Tag Archives: insects and mites

Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale

California Pest Rating for
Unaspis citri Comstock: Citrus Snow Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Unaspis citri is frequently intercepted by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Unaspis citri, citrus snow scale, is an armored scale insect that primarily feeds on the trunk and tree limbs of older citrus trees¹. Populations of the scale reduce tree vigor and fruit production¹. Prolonged high populations can cause bark to split, allowing other insect pests and pathogens to invade the tree¹. Known hosts of citrus snow scale include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica³), Mangifera sp.²,³; Annonaceae: custard apple (Annona muricata²,³); Arecaceae: Cocos sp.²,³; Bromeliaceae: Ananas sp.²,³, Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides²,³); Celastraceae: evergreen spindle (Euonymus japonicus²,³), broad-leaved spindle tree (Euonymus latifolia²,³), Fabaceae: Acacia sp.²,³, Inga sp.³; Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.²,³; Musaceae: Musa sp.²,³; Myrtaceae: guava (Psidium guajava²,³); Oleaceae: Osmanthus sp.²,³; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.²,³; Rosaceae: avocado (Persea americana²,³); Rutaceae: Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa²,³), Citrus sp.²,³, key lime (Citrus aurantifolia²,³), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium²,³), Citrus decumana²,³, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis²,³), mandarin (Citrus reticulata²,³), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi²,³), tangerine (Citrus nobilis²,³), citron (Citrus medica²,³), Citrus medica acida², pomelo (Citrus maxima²,³), lemon (Citrus limon²,³), Citrus grandis²,³, kumquats (Fortunella sp.²,³), Glycosmis parviflora²,³, orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata²,³), trifoliate orange (Poncirus sp.²,³), Severina sp.²,³; Sapindaceae: rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum²). Unaspis citri may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Unaspis citri is believed to have originated in Asia, but has spread through many of the citrus growing regions of the world¹.

Official Control: Unaspis citri has listed as a harmful organism by 46 nations including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela4.

California Distribution: Unaspis citri has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Unaspis citri is commonly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations on citrus fruit from Mexico and Florida.

The risk Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Citrus is widely planted across much of California and Unaspis citri can be expected to establish wherever it is grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Unaspis citri is known to feed on 34 varieties of plants in 13 families. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects are capable of rapid reproduction and can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved. They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Unaspis citri were to establish in California it is expected that it would lower yields and increase crop production costs in citrus nursery stock and fruit industries. Citrus snow scale is also considered a quarantine pest by many of California’s trading partners. The presence of the scale in the state would disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. Unaspis citri receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Unaspis citri is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It may trigger additional treatment programs in agriculture and by residents who find infested trees unsightly or diminished citrus yields unacceptable. Citrus snow scale may also significantly impact ornamental plantings. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Unaspis citri (Citrus Snow Scale): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Unaspis citri has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Management for other citrus pests may mitigate some of the damage from Unaspis citri.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Unaspis citri has never been found in California and it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Buckley, Courtney R. and Amanda C. Hodges. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: citrus snow scale. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/citrus_snow_scale.htm

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy. ScaleNet. http://scalenet.info/validname/Unaspis/citri/

3 SEL Catalog. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Unaspiscitri.htm

4 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday, March 24, 2015 and closed on Friday, May 8, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Thrips palmi (Karny): Melon Thrips

California Pest Rating for
Thrips palmi (Karny): Melon Thrips
Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

March 5, 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture announced that it is considering a change in the status of Thrips palmi, melon thrips, to non-actionable and may therefore stop taking action on the pest when it is intercepted at U.S. ports¹. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Thrips palmi is a highly polyphagous insect that breeds on the flowers, stems, leaves and fruit of many species of plants and causes serious damage to food crops²,4. Crops that are often severely damaged include: Solanaceae: eggplant (Solanum melongena4), pepper (Capsicum spp.4), potato (Solanum tuberosum4), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum4), ground cherry (Physalis spp.4); Cucurbitaceae: bittermelon (Momordica charantia4), cucumber (Cucumis sativus4), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus4), muskmelon (Cucumis melo4), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo subsp. melo4), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo4), squash (Cucurbita spp.4), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo4), edible gourds (Cucurbita spp.4); hyotan (Lagenaria siceraria4); Leguminosae: kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris4), broad bean (Vicia faba4), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata4), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris4), soybean (Glycine max4), togan (Benincasa hispida4); Amaranthaceae: chinese spinach and amaranth spinach (Amaranthus dubius4); Benincaseae: Chinese wax gourd (Benincasa hispida4); Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum spp.4, Dahlia spp.4; Malvaceae: cotton (Gossypium spp.4); Myrsinaceae: Cyclamen spp.4; Convolvulaceae: morning glory4, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas4); Orchidaceae: orchids4; Apocynaceae: Plumeria spp.4; Pedaliaceae: sesame (Sesamum indicum4). Other reported hosts include: Lauraceae: avocado (Persea americana5); Rutaceae: Citrus spp.5; Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica5); Rosaceae: peach (Prunus persica5), plum (Prunus spp.5). Thrips palmi may be transported long distances when infested nursery stock or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Thrips palmi is native to South-East Asia and has spread to many tropical locations throughout the world². It is established in Hawaii and Florida.

Official Control: Thrips palmi is listed as a harmful organism by 73 nations including: Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Holy See (Vatican City State), Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Republic of Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Svalbard and Jan Mayen, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and Uzbekistan³.

California Distribution: Thrips palmi has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: CDFA’s high risk programs, dog teams, and border stations have intercepted Thrips palmi 64 times on consignments from Hawaii and Florida. Most interceptions have been on orchids imported from Hawaii.

The risk Thrips palmi (melon thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Thrips palmi is polyphagous and suitable hosts are grown throughout the state. However, melon thrips is only known to be established in tropical climates and greenhouses; some of the colder parts of California may be unsuitable for establishment. Thrips palmi receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Thrips palmi feeds on more than 50 species of plants in at least 20 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Under favorable conditions, Thrips palmi can complete a generation in less than two weeks and each female can lay 100-200+ eggs. This indicates a high reproductive rate. Thrips palmi are small and are frequently hidden in pockets, cracks, and crevices on host material4. This enables them to elude inspections and facilities long distance dispersal through the movement of infested consignments. Thrips palmi receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Thrips palmi is a primary pest of some crops and can be expected to reduce crop yields and increase crop production costs if it were to establish in California. The species is of quarantine significance to at least 73 nations and can be expected to disrupt markets for Californian agricultural commodities. Thrips palmi is also known to be an efficient vector of multiple plant pathogens including tomato spotted wilt virus5, bud necrosis virus5, and at least two other plant pathogens2. Melon thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Thrips palmi were to establish in California it could be expected to trigger additional treatment programs at farms, orchards, nurseries, and by residents. Melon thrips would also have significant impacts to home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings. Thrips palmi receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thrips palmi (Melon Thrips): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Thrips palmi has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

The climate of California may be less suitable to the establishment of Thrips palmi.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Thrips palmi has not been found in California and would have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. An “A” rating is justified.

References:

¹ USDA Pests No Longer Regulated at U.S. Ports of Entry. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wps/portal/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/sa_domestic_pests_and_diseases/sa_frsmp?1dmy&urile=wcm%3apath%3a%2Faphis_content_library%2Fsa_our_focus%2Fsa_plant_health%2Fsa_domestic_pests_and_diseases%2Fsa_frsmp%2Fct_non-reg-pests

² Hoddle, M.S., Mound, L.A., Paris, D.L. 2012. Thrips of California. CBIT Publishing, Queensland. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/thrips_of_california/identify-thrips/key/california-thysanoptera-2012/Media/Html/browse_species/Thrips_palmi.htm

³ USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 University of Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master: Thrips palmi (Karny). http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/t_palmi.htm

5 Capinera, J.L. 2013. University of Florida Featured Creatures: Common Name: Melon Thrips. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/melon_thrips.htm

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Tuesday, March 24, 2015 and closed on Friday, May 8, 2015.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Eumerus figurans (Walker): Ginger Maggot

California Pest Rating for
Eumerus figurans (Walker): Ginger Maggot
Diptera: Syrphidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Eumerus figurans is occasionally intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Eumerus figurans is a syrphid fly whose larvae feed on various bulbs, corm, and roots1. Female flies are attracted to and lay eggs on injured and rotting bulbs, corms and roots1,2. Larvae are gregarious and hollow out bulbs as they feed2. Damage by the larvae is considered secondary to bacterial and fungal rot organisms1. Known hosts include ginger roots, lily bulbs, narcissus bulbs, decomposing pineapple stumps, and rotting dry land taro1. Larvae of Eumerus figurans may be transported long distances when infested ginger roots or other plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of Eumerus figurans is probably the tropical forests of South-east Asia. Walker described the species from Celebes and there are undescribed sibling species present in Thailand, suggesting an evolutionary origin in that region. Eumerus figurans has spread throughout much of Asia and the Southwest Pacific1. It was first found in Hawaii in 19021.

Official Control: Eumerus figurans itself is not known to be under official control by any other states or nations3. However, all members of the genus Eumerus are considered harmful organisms by Bermuda3, Iceland3, and Japan3.

California Distribution: Eumerus figurans has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Eumerus figurans was intercepted 20 times by CDFA’s high risk programs. All interceptions for which data were recorded were on shipments of ginger root from Hawaii.

The risk Eumerus figurans (ginger maggot) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ginger grows as a perennial plant in USDA zones 9 through 12. This corresponds with much of California. Eumerus figurans is likely capable of finding injured ginger roots to feed on throughout this area. However, the fly is typically found in humid tropical and subtropical environments. Ginger maggot receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Eumerus figurans is known to feed on injured ginger roots, lily bulbs, narcissus bulbs, decomposing pineapple stumps, and rotting dry land taro1. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Species of Eumerus are thought to have 3 generations per year in Israel3. Since California also has a Mediterranean climate Eumerus figurans is likely to have 3 generations per year here. Female flies lay eggs in groups of 10-20 per bulb3, giving them a high reproductive rate. The flies may be transported long distance through the movement of infested plants or plant parts. Eumerus figurans receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Eumerus figurans is considered a secondary pest of ginger and there appears to be more literature published on the fly’s role as a pollinator than a pest. It is not expected to lower any crop yields in California. Ginger maggot is likely to be considered a quarantine pest by Iceland3, Bermuda3, and Japan3 and has the potential to disrupt exports of ginger, lily, or narcissus bulbs to those markets. However, Eumerus figurans is unlikely to establish in Iceland and is already present on Nansei Island in Japan. Lost markets may therefore be limited to exports of ginger, lily, and narcissus bulbs to Bermuda. The fly may also increase crop production costs if growers manage populations of the flies. Eumerus figurans is not expected to negatively change normal cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Eumerus figurans were to enter California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. Ginger maggot is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It is possible that the flies could trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry, ginger gardens, or by residents who consider flies a nuisance. Ginger maggot is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Eumerus figurans receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Eumerus figurans (Ginger Maggot): Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Eumerus figurans has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There is some speculation that Eumerus figurans might play a role in the spread of bacterial and fungal rot organisms between ginger plants1. If confirmed, this could increase its economic impact.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Eumerus figurans (ginger maggot) has never been found in California. It is expected to have limited economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Mau, R.F.L., J.L. Martin Kessing. 1992. Eumerus figurans (Walker). Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/eumerus.htm

2 Hill, Dennis S. 1987. Agricultural Insect Pests of Temperate Regions and Their Control. CUP Archive. 659pp. https://books.google.com/books?id=3-w8AAAAIAAJ&dq=eumerus+figurans+ginger&source=gbs_navlinks_s

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opens on Tuesday, March 24, 2015 and closed on Friday, May 8, 2015.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann): Weeping Ficus Thrips

California Pest Rating for
Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann): Weeping Ficus Thrips
Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae
Pest  Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On February 5, 2014 Dr. Gillian Watson confirmed the identification of a sample of thrips collected in Torrance, Los Angeles County as Gynaikothrips uzeli. This is a new state and county record and the species is in need of a pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Gynaikothrips uzeli is a largely monophagous leaf-gall-forming thrips that feeds and reproduces on Ficus benjamina. The thrips forms galls on new growth1. The thrips has also been found on Ficus obtusa, F. pilosa, F. microcarpa, and Macaranga sp.; however, it is not known to reproduce on these alternative hosts4. The primary pathway for the spread of Gynaikothrips uzeli is likely F. benjamina nursery stock. Many of the records from the southeastern states are on nursery stock and the thrips has been intercepted on nursery stock from Florida eight times.

Worldwide Distribution: Gynaikothrips uzeli is native to Southeast Asia including China and India1. Over the last decade it has been invading North America. The thrips was first reported from North America in Florida in 20031 and has since been found in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Louisiana1. It has also recently been reported from Hawaii2, Trinidad2, Costa Rica2, Belize3, Puerto Rico3, and Mexico3.

Official Control: Gynaikothrips uzeli is not known to be under official control in any states or nations5.

California Distribution: Gynaikothrips uzeli has only been officially collected in the cities of Torrance and Carson in Los Angeles County.
California Interceptions: Gynaikothrips uzeli has been intercepted 8 times since 2003 on nursery shipments of Ficus benjamina from Florida.

The risk Gynaikothrips uzeli (Weeping Ficus Thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ficus benjamina is a common landscape plant in California. Gynaikothrips uzeli is likely able to establish everywhere that these plants are grown. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Gynaikothrips uzeli is only known to complete its life cycle on Ficus benjamina. The thrips receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips are capable of rapid reproduction. Gynaikothrips uzeli has demonstrated its ability to move long distances on nursery stock. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Gynaikothrips uzeli may lower the nursery value of Ficus benjamina plants by disfiguring them with its leaf-galls and triggering chemical treatments. The thrips receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Gynaikothrips uzeli in California is expected to trigger additional chemical treatments in the nursery industry. The thrips may also have significant cultural impacts as Ficus benjamina is a common landscape plant. Residents are likely to treat plants, increase pruning4, and replace heavily infested F. benjamina with alternative plants. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Gynaikothrips uzeli: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Gynaikothrips uzeli is only known from the cities of Torrance and Carson in Los Angeles County. The thrips receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Significant pests that are not widespread in California have been observed inside the galls produced by Gynaikothrips uzeli. For example, pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) has been found living hidden inside these galls1. It is possible that high risk exotic invasive species could travel into and spread within California inside the galls formed by G. uzeli.

There have been no surveys for Gynaikothrips uzeli within California, so it could be more widely distributed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Although impacts of Gynaikothrips uzeli are expected to be limited to Ficus benjamina, this is a common landscape plant in California. Chemical treatments of hosts and changes to cultural practices as residents adapt to this pest are expected to have significant environmental impacts. Furthermore, there is the possibility that other invasive species may spread into and within California inside the galls produced by the thrips. A B-rating is justified.

References:

1Held, D.W., D. Boyd, T. Lockley, G.B. Edwards. 2005. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in the southeastern United States: Distribution and review of biology. Florida Entomologist 88(4): 538-540. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fe88p538.pdf

2Held, D.W. and D.W. Boyd, Jr. 2007. Evaluation of sticky traps and insecticides to prevent gall induction by Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) on Ficus benjamina. Pest Management Science. 64(2): 133-140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069654

3Cambero-Campos, Jhonathan, Rita Valenzuela-García, Carlos Carvajal-Cazola, Claudio Rios-Velasco, and Oswaldo García-Martínez. 2010. New records for Mexico: Gynaikothrips uzeli, Androthrips ramachandrai (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Montanadoniola confusa (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Florida Entomologist 93(3): 470-472. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.093.0328

4 University of Florida Extension http://trec.ifas.ufl.edu/mannion/pdfs/WeepingFigThrips.pdf

5 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Monday, March 16, 2015 and closed on Thursday, April 30, 2015.


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil

California Pest Rating for
Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On May 21, 2014 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a beetle collected in Escondido, San Diego County, as Pagiocerus frontalis (PDR SJ0P06003026). This beetle was also reported from San Diego County in 2010. The beetle presently has a temporary rating of Q, so Dr. Kevin Hoffman recommended a pest rating proposal to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Pagiocerus frontalis feeds and reproduces on the seeds of fallen avocado fruit and both fresh and dry corn. The species is considered a major pest of stored corn in the highlands of the Andes1,2. Beetles infest corn cobs in the field before harvest and continue feeding in storage, destroying the corn within several months1. The beetles have also been found on several other plants including coffee; however, a laboratory experiment found that these other plants were not suitable hosts for reproduction and development1. Pagiocerus frontalis is not known to have ever been intercepted, but could presumably spread long distances when infested fresh or dry corn or ripe, damaged avocados are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pagiocerus frontalis is a Neotropical beetle whose range extends from South America, through Central America and Mexico, into the southeastern United States.

Official Control: Pagiocerus frontalis is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan4 and New Zealand5.

California Distribution: In California Pagiocerus frontalis has only been found in San Diego County.

California Interceptions: Pagiocerus frontalis has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Pagiocerus frontalis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pagiocerus frontalis has a widespread distribution across a wide variety of climates from the Andes in South America to North Carolina. It can be expected to establish wherever it can find suitable host material in California. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be able to complete its reproductive cycle on corn and the seeds of fallen avocados. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pagiocerus frontalis has high reproductive potential; females lay many eggs and it can complete its entire life cycle in 3 to 4 weeks1. The beetles may theoretically disperse long distances through the movement of infested corn or inside the seeds of ripe, damaged avocados. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The value of corn produced in California was approximately $812.1 million in 2012. This includes $234.7 for grain, $454.4 for silage, and $123 million for sweet. Pagiocerus frontalis might increase production costs in these crops, especially organic sweet corn. The beetle is considered a quarantine pest by some nations. The beetle therefore has the potential to disrupt markets by contaminating corn or as a hitchhiker on other commodities. Pagiocerus frontalis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. The beetle is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. Large populations of the beetle might trigger new chemical treatments in corn when the crop is in the field or storage. Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The beetle receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pagiocerus frontalis: Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: In California, Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be established in San Diego County. The beetle receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There are a wide variety of pests that feed on both fresh and dry corn. It is possible that existing treatments, cultural practices, and modified genes will preclude any economic damage from this pest in California.  Pagiocerus frontalis also feeds on the seed of fallen avocado. These avocados are not likely to be distributed commercially; nevertheless, the presence of this beetle might disrupt markets.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pagiocerus frontalis is only known from San Diego County and has the potential to have limited economic and environmental impacts. A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Eidt-Wendt, J. and F.A. Schulz. Studies on the biology and ecology of Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infesting stored maize in Ecuador. Technical University Berlin, Department of Phytomedicine, Berlin, FRG. http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/5/61.pdf

2 Gianoli, E., I. Ramos, A. Alfaro-Tapia, Y. Valdéz, E.R. Echegaray, and E. Yábar. 2006. Benefits of a maize-bean-weeds mixed cropping system in Urubamba Valley, Peruvian Andes. International Journal of Pest Management. 52(4):283-289. http://www2.udec.cl/~egianoli/06gianintjpestman.pdf

4https://www.ippc.int/sites/default/files/documents/20130423/1309849796_qp_list_2013042321%3A18En.pdf

5 http://piorin.gov.pl/cms/upload/seed.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Comment Period: CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Monday, March 16, 2015 and closed on Thursday, April 30, 2015.


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls