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Eumerus figurans (Walker): Ginger Maggot

California Pest Rating for
Eumerus figurans (Walker): Ginger Maggot
Diptera: Syrphidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Eumerus figurans is occasionally intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Eumerus figurans is a syrphid fly whose larvae feed on various bulbs, corm, and roots1. Female flies are attracted to and lay eggs on injured and rotting bulbs, corms and roots1,2. Larvae are gregarious and hollow out bulbs as they feed2. Damage by the larvae is considered secondary to bacterial and fungal rot organisms1. Known hosts include ginger roots, lily bulbs, narcissus bulbs, decomposing pineapple stumps, and rotting dry land taro1. Larvae of Eumerus figurans may be transported long distances when infested ginger roots or other plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: The native range of Eumerus figurans is probably the tropical forests of South-east Asia. Walker described the species from Celebes and there are undescribed sibling species present in Thailand, suggesting an evolutionary origin in that region. Eumerus figurans has spread throughout much of Asia and the Southwest Pacific1. It was first found in Hawaii in 19021.

Official Control: Eumerus figurans itself is not known to be under official control by any other states or nations3. However, all members of the genus Eumerus are considered harmful organisms by Bermuda3, Iceland3, and Japan3.

California Distribution: Eumerus figurans has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 Eumerus figurans was intercepted 20 times by CDFA’s high risk programs. All interceptions for which data were recorded were on shipments of ginger root from Hawaii.

The risk Eumerus figurans (ginger maggot) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ginger grows as a perennial plant in USDA zones 9 through 12. This corresponds with much of California. Eumerus figurans is likely capable of finding injured ginger roots to feed on throughout this area. However, the fly is typically found in humid tropical and subtropical environments. Ginger maggot receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Eumerus figurans is known to feed on injured ginger roots, lily bulbs, narcissus bulbs, decomposing pineapple stumps, and rotting dry land taro1. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Species of Eumerus are thought to have 3 generations per year in Israel3. Since California also has a Mediterranean climate Eumerus figurans is likely to have 3 generations per year here. Female flies lay eggs in groups of 10-20 per bulb3, giving them a high reproductive rate. The flies may be transported long distance through the movement of infested plants or plant parts. Eumerus figurans receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Eumerus figurans is considered a secondary pest of ginger and there appears to be more literature published on the fly’s role as a pollinator than a pest. It is not expected to lower any crop yields in California. Ginger maggot is likely to be considered a quarantine pest by Iceland3, Bermuda3, and Japan3 and has the potential to disrupt exports of ginger, lily, or narcissus bulbs to those markets. However, Eumerus figurans is unlikely to establish in Iceland and is already present on Nansei Island in Japan. Lost markets may therefore be limited to exports of ginger, lily, and narcissus bulbs to Bermuda. The fly may also increase crop production costs if growers manage populations of the flies. Eumerus figurans is not expected to negatively change normal cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Eumerus figurans were to enter California it is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. Ginger maggot is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. It is possible that the flies could trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry, ginger gardens, or by residents who consider flies a nuisance. Ginger maggot is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Eumerus figurans receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Eumerus figurans (Ginger Maggot): Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Eumerus figurans has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There is some speculation that Eumerus figurans might play a role in the spread of bacterial and fungal rot organisms between ginger plants1. If confirmed, this could increase its economic impact.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Eumerus figurans (ginger maggot) has never been found in California. It is expected to have limited economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Mau, R.F.L., J.L. Martin Kessing. 1992. Eumerus figurans (Walker). Hawaii Crop Knowledge Master. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/eumerus.htm

2 Hill, Dennis S. 1987. Agricultural Insect Pests of Temperate Regions and Their Control. CUP Archive. 659pp. https://books.google.com/books?id=3-w8AAAAIAAJ&dq=eumerus+figurans+ginger&source=gbs_navlinks_s

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls

Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann): Weeping Ficus Thrips

California Pest Rating for
Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann): Weeping Ficus Thrips
Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae
Pest  Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On February 5, 2014 Dr. Gillian Watson confirmed the identification of a sample of thrips collected in Torrance, Los Angeles County as Gynaikothrips uzeli. This is a new state and county record and the species is in need of a pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Gynaikothrips uzeli is a largely monophagous leaf-gall-forming thrips that feeds and reproduces on Ficus benjamina. The thrips forms galls on new growth1. The thrips has also been found on Ficus obtusa, F. pilosa, F. microcarpa, and Macaranga sp.; however, it is not known to reproduce on these alternative hosts4. The primary pathway for the spread of Gynaikothrips uzeli is likely F. benjamina nursery stock. Many of the records from the southeastern states are on nursery stock and the thrips has been intercepted on nursery stock from Florida eight times.

Worldwide Distribution: Gynaikothrips uzeli is native to Southeast Asia including China and India1. Over the last decade it has been invading North America. The thrips was first reported from North America in Florida in 20031 and has since been found in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Louisiana1. It has also recently been reported from Hawaii2, Trinidad2, Costa Rica2, Belize3, Puerto Rico3, and Mexico3.

Official Control: Gynaikothrips uzeli is not known to be under official control in any states or nations5.

California Distribution: Gynaikothrips uzeli has only been officially collected in the cities of Torrance and Carson in Los Angeles County.
California Interceptions: Gynaikothrips uzeli has been intercepted 8 times since 2003 on nursery shipments of Ficus benjamina from Florida.

The risk Gynaikothrips uzeli (Weeping Ficus Thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Ficus benjamina is a common landscape plant in California. Gynaikothrips uzeli is likely able to establish everywhere that these plants are grown. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Gynaikothrips uzeli is only known to complete its life cycle on Ficus benjamina. The thrips receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips are capable of rapid reproduction. Gynaikothrips uzeli has demonstrated its ability to move long distances on nursery stock. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Gynaikothrips uzeli may lower the nursery value of Ficus benjamina plants by disfiguring them with its leaf-galls and triggering chemical treatments. The thrips receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Gynaikothrips uzeli in California is expected to trigger additional chemical treatments in the nursery industry. The thrips may also have significant cultural impacts as Ficus benjamina is a common landscape plant. Residents are likely to treat plants, increase pruning4, and replace heavily infested F. benjamina with alternative plants. The thrips receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Gynaikothrips uzeli: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Gynaikothrips uzeli is only known from the cities of Torrance and Carson in Los Angeles County. The thrips receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Significant pests that are not widespread in California have been observed inside the galls produced by Gynaikothrips uzeli. For example, pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) has been found living hidden inside these galls1. It is possible that high risk exotic invasive species could travel into and spread within California inside the galls formed by G. uzeli.

There have been no surveys for Gynaikothrips uzeli within California, so it could be more widely distributed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Although impacts of Gynaikothrips uzeli are expected to be limited to Ficus benjamina, this is a common landscape plant in California. Chemical treatments of hosts and changes to cultural practices as residents adapt to this pest are expected to have significant environmental impacts. Furthermore, there is the possibility that other invasive species may spread into and within California inside the galls produced by the thrips. A B-rating is justified.

References:

1Held, D.W., D. Boyd, T. Lockley, G.B. Edwards. 2005. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in the southeastern United States: Distribution and review of biology. Florida Entomologist 88(4): 538-540. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fe88p538.pdf

2Held, D.W. and D.W. Boyd, Jr. 2007. Evaluation of sticky traps and insecticides to prevent gall induction by Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) on Ficus benjamina. Pest Management Science. 64(2): 133-140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069654

3Cambero-Campos, Jhonathan, Rita Valenzuela-García, Carlos Carvajal-Cazola, Claudio Rios-Velasco, and Oswaldo García-Martínez. 2010. New records for Mexico: Gynaikothrips uzeli, Androthrips ramachandrai (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Montanadoniola confusa (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Florida Entomologist 93(3): 470-472. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.093.0328

4 University of Florida Extension http://trec.ifas.ufl.edu/mannion/pdfs/WeepingFigThrips.pdf

5 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil

California Pest Rating for
Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius): A Scolytid Weevil
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating: B

PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On May 21, 2014 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a beetle collected in Escondido, San Diego County, as Pagiocerus frontalis (PDR SJ0P06003026). This beetle was also reported from San Diego County in 2010. The beetle presently has a temporary rating of Q, so Dr. Kevin Hoffman recommended a pest rating proposal to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Pagiocerus frontalis feeds and reproduces on the seeds of fallen avocado fruit and both fresh and dry corn. The species is considered a major pest of stored corn in the highlands of the Andes1,2. Beetles infest corn cobs in the field before harvest and continue feeding in storage, destroying the corn within several months1. The beetles have also been found on several other plants including coffee; however, a laboratory experiment found that these other plants were not suitable hosts for reproduction and development1. Pagiocerus frontalis is not known to have ever been intercepted, but could presumably spread long distances when infested fresh or dry corn or ripe, damaged avocados are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pagiocerus frontalis is a Neotropical beetle whose range extends from South America, through Central America and Mexico, into the southeastern United States.

Official Control: Pagiocerus frontalis is listed as a quarantine pest by Japan4 and New Zealand5.

California Distribution: In California Pagiocerus frontalis has only been found in San Diego County.

California Interceptions: Pagiocerus frontalis has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Pagiocerus frontalis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pagiocerus frontalis has a widespread distribution across a wide variety of climates from the Andes in South America to North Carolina. It can be expected to establish wherever it can find suitable host material in California. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be able to complete its reproductive cycle on corn and the seeds of fallen avocados. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pagiocerus frontalis has high reproductive potential; females lay many eggs and it can complete its entire life cycle in 3 to 4 weeks1. The beetles may theoretically disperse long distances through the movement of infested corn or inside the seeds of ripe, damaged avocados. The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The value of corn produced in California was approximately $812.1 million in 2012. This includes $234.7 for grain, $454.4 for silage, and $123 million for sweet. Pagiocerus frontalis might increase production costs in these crops, especially organic sweet corn. The beetle is considered a quarantine pest by some nations. The beetle therefore has the potential to disrupt markets by contaminating corn or as a hitchhiker on other commodities. Pagiocerus frontalis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. The beetle is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats. Large populations of the beetle might trigger new chemical treatments in corn when the crop is in the field or storage. Pagiocerus frontalis is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The beetle receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pagiocerus frontalis: Medium(11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

– Low = 5-8 points
– Medium = 9-12 points
– High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: In California, Pagiocerus frontalis is only known to be established in San Diego County. The beetle receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

– Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
– Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
– Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
– High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There are a wide variety of pests that feed on both fresh and dry corn. It is possible that existing treatments, cultural practices, and modified genes will preclude any economic damage from this pest in California.  Pagiocerus frontalis also feeds on the seed of fallen avocado. These avocados are not likely to be distributed commercially; nevertheless, the presence of this beetle might disrupt markets.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pagiocerus frontalis is only known from San Diego County and has the potential to have limited economic and environmental impacts. A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Eidt-Wendt, J. and F.A. Schulz. Studies on the biology and ecology of Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infesting stored maize in Ecuador. Technical University Berlin, Department of Phytomedicine, Berlin, FRG. http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/5/61.pdf

2 Gianoli, E., I. Ramos, A. Alfaro-Tapia, Y. Valdéz, E.R. Echegaray, and E. Yábar. 2006. Benefits of a maize-bean-weeds mixed cropping system in Urubamba Valley, Peruvian Andes. International Journal of Pest Management. 52(4):283-289. http://www2.udec.cl/~egianoli/06gianintjpestman.pdf

4https://www.ippc.int/sites/default/files/documents/20130423/1309849796_qp_list_2013042321%3A18En.pdf

5 http://piorin.gov.pl/cms/upload/seed.pdf

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


 Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls