California Pest Rating for
Neofusicoccum mangiferae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Crous, Slippers & A. J. L. Phillips, 2006
Pest Rating: C
PEST RATING PROFILE
The current status and rating of Neofusicoccum mangiferae in California is reassessed and a permanent rating is proposed.
History & Status:
Background: Neofusicoccum mangiferae is a fungal plant pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae. The species was originally named Dothiorella mangiferae but since then has undergone several taxonomic revisions and is also been known as Nattrassia mangiferae, Fusicoccum mangiferae, and Hendersonula cypria (Crous et al., 2006; Farr & Rossman, 2016).
In California, Neofusicoccum mangiferae is widespread and has been found in different hosts including walnut and fig causing branch wilt and limb dieback (Michailides et al., 2007), in citrus causing branch and trunk canker (Eskalen et al., 2011) and Indian leaf-laurel fig causing ‘Sooty Canker’ disease (as syn. Nattrassia mangiferae) which severely damaged street plantings of Indian leaf-laurel fig in southern California (Hodel, et al., 2009; Mayorquin et al., 2012). In addition, during 2015-16, CDFA plant pathologists identified the pathogen from diseased mango and avocado fruit that were intercepted in shipments from Florida to California. In natural infestations, the pathogen is often found in combination with other fungal species.
Disease development: In Indian laurel-leaf fig and other host plants, Hodel et al., (2009) reported that the pathogen enters the tree primarily through bark wounds produced by mechanical damage, pruning, freezing weather, sunburn, insects, or other diseases. Smooth, thin-barked trees or those stressed from insufficient water and other factors are especially susceptible to the disease. The fungus and disease develops most rapidly in warm temperatures (85-105°F) under high humidity. Slightly sunken cankers develop at the wound and point of infection on branches and may expand as the disease progresses. Once the disease expands to the trunk, the tree dies. Small, black, pencil-point size fungal fruiting bodies are formed on the cankers while the underlying infected sapwood inside the bark is stained grey to black and sharply demarcated from adjacent light-colored, healthy tissue. Masses of dark spores are produced by the fruiting bodies and dispersed by wind, rain splash, pruning tools, and insects.
Dispersal and spread: Wind, rain, water-splash, pruning tools, insects, and animals can spread fungal spores to non-infected plants.
Hosts: Agathis spp. (kauri; Araucariaceae), Castanea sativa (European chestnut; Fagaceae), Dioscorea rotundata (white yam; Dioscoreaceae), Eucalyptus grandis (flooded/rose gum; Myrtaceae), Mangifera indica (mango; Anacardiaceae), Manihot esculenta (cassava; Euphorbiaceae), Persea americana (avocado; Lauraceae), Prunus armeniaca (ansu apricot; Rosaceae), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm; Arecaceae), Cupressus (cypress; Cupressaceae), Robina pseudoacacia (black locust; Fabaceae), Tibouchina urvilleana (glory bush/purple glory tree; Melastomataceae), Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel-leaf fig; Moraceae)) F. carica (edible fig: Moraceae), Juglans regia (English walnut; Juglandaceae), Citrus sp. (citrus; Rutaceae) (El-Trafi, 2010; Farr & Rossman, 2016; French, 1989; Heath et al., 2011; Mayorquin et al., 2012; Michailides et al., 2007; Nazerian et al., 2015). Vitis vinifera (grape: Vitaceae) was reported as a host of Neofusicoccum mangiferae in China (Dissanayake et al., 2015).
Symptoms: Neofusicoccum mangiferae causes blight of inflorescences, rachis, and branches of infected host plants. Symptoms include branch and trunk cankers, branch wilt and dieback, lesions and rot of fruit, rachis and flower discoloration and necrosis.
The pathogen has been reported to be associated with rachis necrosis and inflorescence blight in mango in Puerto Rico (Serrato-Diaz et al., 2014), lesions and progressive rot in mango and avocado fruit in Taiwan (Ni et al., 2009, 2010), Walnut branch wilt, fig branch dieback, citrus branch and/or trunk cankers, branch dieback and tree death symptoms of sooty canker disease in Indian laurel-leaf fig trees in California (Eskalen et al., 2011; Michailides et al., 2007; Hodel et al., 2009). In China, symptoms associated with grapevine dieback were characterized by partial or total death of affected cordons, with brown U-shaped necrotic sectors and brownish-black spot in cross-sections of affected trunks and arms (Dissanayake et al., 2015).
Damage Potential: In mango, disease incidences of 20-100% have been reported (Serrato-Diaz et al., 2014; El-Trafi, 2009) as well as 30-72% rot disease in stored mango fruit (Ni et al., 2010). In several cities in Los Angeles County, California, the pathogen has devastated landscape plantings of Indian laurel-leaf fig tree by causing severe damage and death (Hodel et al., 2009). Branch and trunk canker of citrus and other tree hosts may lead to decline or death of branches and whole plants (Eskalen et al., 2011; Michailides et al., 2007).
Worldwide Distribution: Asia: India, Iran, Myanmar, Pakistan, Taiwan; Africa: Benin, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan; Europe: Cyprus; North America: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Washington, West Virginia; South America: Uruguay; Caribbean: Puerto Rico; Australia (CABI, 2016; USDA ARS, 2016; Farr & Rossman, 2016).
Official Control: None reported.
California Distribution: Neofusicoccum mangiferae is widespread in California in northern and southern coastal and valley counties including, Fresno, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Tulare, and Ventura Counties (Eskalen et al., 2011; French, 1989; Hodel et al., 2009; Mayorquin et al., 2012).
California Interceptions: From June 2014 to August 2016, Neofusicoccum mangiferae has been detected in eight shipments of mango and one shipment of avocado fruit imported to California (CDFA Pest and Damage Records).
The risk Neofusicoccum mangiferae would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
Risk is Medium (2): Neofusicoccum mangiferae is able to establish in California under warm to hot and very humid climates. Already, it is distributed within the State in certain southern and northern coastal and valley counties.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
Risk is Medium (2): Neofusicoccum mangiferae has a moderate and diverse host range. In California it has been found in Indian laurel-leaf fig tree, edible fig, citrus, avocado, and chestnut. It has been detected in intercepted shipments of mango and avocado fruit.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
Risk is Medium (2): Numerous numbers of spores are produced by this pathogen due to its high reproduction. However, spore dispersal to non-infested hosts is dependent on external factor such as wind, water-splash, rain, infected pruning tools, insects, and animals. Therefore, it is given a Medium score.
4) Economic Impact: Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
Risk is High (3): Neofusicoccum mangiferae could lower crop yield, value, increase production costs, require changes in normal pruning practices, and can be spread by insects and animals, thereby, qualifying it for a high score for economic impact.
5) Environmental Impact: Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Risk is High (3): Infections of tree hosts used as commercial landscape, ornamental and private gardens plantings could result in disrupting natural communities in those environments, subsequently requiring official or private treatments.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Neofusicoccum mangiferae:
Add up the total score and include it here. (Score)
-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points
Total points obtained on evaluation of consequences of introduction to California = 13
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score)
-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
Evaluation is High (-3): Neofusicoccum mangiferae has been reported from certain southern and northern coastal and valley counties.
7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (Score)
Final Score: Score of Consequences of Introduction – Score of Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information = 9.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Based on the evidence provided above the proposed rating for Neofusicoccum mangiferae is C.
CABI. 2016. Neofusicoccum mangiferae datasheet (basic). http://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/115758 .
Crous, P. W., B. Slippers, M. J. Wingfield, J. Rheeder, W. F. O. Warasas, A. J. L. Philips, A. Alves, T. Burgess, P. Barber, and J. Z. Groenewald. 2006. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae. Studies in Mycology 55: 235-253.
Dissanayake, A. J., W. Jhang, X. Li, Y. Zhou, T. Chethana, E. Hukeatirote, K. D. Hyde, J. Yan, G. Zhang, and W. Zhao. 2015. First report of Neofusicoccum mangiferae associated with grape dieback in China. Phytopathologia Mediterranea temp25-30. DOI: 10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-15159.
El-Trafi, M. A. 2010. Studies on mango branch wilt disease caused by Neofusicoccum mangiferae. FAO Agris Records. http://agris.fao.org/openagris/search.do?recordID=SD2010000222 .
Eskalen, A., A. Adesemoye, and D. Wang. 2011. Identification of different species causing Botryosphaeriaceae canker in citrus reveal Neofusicoccum mangiferae with Scytalidium-like synanomorph. Phytopathology, 101: S49.
Farr, D.F., & A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved January 28, 2016, from http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/.
French, A.M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, 394 pages.
Heath, R.N., J. Roux, B. Slippers, A. Drenth, S. R. Pennycook, B. D. Wingfield, and M. J. Wingfield. 2011. Occurrence and pathogenicity of Neofusicoccum parvum and N. mangiferae on ornamental Tibouchina species. Forest Pathology, 41: 48-51.
Hodel, D. R., A. J. Downer, and D. M. Mathews. 2009. Sooty canker, a devastating disease of Indian laurel-leaf fig trees. Western Arborist 35: 28-32.
Mayorquin, J. S., A. Eskalen, A. J. Downer, D. R. Hodel, and A. Liu. 2012. First report of multiple species of the Botryosphaeriaceae causing bot canker disease of Indian laurel-leaf fig in California. Plant Disease, 96:459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0714.
Michailides, T. J., D. P. Morgan, D. Felts, and H. Reyes. 2007. Emerging fungal diseases in fruit and nut crops in California. Phytopathology, 97: S170.
Nazerian, E., H. R. Naji, H. Abdul-Hamid, and M. Moradi. 2015. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Neofusicoccum mangiferae, the causal agent of black locust decline. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 6: 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000250 .
Ni, H. F., R. F. Liou, T., H. Hung, R. S. Chen, and H. R. Yang. 2010. First report of fruit rot disease of mango caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea and Neofusicoccum mangiferae in Taiwan. Plant Disease 94: 128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0128C
Ni, H. F., R. F. Liou, T., H. Hung, R. S. Chen, and H. R. Yang. 2009. First report of a fruit rot disease of avocado caused by Neofusicoccum mangiferae. Plant Disease 93: 760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0760B
Serrato-Diaz, L. M., L. I. Rivera-Vargas, and R. D. French-Monar. 2014. First report of Neofusicoccum mangiferae causing necrosis and inflorescence blight of Mango (Mangifera indica) in Puerto Rico. Plant Disease 98: 570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0878-PDN
USDA ARS. 2016. Fungi on Mango in India, but not found in the U.S.A. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory – Nomenclature Fact Sheets. July 7, 2016. http://nt.ars-grin.gov/sbmlweb/onlineresources/nomenfactsheets/rptBuildFactSheet_onLine.cfm?thisName=Fungi%20on%20Mango%20in%20India¤tDS=specimens .
USDA PCIT. 2016. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ReportHarmOrgs.jsp.
John J. Chitambar, Primary Plant Pathologist/Nematologist, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832. Phone: 916-262-1110, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
Comment Period: CLOSED
Oct 25 – Dec 9, 2016
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Pest Rating: C
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