California Pest Rating for
Grapevine Pinot gris Virus (GPGV)
Pest Rating: B
PEST RATING PROFILE
A pest risk assessment and rating for Grapevine pinot gris virus (GPGV) was recently requested by Joshua Kress, CDFA Pest Exclusion Branch, in response to notification received on January 24, 2018, from Foundation Plant Service (FPS), on the detection of GPGV in their Foundation grapevine plants. The risk of infestation of GPGV in California is evaluated and a permanent rating is herein proposed.
History & Status:
Background: Although symptoms of stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation had been observed on V. vinifera ‘Pinot gris’, in Trentino, North Italy since 2003, it was not until 2012 that Grapevine pinot gris was first detected by deep sequencing in one symptomatic and one symptomless grapevine, Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot gris in Northern Italy. In this initial study, GPGV was associated with field symptoms of chlorotic mottling and leaf deformation, reduced yield and low quality of berries, however the plant was also associated with several other viruses and viroids. Furthermore, since GPGV was found in both symptomatic and symptomless plants from three different grape cultivars in a limited field survey, the virus could not be directly associated with the observed symptoms (Giampetruzzi et al., 2012; Glasa et al., 2014). This was further confirmed by Saldarelli et al. (2013) who reported 70% of GPGV-infected asymptomatic veins in cultivars Traminer and Pinot gris vineyards in Italy. Bianchi et al. (2015) also detected GPGV in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants over a 3-year period in a field survey of productive vineyards and scion mother plant nurseries in Italy, however, the mean quantity of the virus was significantly higher in symptomatic vines than in asymptomatic plants. Consequently, a critical level or quantity of virus could not be associated with symptom expression. Scientists in Italy determined that GPGV isolates that produce symptoms can be genetically differentiated from those that are asymptomatic (Saldarelli et al., 2015).
Grapevine pinot gris virus belongs to the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. Its full-length sequence was described and shown to be phylogenetically closely related to, yet molecularly different from Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus, another Trichovirus which was found in Japan and is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Giampetruzzi et al., 2012). Since its original description in Italy, GPGV has been detected from symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevine cultivars in several countries in Europe and Asia, and few in North America, South America and Australia (see: ‘Worldwide Distribution’).
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) was detected in California grapevine in Napa Valley and diagnosed by a testing service lab in Yolo County. An informal report of this detection was made in 2015 (Rieger, 2015) and in a ‘list of pathogens report’ submitted by a testing service lab to the CDFA. A formal first report of GPGV infecting grapevine was made in 2016 (Rwahnih et al., 2016) and marked a first detection of GPGV in the United States. In 2016, Rwahnih and other scientists at the Foundation Plant Services screened 2,014 vines, including 23 vines of Pinot gris for the possible presence and prevalence of GPGV in the collections of FPS, which are the source of all certified grapevine plants produced in California. Of all the vines tested, only one relatively rare, asymptomatic vine variety ‘Touriga Nacional” was found positive for GPGV. This vine had been imported from Portugal in 1981. The risk of GPGV spread in commercial vineyards was considered low, given the very low prevalence of the pathogen in the FPS collection, however, the need for a large-scale survey of commercial vineyards in California was emphasized, as well as, the need for research to evaluate the effect of the virus on grapevine performance and wine quality. Since cv ‘Touriga Nacional’ is rarely used in commercial vineyards, Angelini et al., (2016) molecularly surveyed 96 grapevine samples from four commercial wine grape vineyards in Napa Valley, California and reported the presence of GPGV in three cultivars, ‘Chardonnay’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, and ‘Cabernet Franc’.
Grapevine pinot gris virus was recently detected in Foundation grapevine plants at FPS (see ‘Initiating Event’). Subsequently, FPS removed all source vines from the Foundation vineyard and initiated monitoring of the site with additional testing implemented to detect and destroy any further detection and contain possible spread of the pathogen (personal communication: M. Al Rwahnih, Foundation Plant Services).
Hosts: Grapevine pinot gris virus has been found in at least 28 wine and table grape varieties of Vitis vinifera and hybrids. including Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Traminer, Chardonnay, Merlot, Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenere Glera (Prosecco), Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz (AWRI, 2018).
Symptoms: Grapevines infected with GPGV may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Furthermore, specific symptoms caused by GPGV have been difficult to assign as GPGV-infected grapevines were infected with other viruses. Because of this, definitive symptoms have not been attributed to GPGV alone. Symptoms putatively associated with GPGV include chlorotic mottling, leaf deformation, delayed bud-burst, stunted growth, reduced yields and low quality of berries with increased acidity (Saldarelli et al., 2015; AWRI, 2018).
Damage Potential: The complete impact of GPGV on grapevine health is currently unknown and further research is need in this area (AWRI, 2018). In Europe and Asia, GPGV and other concomitant viruses infesting grapevines have been associated with field observations of reduced yield, poor fruit set, poor quality and inner necrosis of berries (Giampetruzzi et al., 2012). In Slovenia, the disease was reported to cause considerable economic losses (Mavrič Pleško et al., 2014). Presently, the risk of spread of GPGV is considered low and the distribution of the virus has only been reported from commercial vineyards within Napa County (Al Rwahnih et al., 2016; Angelini et al., 2016).
Transmission: Grapevine Pinot gris virus is spread through movement of infected plant propagative material and by graft transmission. There is the possibility of GPGV transmission by the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitus, like the other grapevine-infecting Trichovirus, Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus, however, this has not been confirmed. Colomerus vitus commonly infests grapevine and has been reported in California.
Worldwide Distribution: Asia: China, South Korea, Georgia, Pakistan; Europe: Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine; North America: Canada, USA (California); South America: Brazil; Oceania: Australia. (Al Rwahnih et al., 2016; Angelini et al., 2016; Beuve et al., 2015; CABI, 2018; Casati et al., 2015; EPPO, 2018; Fan et al., 2016; Gazel et al., 2016; Lou et al., 2016; Mavrič Pleško et al., 2014; Rasool et al., 2017; Reynard, et al., 2016; Rius-Garcia & Olmos, 2017; Wu et al., 2017; Xiao et al., 2016).
Official Control: None reported.
California Distribution: Napa County.
California Interceptions: There are no CDFA records of detection of GPGV in quarantine shipments of plant material intercepted in California.
The risk Grapevine Pinot gris virus would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Grapevine pinot gris virus is expected to be able to establish wherever wine and table grape varieties are cultivated in California, and therefore, is likely to establish a wide spread distribution.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Grapevine pinot gris virus has been found in at least 28 wine and table grape varieties of Vitis vinifera and hybrids. including Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Traminer, Chardonnay, Merlot, Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenere Glera (Prosecco), Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz. It’s known pest host range is evaluated as very limited.
Evaluate the host range of the pest.
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: GPGV is transmitted artificially through grafting and infested planting stock. The involvement of a vector, an eriophyid mite Colomerus vitus, although likely, has not been confirmed. The virus has high reproduction within symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Therefore, a ‘High’ rating is given to this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: The economic impact of GPGV is not currently known and requires further research. This is mainly due to evidence that the virus is present in both symptomatic and symptomless grape plants, and that other viruses and viroids may be present within the same plant infested by GPGV. Nevertheless, putative symptoms of chlorotic mottling, leaf deformation, stunted growth, reduced yields and low quality of berries, have been associated with GPGV infestations. This may relate to potentially lowering crop value and yield in production. While the virus may be present in commercial vineyards of Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in California (Angelini et al., 2016), its risk of spread is considered low and its general impact on production is presently unknown. Nursery production of grapevines may be affected.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.
Score: A, B
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
Economic Impact Score: 2
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: No impact to the environment is expected.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
Environmental Impact: None
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Environmental Impact Score: 1
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Grapevine Pinot gris virus
Add up the total score and include it here. (Score)
-Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points
Total points obtained on evaluation of consequences of introduction of GPGV to California = Medium (10).
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score)
-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
Evaluation is Low (-1). Presently, Grapevine pinot gris virus has been reported only from Napa County.
7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (Score)
Final Score: Score of Consequences of Introduction – Score of Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information = 9.
Several aspects of Grapevine pinot gris virus are yet not known and require further research. In general, the impact of the virus on grape production, symptoms, prevalence and distribution within California are not fully known.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Based on the evidence provided above the proposed rating for Grapevine Pinot gris virus is B.
AWRI. 2018. Grapevine pinot gris virus. Fact Sheet, Viticulture. The Australian Wine Research Institute. Updated February 2018.
Al Rwahnih, M., D. Golino, and A. Rowhani. 2016. First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus infecting grapevine in the United States. Plant Disease (Posted online on March 4, 2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-15-1235-PDN.
Angelini, E., N. Bertazzon, J. Montgomery, X. Wang, A. Zinkl, J. Stamp, and A. Wei. 2016. Occurrence of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in commercial vineyards in the United States. Plant Disease (Posted online on March 23, 2016): http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-16-0055-PDN.
Beuve, M., T. Candresse, M. Tannières, and O. Lemaire. 2015. First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) in grapevine in France. Plant Disease 99:293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1008-PDN.
Bianchi, G. L., F. De Amicis, L. De Sabbata, N. Di Bernardo, G. Governatori, F. Nonino, G. Prete, T. Marrazzo, S. Versolatto and C. Frausin. 2015. Occurrence of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy): Field monitoring and virus quantification by real-time RT-PCR. EPPO Bulletin 45:22-32. DOI: 10.1111/epp.12196.
Casati, P., D. Maghradze, F. Ouaglino, A. Ravasio, O. Failla and P. A. Bianco. First report of Grapevine pinot gris virus in Georgia. Journal of Plant Pathology 1 (1). DOI: 10.4454/JPP.V98I1.003
EPPO. 2018. Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV00). EPPO Global Database. https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/GPGV00/distribution
Fan, X. D., Y. F. Dong, Z. P. Zhang, F. Ren, G. J. Hu, Z.N. Li, and J. Zhou. 2016. First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in Grapevines in China. Plant Disease 100:540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-15-0913-PDN.
Gazel, M., K. Caǧlayan, E. Elci, and L. Ozturk. 2016. First Report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in Grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease 100:657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0596-PDN.
Glasa, M., L. Predajňa, P. Komínek, A. Nagyová, T. Candresse and A. Olmos. 2014. Molecular characterization of divergent grapevine Pinot gris virus isolated and their detection in Slovak and Czech grapevines. Archives of Virology 159: 2103-2107.
Giampetruzzi, A., V. Roumia, R. Roberto, U. Malossinib, N. Yoshikawac, P. La Notte, F. Terlizzi, R. Credid, and P. Saldarelli. A new grapevine virus discovered by deep sequencing of virus- and viroid-derived small RNAs in cv Pinot gris. Virus Research 163:262-268.
Lou, B. H., Y. Q. Song, A. J. Chen, X. J. Bai, B. Wang, M. Z., Wang, P. Liu and J. J. He. 2016. First report of Grapevine pinot gris virus in commercial grapevines in Southern China. Journal of Plant Pathology 98: 677-697.
Mavrič Pleško, I., M. Viršček Marn, G. Seljak, and I. Žežlina. 2014. First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus infecting grapevine in Slovenia. Plant Disease 98:1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-13-1137-PDN.
Rasool, S., S. Naz, A. Rowhani, D. A. Golino, N. M. Westrick, K. D. Farrar and M. Al Rwahnih. 2017. First report of Grapevine pinot gris virus infecting grapevine in Pakistan. Plant Disease 101: 1958.
Rieger, T. 2015. New grapevine virus detected in California: Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus discussed at UCD FPS meeting. http://www.winebusiness.com/news/?go=getArticle&dataid=160912.
Reynard, J. -S, S. Schumacher, W. Menzel, J. Fuchs, P. Bohnert, M. Glasa, T. Wetzel and R. Fuchs. 2016. First report of Grapevine pinot gris virus in German vineyards. Plant Disease 100: 2545.
Ruiz-García, A. B., and A. Olmos. 2017. First report of Grapevine pinot gris virus in Grapevine in Spain. Plant Disease 101: 1070.
Saldarelli, P., A. Giampetruzzi, M. Morelli, U. Malossini, C. Pirolo, P. Bianchedi, and V. Gualandri. 2015. Genetic variability of Grapevine Pinot gris virus and its association with grapevine leaf mottling and deformation. Phytopathology 105:555-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-14-0241-R.
Xiao, H., M. Shabanian, W. McFadden-Smith, and B. Meng. 2016. First report of Grapevine Pinot gris virus in commercial grapes in Canada. Plant Disease (Posted online on February 29, 2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-15-1405-PDN.
John J. Chitambar, Primary Plant Pathologist/Nematologist, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832. Phone: 916-262-1110, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
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Pest Rating: B
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