Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green): Mango Shield Scale
Former Pest Rating: Q
Current Pest Rating: A
Since 1991 Milviscutulus mangiferae has been regularly intercepted by CDFA’s border stations and dog teams. This scale insect presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is needed to establish a permanent pest rating.
History & Status:
Background: Milviscutulus mangiferae is a highly polyphagous scale insect that feeds on a wide variety of plants. Known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: Campnosperma brevipetiolata1, Gluta turtur1, mango (Mangifera indica1, Mangifera sp.1); Annonaceae: susung-kalabaw (Uvaria rufa1); Apocynaceae: Adenium sp.2, Alstonia spectabilis1, Alyxia sp.2, Plumeria sp.1, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana1); Araceae: elephant ear (Caladium sp.1), Colocasia sp.2, Diffenbachia sp.2, Epipremnum sp.1; Araliaceae: Meryta macrophylla1, Schefflera sp.1; Arecaceae: Chamaedorea sp.2, coconut (Cocos nucifera1), fruit salad plant (Monstera deliciosa1); Asparagaceae: ti (Cordyline terminalis1), Cordyline fruticosa1; Dracaena sp.2; Asteraceae: Wedelia biflora1; Bignoniaceae: Spathodea sp.2; Bixaceae: achiote (Bixa orellana1); Boraginaceae: Cordia myxa1; Bromeliaceae: pineapple (Ananas sp.1); Caricaceae: papaya (Carica papaya1); Combretaceae: Terminalia complanata1, Terminalia brassii1, tropical almond (Terminalia catappa1); Convolvulaceae: woodrose (Merremia sp.1); Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus sp.1; Euphorbiaceae: Breynia cernua1, croton (Codiaeum variegatum1); Pimelodendron amboinicum1; Fabaceae: Gliricidia sp.1; Flagellariaceae: Flagellaria sp.1; Gnetaceae: paddy oats (Gnetum gnemon1); Lauraceae: cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.1); Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia1), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanica1), Laurus sp.2, Litsea zeylanica1, avocado (Persea americana1); Malpighiaceae: wild crapemyrtle (Malpighia glabra1); Malvaceae: Hibiscus sp.1; Meliaceae: Lansium sp.2; Moraceae: jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia1), Artocarpus sp.1, breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis1), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus1), Artocarpus integra1, Hauli tree (Ficus septica1), Ficus sp.1; Ficus gibbosa1, Ficus glandulifera1, Ficus theophrastoides1, dye fig (Ficus tinctoria1), lechechiva (Pseudolmedia havanensis1); Musaceae: banana (Musa sp.2); Myristicaceae: Gymnacranthera sp.1, nutmeg (Myristica moschata1); Myrtaceae: Callistemon sp.2, Decaspermum sp.1, lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora1), rainbow eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta1), malay apple (Eugenia malaccensis1), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata1), rotra (Eugenia jambolona1), jambos (Eugenia jambos1), Eugenia parkeri1, Eugenia sp.1, rose apple (Eugenia aquea1), white stopper (Eugenia axillaris1), Jambosa sp.1, myrtle (Myrtus sp.2), common guava (Psidium guajava1), costa rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum1), rose myrtle (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa1); Oleaceae: Jasminum trifoliatum1; Opiliaceae: false olive (Champereia manillana1); Orchidaceae: alien orchid (Dendrobium spectabile1), vanilla (Vanilla sp.1); Phyllanthaceae: bishop wood (Bischofia javanica1); Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp.2; Primulaceae: Parathesis cubana1, Rapanea quianensis1; Rhizophoraceae: Gynotroches axilaris1, Rhizophora apiculata1, red mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata1); Rosaceae: Rosa sp.2; Rubiaceae: Bouvardia sp.2, Gardenia florida1, jungle geranium (Ixora coccinea1), noni (Morinda citrifolia1), Platanocephalus chinensis1, Platanocephalus morindaefolius1, Psychotria elyptica1, Psychotria rubra1, Timonius sp.1; Rutaceae: lemon (Citrus limon1), orange (Citrus sinensis1); Sapindaceae: ackee (Blighia sapida1), Dimocarpus sp.2, Guioa sp.1; Sapotaceae: Palaquium formosanum1, Pometia pinnata1; Solanaceae: Cuban raintree (Brunfelsia nitida1); Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia sp.1; Verbenaceae: Vitex pubescens1; Zingiberaceae: ginger (Zingiber sp.). Milviscutulus mangiferae may spread long distances on infested plants and plant material from this extensive host list.
Worldwide Distribution: Milviscutulus mangiferae is widespread in the Australasian, Afrotropical, Oriental, and Neotropical regions1. It has also been found in Israel1, Japan1, and Hawaii1. In North America the scale has been found in Mexico, Florida, and Texas1.
Official Control: Milviscutulus mangiferae is considered a quarantine pest by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.
California Distribution: Milviscutulus mangiferae has never been found in the environment of California.
California Interceptions: Milviscutulus mangiferae has been regularly intercepted by CDFA since 1991, most commonly on shipments of mango (Mangifera indica) and ti leaves (Cordyline terminalis) from Florida and Hawaii. The scale insect was found on Schefflera sp. plants at a nursery in Oxnard (Ventura County) in 2003 (PDR 1266877). It was found on mango and cherimoya plants at a nursery in Bonita (San Diego County) in October 2013 (PDRs 370P06143908, 370P06143909, 370P06144251, 370P06144252, 370P06144253) and again May 2014 (PDRs 370P06228020, 370P06228022).
The risk Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of Milviscutulus mangiferae is primarily tropical. However, it is found in at least one nation with a Mediterranean climate similar to that of California (Israel1). Host plants are commonly grown in the warmer parts of California and the scale insect is likely to establish in these areas. Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a Medium(2) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Milviscutulus mangiferae feeds on a wide variety of plants in at least 44 plant families. It receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Milviscutulus mangiferae has a high reproductive rate and three generations per year1. Scales may be moved long distances in commerce of infested plants or plant parts and may be dispersed locally by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment. Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Milviscutulus mangiferae can damage fruit by contaminating it with honeydew, leading to the growth of sooty mold4. Heavy infestations may reduce plant vigor and leaf size, causing yellowing of leaves, leaf drop, and dieback4. This damage could reduce fruit yields. The presence of this scale may increase production costs in orchards and nurseries as some growers are likely to treat. The scale insect also has the potential to disrupt markets by disfiguring citrus and avocado fruit as well as nursery stock. Milviscutulus mangiferae receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Milviscutulus mangiferae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It may feed on the endangered small-leave rose (Rosa minutifolia). The scale is not expected to disrupt critical habitats. It may trigger additional private treatment programs by fruit production and nursery industries and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. Milviscutulus mangiferae feeds on a wide variety of plants that are grown as ornamentals and, in the absence of its natural enemies, may have a significant impact on them. The scale receives a High(3) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Milviscutulus mangiferae (mango shield scale): High(14)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Milviscutulus mangiferae has never been detected in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)
It is possible that this insect will be managed by existing management practices in fruit production and nursery industries.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Milviscutulus mangiferae has not been found in the environment of California. Its entry into the environment of the state may have significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.
1Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson, and Nate Hardy. ScaleNet.
3USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
4Grimshaw, Judy F. and John F. Donaldson. 2007. New records of mango shield scale Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Brevennia rehi (Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 46: 96-98. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/fiji/pdf/grimshaw-donaldson2007.pdf
Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
Comment Period: CLOSED
9/23/2016 – 11/7/2016
Pest Rating: A