White Peach Scale | Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)

White Peach Scale | Psuedaulacaspis pentagona
California Pest Rating for
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni): White Peach Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to justify its pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPseudaulacaspis pentagona is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect.  It is considered an important economic pest of peach trees and woody ornamentals and has destroyed many peach orchards in the southeast USA1.  Known hosts include: Acanthaceae: Acanthus sp.2, Asystasia2, Crossandra sp. 2; Actinidiaceae: Actinidia arguta2, Actinidia polygama2, Actinidia sp. 2; Amaranthaceae: Gomphrena sp. 2, Salicornia fruticosa2; Anacardiaceae: Mangifera sp. 2, Mangifera indica2, Rhus sp. 2, Schinus sp. 2, Spondias sp. 2; Apocynaceae: Allamanda cathartica2, Allamanda grandiflora2, Allamanda sp. 2, Asclepius sp. 2, Calotropis procera2, Calotropis2, Catharanthus roseus2, Cynanchym perrieri2, Ervatamia orientalis2, Marsdenia clausa2, Nerium oleander2, Nerium sp. 2, Plumeria alba2, Plumeria rubra2, Plumeria sp. 2, Plumeria acutifolia2, Rhynchospermum verticulatum2, Rhynchospermum sp. 2, Tylophora asthmatica2, Vinca rosea2; Aquifoliaceae: Ilex sp. 2, Ilex opaca2; Araceae: Philodendron sp. 2, Symplocarpus2; Araliaceae: Arailia sp. 2, Aralia spinosa2, Aralia elata2, Hedera sp. 2, Kalopanax septemlobus2; Arecaceae: Chrysalidocarpus lutescens2, Cocos nucifera2, Phoenix2; Asteraceae: Arctium sp. 2, Bahia fastigata2, Helianthus sp. 2, Helianthus annuus2, Mikania2; Berberidaceae: Berberis2, Mahonia sp. 2, Betulaceae: Osmanthus ilicifolius2, Osmanthus asiaticus2, Ostrya2; Bignoniaceae: Bignonia2, Catalpa ovata2, Catalpa syringifolia2, Catalpa vulgaris2, Catalpa yunnanensis2, Catalpa sp. 2, Catalpa bignonioides2, Catalpa bungei2, Tecoma sp. 2, Boraginaceae: Ehretia ovalifolia2, Ehretia acuminata2, Heliotropium peruvianum2, Messersmidia argentea2, Tournefortia argentea2, Brassicaceae: Brassica willdenovii2, Brassica rapa2, Iberis sp. 2; Cannabaceae: Trema sp. 2; Capparaceae: Cleome spinosa2; Caricaceae: Carica papaya2, Carica sp. 2; Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus sp. 2; Casuarinaceae: Casuarina2; Celastraceae: Euonymus alata2, Euonymus sp. 2, Euonymus europaea2, Orixa japonica2; Clusiaceae: Calophyllum sp. 2, Hypericum sp. 2, Mammea americana2; Convolvulaceae: Argyreia speciosa2, Argyreia nervosa2, Ipomea batatas2, Ipomea purpurea2, Ipomea sp. 2, Ipomoea tiliacea2, Cornaceae: Cornus sp. 2; Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum calycinum2, Bryophyllum pinnatum2, Kalanchoe nadijae2, Kalanchoe orgyalis2, Kalanchoe pinnatum2, Kalanchoe sp. 2, Sedum sp. 2; Cucurbitaceae: Citrullus vulgaris2, Cucurbita sp. 2; Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta2, Cycas media2, Cycas sp. 2, Zamia2; Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp. 2, Diospyros kaki2, Diospyros virginiana2; Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus2; Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites2, Codiaeum sp. 2, Croton sp. 2, Euphorbiaceae sp. 2, Hevea2, Jatropha gossypifolia2, Jatropha curcas2, Jatropha integerrima2, Jatropha sp. 2, Macaranga sp. 2, Mallotus japonicus2, Manihot sp. 2, Manihot esculenta2, Pedilanthus tithymaloides2, Poinsettia2, Ricinus communis2, Ricinus sp. 2, Sapium sebiferum2, Sebastiana ligustrina2; Fabaceae: Acacia sp. 2, Acacia arabica2, Albizia stipulata2, Bauhinia sp. 2, Cajanus cajan2, Cassia alata2, Cercis sp. 2, Cercis canadensis2, Crotaleria juncea2, Crotolaria sp. 2, Cytisus scoparius2, Cytisus nigricans2, Erythrina poeppigiana2, Erythrina indica2, Erythrina glauca2, Erythrina sp. 2, Genista sp. 2, Gleditschia triacanthos2, Gleditschia sp. 2, Gleditschia ferox2, Glycine max2, Kennedya2, Lespedeza sp. 2, Ononis sp. 2, Phaseolus vulgaris2, Pueraria sp. 2, Robinia pseudoacacia2, Sarothamnus2, Sophora japonica2, Vigna sp. 2; Fagaceae: Castanea sp. 2, Castanea crenata2, Quercus acutissima2; Geraniaceae: Geranium sp. 2, Pelargonium zonale2, Pelargonium inquinans2, Pelargonium sp. 2; Ginkgoaceae: Ginkgo2; Grossulariaceae: Ribes sp. 2; Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp. 2; Juglandaceae: Juglans regia2, Juglans mandshurica2, Juglans sp. 2, Juglans nigra2, Pterocarya stenoptera2; Lamiaceae: Callicarpa sp. 2, Nepeta sp. 2; Lauraceae: Cinnamomum2, Sassafras sp. 2; Liliaceae: Draceana sp. 2; Loganiaceae: Buddleia davidii2, Gelsemium sp. 2; Loranthaceae: Loranthus sp. 2; Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia flos-reginae2; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia sp. 2; Malvaceae: Althaea rosea2, Althaea sp. 2, Dombeya sp. 2, Firmiana simplex2, Firmiana plantanifolia2, Gossypium sp. 2, Gossypium brasiliense2, Guazuma ulmifolia2, Hibiscus sp. 2, Hibiscus diversifolius2, Hibiscus esculentum2, Hibiscus manihot2, Hibiscus mutabilis2, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis2, Hibiscus tiliaceus2, Malachra sp. 2, Malvastrum tricuspidatum2, Montezuma speciosissima2, Sida2, Sterculia plantifolia2, Sterculia sp. 2, Theobroma sp. 2, Tilia miqueliana2, Triumfetta bartramia2, Urena sinuata2, Urena lobata2; Meliaceae: Cedrela sp. 2, Cedrela toona2, Melia sp. 2, Melia azedarach2; Moraceae: Broussonetia sp. 2, Broussonetia kazinoki2, Broussonetia papyrifera2, Castilla sp. 2, Ficus sp. 2, Morus nigra2, Morus rubra2, Morus sp. 2, Morus alba2, Morus indica2, Morus bombycis2; Musaceae: Strelitzia2; Myrtaceae: Eugenia sp. 2, Psidium2; Oleaceae: Chionanthus virginicus2, Fraxinus chinensis2, Fraxinus excelsior2, Fraxinus sp. 2, Jasminum sp. 2, Jasminum sp. 2, Ligustrum obtusifolium2, Ligustrum japonicum2, Ligustrum ibota2, Ligustrum sp. 2, Osmanthus sp. 2, Syringa vulgaris2, Syringa sp. 2; Onagraceae: Fuchsia sp. 2; Orchidaceae:, Ellaeanthus sp. 2, Stanhopea sp. 2; Pandanaceae: Pandanus sp. 2; Passifloraceae: Passiflora sp. 2, Passiflora edulis2, Passiflora quadrangularis2; Piperaceae: Piper sp. 2, Piper umbellatum2, Potomorphe umbellata2; Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp. 2; Platanaceae: Phytolacca rivinoides2, Platanocephalus indicus2, Platanus2; Polygalaceae: Polygala2; Ranunculaceae: Clematis sp. 2, Delphinium sp. 2, Paeonia2; Rhamnaceae: Hovenia dulcis2, Rhamnus alaternus2, Rhamnus sp. 2, Rhamnus elaternum2, Ziziphus sp. 2; Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis2, Amygdalus sp. 2, Amygdalus armeniaca2, Amygdalus persica2, Armeniaca2, Cerasus2, Cliffortia polygonifolia2, Cotoneaster sp. 2, Cydonia sp. 2, Cydonia oblonga2, Cydonia vulgaris2, Kerria japonica2, Malus pumila2, Malus formosana2, Malus sylvestris2, Persica vulgaris2, Photinia serrulata2, Prunus sp. 2, Prunus mume2, Prunus communis2, Prunus domestica2, Prunus laurocerasus2, Prunus persica2, Prunus yedoensis2, Prunus subhirtella2, Prunus sargentii2, Prunus salicina2, Prunus pseudocerasus2, Prunus amygdaloides2, Prunus armeniaca2, Prunus avium2, Prunus pognostyla2, Prunus cerasus2, Pyrus serotina2, Rosa2, Rubus2, Sorbus commixta2, Spiroea japonica2, Stranvaesia niitakayamensis2; Rubiaceae: Bouvardia2, Cinchona sp. 2, Galium sp. 2, Morinda citrifolia2, Palicourea sp. 2; Rutaceae: Citrus maxima2, Citrus reticulata2, Citrus sp. 2, Citrus aurantium2, Evodia rutaecarpa2, Zanthoxylum2, Zanthoxylum piperitum2; Salicaceae: Flacourtia2, Populus sp. 2, Populus sieboldi2, Populus alba2, Salix warburgii2, Salix nigra2, Salix kinuyanagi2, Salix glandulosa2, Salix chaenomeloides2, Salix babylonica2, Salix sp. 2; Santalaceae: Phoradendron flavescens2; Sapindaceae: Acer2, Aesculus pavia2, Aesculus hippocastanum2, Koelreuteria paniculata2, Nephelium2; Sapotaceae: Sideroxilon marmulano2; Saxifragaceae: Deutzia scabra2, Ribes rubrum2, Ribes grossularia2, Ribes sinanense2; Scrophulariaceae: Angelonia salicariaefolia2, Buddleja sp. 2, Myoporum pictum2, Paulownia tomentosa2, Paulownia sp. 2, Scrophularia2, Veronica2; Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus glandulosa2, Picrasma quassioides2; Solanaceae: Capsicum grossum2, Capsicum annum2, Capsicum sp. 2, Datura suaveolens2, Lycopersicon esculentum2, Nicotiana tabacum2, Solanum verbascifolium2, Solanum rugosum2, Solanum uporo2, Solanum auriculatum2, Solanum sp. 2; Theaceae: Camellia sp. 2, Thea sinensis2; Ulmaceae: Aphananthe aspera2, Celtis australis2, Celtis sinensis2, Trema lamarckiana2, Trema micrantha2, Ulmus campestris2, Ulmus sp. 2, Zelkova serrata2; Urticaceae: Boehmeria sp. 2, Urtica dioica2; Verbenaceae: Callicaria superba2, Callicarpa americana2, Callicarpa lanata2, Lantana sp. 2, Stachytarpheta indica2, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis2, Stachytarpheta dichotoma2, Stachytarpheta mutabilis2, Stachytarpheta sp. 2, Stachytarpheta urticifolia2, Stachytarpheta urticaefolia2, Verbena sp. 2, Verbena bonariensis2; Vitaceae: Quinaria2, Vitis vinifera2, Vitis sp. 2.  White peach scale may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is believed to be native to Japan or China but has spread throughout much of the world1.  It is established in the east from Texas to Florida and as far north as Maine1.  It was first found in Hawaii in 19971.

Official Control: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is listed as a harmful organism by Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Chile, French Polynesia, Georgia, Honduras, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam3.

California Distribution Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has been intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs, dog teams, and border stations 408 times.  Many of these interceptions have been on papaya and kiwi fruits from Hawaii and kiwi fruits from Italy.

The risk Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (white peach scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Due to its highly polyphagous nature and current establishment in a range of climates from Hawaii to Canada white peach scale can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants belonging to at least 76 families.  Known hosts include many economically important crops.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Pseudaulacaspis pentagona lay an average of 80-100 eggs and have 2-4 generations per year1.  Scale insects can be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.  They may also disperse locally by crawling, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Pseudaulacaspis pentagona were to enter California it would be expected to lower the yields of many crops, especially stone fruit.  It is likely to increase crop production costs.  Many of California’s trading partners list white peach scale as a harmful organism, indicating that trade disruptions would be likely.  White peach scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is likely to feed on multiple threatened or endangered plant species including Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  It is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  White peach scale would likely trigger additional official or private treatment programs in orchards, the nursery industry, and by residents who find infested plants unacceptable.  It is also likely to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, and a wide range of ornamental plantings.  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (White Peach Scale):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any recent surveys of California for white peach scale.  It is possible it could be present at some localities.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudaulacaspis pentagona has never been found in California and is likely to have major economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Branscome, Deanna. 2012. Common name: white peach scale. University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/white_peach_scale.htm

2 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudaulacaspis%20pentagona/

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016 – 11/7/2016


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls