Lesser Snow Scale | Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley)

LesserSnowScale-CDFA
California Pest Rating
Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley): Lesser Snow Scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Former Pest Rating:  A
Current Pest Rating:  A
Initiating Event:

Pinnaspis strachani is frequently intercepted by CDFA.  A pest rating proposal is required to support the permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundPinnaspis strachani is a highly polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on a wide variety of plants.  Known hosts include:  Acanthaceae: Justicia sp.1, Thunbergia grandiflora1; Amaryllidaceae: Agave fourcroytes1, Crinum sp.1, Crinum asiaticum1, Eucharis sp.1, Polianthes tuberosa1; Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale1, Mangifera sp.1, Mangifera odorata1, Mangifera indica1; Annonaceae: Annona muricata1, Annona squamosa1, Annona sp.1, Annona reticulata1, Cananga odorata1, Polyalthia longifolia1, Uvaria sp.1; Apocynaceae: Calotropis procera1, Nerium sp.1, Pachypodium sp.1, Parsonsia sp.1, Plumeria sp.1, Plumeria alba1, Plumeria rubra1, Plumeria tuberculata1, Vallesia glabra1; Araceae: Colocasia esculenta1, Rhaphidophora sp.1; Araliaceae: Arailia sp.1, Schefflera sp.1, Arecaceae: Acanthophoenix sp.1, Attalea gomphocarpa1, Chamaerops , Chrysalidocarpus sp.1, Cocos nucifera1, Cocos sp.1, Elaeis guineensis1, Heterospathe sp.1, Howea sp.1, Kentia sp.1, Latania sp.1, Licuala sp.1, Livistona sp.1, Phoenix dactylifera1, Rhapis sp.1, Roystonea regia1, Sabal sp.1, Thrinax sp.1, Trachycarpus sp.1, Veitchia joannis1, Verschaffeltia1; Asparagaceae: Agave sisalana1, Agave americana1, Cordyline sp.1, Dracaena sp.1, Furcraea gigantea1, Liriope sp.1, Yucca sp.1; Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum indicum1, Fitchia sp.1, Psiadia sp.1, Scalesia incisa1, Scalesia affinis1; Boraginaceae: Coldenia fusca1, Cordia lutea1, Cordia alba1, Cordia macrostachya1, Heliotropium arborescens1, Messerschmidia argentea1, Tournefortia sp.1, Tournefortia argentea1; Brassicaceae: Thelypodium sp.1, Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus1, Bromelia sp.1; Cannaceae: Canna indica1; Combretaceae: Conocarpus erecta1, Terminalia sp.1, Terminalia catappa1, Terminalia calamansanay1, Terminalia complanata1; Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea batatas1, Ipomoea grandiflora1; Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum pinnata1; Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa cerifera1, Cucurbita sp.1, Cucurbita maxima1, Cucurbita pepo1, Sechium sp.1, Sechium edulis1, Trichosanthes sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas sp.1, Cycas revoluta1, Dioon edule1, Zamia sp.1; Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea alata1, Dioscorea bulbifera1, Dioscorea sp.1, Ebenaceae: Diospyros chloroxylon1, Diospyros kaki1; Elaeocarpaceae: Muntingia calabura1; Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha wilkesiana1, Aleurites moluccana1, Chamaesyce amplexicaulis1, Croton lucidus1, Croton sp.1, Euphorbiaceae heterophylla1, Euphorbiaceae sp.1, Euphorbiaceae nivulia1, Euphorbiaceae pulcherrima1, Excoecaria agallocha1, Hevea brasiliensis1, Hippomane mancinella1, Jatropha curcas1, Manihot sp.1, Manihot esculenta1, Pedilanthus sp.1, Ricinus communis1; Fabaceae: Acacia melanoxylon1, Albizia stipulata1, Albizia sp.1, Bahuinia variegata1, Bauhinia sp.1, Bauhinia pauletia1, Bauhinia purpurea1, Bauhinia sp.1, Caesalpinia sp.1, Caesalpinia pulcherrima1, Caesalpinia crista1, Cajanus indicus1, Cajanus sp.1, Cajanus cajan1, Canavalia microcarpa1, Cassia alata1, Cassia tora1, Cassia occidentalis1, Crotalaria usaramoensis1, Crotalaria hirsuta1, Crotalaria sp.1, Delonix regia1, Desmodium lasiocarpum1, Enterolobium cyclocarpum1, Erythrina subumbrans1, Erythrina sp.1, Erythrina poeppigiana1, Erythrina lithosperma1, Erythrina indica1, Erythrina glauca1, Galactia striata1, Inocarpus fagiferus1, Intsia bijuga1, Lablab purpureus1, Leucaena leucocephala1, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus1, Macroptilium lathyroides1, Mimosa pigra1, Mimosa pudica1, Phaseolus vulgaris1, Pithecolobium saman1, Prosopis sp.1, Pueraria thunbergiana1, Samanea saman1, Sophora tomentosa1, Wistaria sp.1; Geraniaceae: Geranium sp.1, Pelargonium radula1, Pelargonium zonale1; Gesneriaceae: Saintpaulia sp.1; Heliconiaceae: Heliconia sp.1; Hernandiaceae: Hernandia ovigera1, Hernandia peltata1; Lamiaceae: Ocimum gratissimum1; Lauraceae: Cassytha filiformis1, Cinnamomum camphora1, Persea americana1; Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia sp.1, Barringtonia asiatica1, Barringtonia thurstonii1, Barringtonia butonica1; Liliaceae: Aloe sp.1, Asparagus officinalis1, Asparagus sprengeri1, Asparagus plumosus1, Cordyline terminalis1, Ophiopogon japonicus1, Ophiopogon intermedius1, Rhipogonum scandens1, Sansevieria metallica1, Sansevieria sp.1, Yucca gloriosa1; Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica1, Punica granatum1; Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora1; Malvaceae: Abutilon hybridum1, Abutilon sp.1, Althaea officinalis1, Bastardia vicosa1, Ceiba sp.1, Ceiba pentrandra1, Dombeya sp.1, Gossypium sp.1, Gossypium hirsutum1, Gossypium barbadense1, Gossypium arboreum1, Guazuma ulmifolia1, Hibiscus sp.1, Hibiscus syriacus1, Hibiscus tiliaceus1, Hibiscus sabdariffa1, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis1, Hibiscus mutabilis1, Hibiscus manihot1, Hibiscus esculentus1, Malvastrum americanum1, Malvaviscus arboreus1, Ochroma sp.1, Pachira insignis1, Sida sp.1, Sida acuta1, Sterculia sp.1, Thespesia sp.1, Thespesia propulnea1, Triumfetta semitriloba1, Urena lobata1, Vitis vinifera1, Waltheria ovata1; Marantaceae: Calathea zebrina1, Maranta sp.1; Meliaceae: Cedrela salvadorensis1, Melia azedarach1; Menispermaceae: Cissampelos pareira1; Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus1, Artocarpus altilis1, Ficus carica1, Ficus palmata1, Morus nigra1; Moringaceae: Moringa oleifera1; Musaceae: Musa sp.1, Musa sapientum1; Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus grandis1; Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea sp.1, Cryptocarpus pyriformis1; Ochnaceae: Lophira alata1; Olacaceae: Schoepfia sp.1, Oleaceae: Jasminum grandifolium1, Jasminum sambac1; Orchidaceae: Aerides1, Cymbidium sp.1, Cypripedium sp.1, Dendrobium sp.1, Odontoglossum sp.1, Orchis sp.1, Paphiopedilum insigne1, Phalaenopsis sp.1, Renanthera sp.1, Rhynchostylis sp.1, Trichoglottis sp.1; Pandanaceae: Pandanus sp.1, Pandanus odoratissimus1; Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis1; Piperaceae: Piper nigrum1; Poaceae: Cenchrus ciliaris1, Cenchrus glauca1, Cymbopogon sp.1, Cynodon dactylon1, Panicum sp.1; Polygonaceae: Antigonon sp.1, Antigonon leptopus1, Coccoloba sp.1, Polygala sancti-georgii1, Polygala galapageia1, Polygala andersonnii1, Polygonum glabrum1; Polypodiaceae: Niphobolus fissus1; Portulacaceae: Portulaca sp.1, Proteaceae: Grevillea heliosperma1, Grevillea robusta1, Persoonia sp.1; Pteridaceae: Asplenium nidus1; Pteridophyta: Neottopteris rigida1, Nephrolepis davalliodes1, Platycerium grande1; Rhamnaceae: Colubrina arborences1, Scutia pauciflora1, Ziziphus sp.1, Ziziphus jujuba1; Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera gymnorhiza1, Rhizophora mangle1; Rosaceae: Prunus sp.1, Prunus persica1, Pyrus sp.1; Rubiaceae: Genipa sp.1, Morinda royoc1, Morinda citrifolia1, Randia sp.1; Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos1, Atlantia citrioides1, Balsamocitrus paniculata1, Balsamocitrus chevaliere1, Balsamocitrus dawei1, Casimiroa sp.1, Citrus aurantifolia1, Citrus unshiu1, Citrus sp.1, Citrus sinensis1, Citrus paradisi1, Citrus maxima1, Citrus macrophylla1, Citrus limon1, Citrus grandis1, Citrus aurantium1, Feronia limonia1, Feroniella pentaphylla1, Limonia glutinosa1, Limonia acidissima1, Micromelum minutum1, Murraya exotica1, Murraya paniculata1, Murraya koenigii1, Zanthoxylum sp.1, Zanthoxylum martinicense1; Salicaceae: Salix chilensis1, Salix sp.1, Salix babylonica1; Santalaceae: Viscum sp.1; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa1, Litchi chinensis1, Melicoccus sp.1, Melicoccus bijugatus1, Sapindus sp.1; Sapotaceae: Pouteria obavata1; Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum1, Capsicum sp.1, Capsicum frutescens1, Cestrum diurnum1, Datura metel1, Lycopersicon esculentum1, Solanum seaforthianum1, Solanum wendlandii1, Solanum torvum1, Solanum sp.1, Solanum erianthum1, Solanum melongena1; Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis1, Strelitzia sp.1; Symplocaceae: Symplocos sp.1; Ulmaceae: Trema guineensis1, Trema micranthum1; Urticaceae: Laportea sp.1, Soleirolia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Clerodendron thomsonae1, Gmelina arborea1, Lantana involucrata1, Stachytarpheta sp.1; Vitaceae: Cissus sp.1, Vitis sp.1; Zingiberaceae: Alpinia purpurata1, Zingiber officinale1; and Manoranjitham sp.1Pinnaspis strachani may be spread long distances in the commerce of infested plants or plant parts.

Worldwide Distribution: Pinnaspis strachani is widespread in Australasian, Oceanic, Afrotropical, Oriental, and Neotropical regions1.  In North America it has been reported in Mexico, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas1.  It is also present in Hawaii.

Official Control: Pinnaspis strachani is listed as a quarantine pest by Honduras, Japan, New Zealand, and Taiwan3.

California Distribution Pinnaspis strachani has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Pinnaspis strachani was intercepted 1,401 times by California between January 1, 2000 and December 12, 2014.  Interceptions are most common on plants and fruit from Hawaii, Florida, and Costa Rica.

The risk Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants are commonly grown as crops and ornamentals in California and Pinnaspis strachani is likely to establish wherever they grow. The scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California, or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pinnaspis strachani is highly polyphagous.  It is known to feed on hundreds of species of plants in at least 74 families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Pinnaspis strachani receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pinnaspis strachani is documented as a pest of many crops including citrus, olives, and cotton1.  Known hosts also include grapes, Prunus and avocado.  The scale may lower yields in these crops and increase production costs by triggering new management programs.  Pinnaspis strachani is also listed as a quarantine pest by several of California’s trading partners and therefore has the potential to trigger a loss of markets.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pinnaspis strachani is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The scale may directly affect threatened or endangered species including Thelypodium stenopetalum (slender-petaled thelypodium), Chamaesyce hooveri (Hoover’s spurge), Croton wigginsii (Wiggins’ croton), and Polygonum hickmanii (Scott’s valley polygonum).  The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Pinnaspis strachani may trigger new chemical treatments in agriculture and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  The scale may also significantly impact a wide variety of ornamental plantings and home/urban gardens.  Lesser snow scale receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pinnaspis strachani has never been detected in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(15)

Uncertainty:

Pinnaspis strachani is commonly intercepted and presumably has remained undetected on other consignments.  It may already be present in some localities in California or may have failed to establish.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale) has never been found in the environment of California and can be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish here.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pinnaspis%20strachani/

2SEL Catalog query results: http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/diaspidi/Pinnaspisstrachani.htm

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

9/23/2016  11/7/2016


Pest Rating: A