigation water to and from infested fields.  Furthermore, significant losses in seed and transplant production can result due to a CGMMV infestation.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C, G

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Detection and establishment of CGMMV would significantly impact existing cultural practices, as well as those followed for home/urban gardening and ornamental production.  Subsequently, it could result in the implementation of additional and costly official and home/urban treatment programs.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact. Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus:

Add up the total score and include it here. (Score)

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

Total points obtained on evaluation of consequences of introduction to California = 14 (High)

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score)

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Evaluation is ‘Not Established (0):  Similar and subsequent to its original detection in 2013, all incidences of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus detections (detailed above in ‘Detections in California’) have resulted in eradicative actions.  The viral pathogen is, therefore, not considered as established in California and continues to be ‘transient, temporary and under eradication’.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (Score)

Final Score:  Score of Consequences of Introduction – Score of Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information = 14.

Uncertainty:

Currently, the precise origin or source of CGMMV introduction into the USA is not known for certain.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Based on the evidence provided above the proposed rating for Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus continues as A.


References:

Abatement Notice.  2013.  (  ) Seed Company, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (BFB) abatement notice.  County of Yolo, John Young Agricultural Commissioner.

CABI   2017.  Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (white break mosaic) datasheet.  Crop Protection Compendium.  http://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/16951

Cech M., M. Filigarova, J. Pozdena, and H. Branisova.  1980. Strawberry latent ringspot and cucumber green mottle mosaic viruses in apricots with the bare twig and unfruitfulness disease syndrome. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:391-396

CDFA-PEA.  2013.  Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and Bacterial fruit blotch detection in California.  Pest Exclusion Advisory no. 29-2013.  California Department of Food and Agriculture, November 27, 2013.

Choudhury, M. M., and M. T. Lin.  1982.  ‘Ocorrência de viroses em plantas de melão e abobrinha na região do sub-médio São Francisco’, EMBRAPA Pesquisa am Andamento, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1–2.

Falk, B. W., T. L. Pitman, B. Aegerter, and K-S. Ling.  2017. Recovery Plan for Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.  Plant Diseases That Threaten U. S. Agriculture Identified and Prepared for Under the National Plant Disease Recovery System.  USDA ARS. https://www.ars.usda.gov/office-of-pest-management-policy/npdrs/ Last modified 3/7/2017.

Hollings M, Y. Komuro, and H. Tochihara.  1975.  Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 154. Wellesbourne, UK: AAB, 4 pp.

Ling, K. S., and R. Li.  2014.  First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada.  Plant Disease 98 (5): 701.

Liu, H. W., L. X. Luo, J. Q. Li, P. F. Liu, X. Y. Chen,  and J. J. Hao.  2014.  Pollen and seed transmission on Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucumber.  (Published online 17 April 2013.)  Plant Pathology (2014) 63, 62-77.

Lovig, E.  2014.  Email communication from E. Lovig, CDFA, to A. Morris and J. Chitambar, CDFA.  Subject: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) detections in California.  Dated April 29, 2014.

NPAG.  2013.  Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV).    New Pest Advisory Group, Plant Epidemiology and risk Analysis Laboratory, Center for Plant Health Science & Technology, USDA-APHIS.  NPAG Report 20130819.docx, August 19, 2013: 1-9.

QDAF.  2017.  Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus. The State of Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland Government. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/plants/health-pests-diseases/a-z-significant/cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus# Last updated 01 March, 2017.

Rao A. L. N, and A. Varma. 1984. Transmission studies with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 109(4):325-331.

Shang, J., Y. Xie, X. Zhou, Y. Qian, and J. Wu.  2011.  Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.  Virology Journal 8:228.

Schnabel, D.  2017.  Email from D. Schnabel, CDFA, to S. Brown and J. Chitambar, CDFA.  Subject: CGMMV. Dated December 11, 2017, 7:16 am.

Reingold V., E. Lachman, A. Koren, and A. Dombrovsky.  2015.  Seed disinfection treatments do not sufficiently eliminate the infectivity of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) on cucurbit seeds.  Plant Pathology 64: 245-255.

Reingold V., E. Lachman, O. Beelausov, A. Koren, N. Mor, and A. Dombrovsky.  2016. Epidemiological study of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in greenhouses enables reduction of disease damage in cucurbit production. Annals of Applied Biology 168:29-40.

Technical Working Group Responses: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.  October 28, 2013.  United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Tesoriero, L. A., G. Chambers, M. Srivastava, S. Smith, B. Conde, and L. T. T. Tran-Nguyen.  2016.  First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 11:1. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0186-x

Tian, T., K. Posis, C. J. Maroon-Lango, V. Mavrodieva, S. Haymes, T. L. Pitman, and B. W. Falk.  2014.  First report of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in melon in the United States.  Plant Disease 98:1163.

USDA APHIS.  July 25, 2013.  Email communication from K. J. Handy, CAPS Database Manager, USDA APHIS PPQ, PDEP to R. A. Bailey (and other APHIS members)  Director, PHPPS, CDFA. Subject: FW: confirmed id: Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) detection in melon in CA – new US record.

USDA PCIT.  2017.  USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System. December 14, 2017, 3:49:31 pm CDT. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ReportHarmOrgs.jsp

Zhang, J. W., K-S. Ling, and R. Cramer.  2014.  New Cucumber threat studied.  https://www.greenhousecanada.com/inputs/crop-protection/march-april-2014-4021


Responsible Party:

John J. Chitambar, Primary Plant Pathologist/Nematologist, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832. Phone: 916-262-1110, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


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Pest Rating: A


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