California Pest Rating for
Trichoferus campestris Faldermann: Velvet Longhorn Beetle (VLB)
Pest Rating: A
PEST RATING PROFILE
In February 2015 the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food supplied CDFA with two specimens of velvet longhorn beetle (VLB) (Trichoferus campestris) for reference use in our exotic woodborer surveys. A pest rating proposal is required to establish a permanent pest rating for this pest.
History & Status:
Background: Trichoferus campestris is a wood-boring beetle whose larvae feed under the bark and within the wood of a variety of trees, including some specialty crops1. Adults are nocturnal and emerge for flight in mid-spring1 to mid-summer2. Adults are frequently found in high densities around cull piles associated with fruit production1. They are attracted to both Lindgren funnel traps baited with ethanol lure1 as well as black light2. Larvae feed under the bark of trees and tunnel into wood of medium to large sized trees1. This feeding reduces fruit yield, wood marketability, and tree longevity1. Preferred hosts include: Rosaceae: apple and crabapple (Malus spp.1); Moraceae: mulberry (Morus spp.1). Other living hosts include Betulaceae: birch (Betula spp.1); Fabaceae: locust (Gleditsia spp.1); Moraceae: paper mulberry (Broussonetia spp.1); Pinaceae: spruce (Picea spp.1), pine (Pinus spp.1); Rosaceae: cherry and peach (Prunus spp.1), mountain-ash (Sorbus spp.1); Salicaceae: willow (Salix spp.1). The beetles are also polyphagous on a wide variety of dry wood2. Trichoferus campestris may be transported long distances when infested wood is moved.
Worldwide Distribution: Trichoferus campestris is native to Asia. It has invaded several European nations3. It was detected in New Jersey in 2006 and eradicated. It was first found in Utah in 2010 and since then more than 500 beetles have been found at 15 sites in two counties1.
Official Control: Trichoferus campestris is considered a quarantine pest in Europe and Canada3.
California Distribution: Trichoferus campestris has never been found in California.
California Interceptions: Trichoferus campestris was intercepted once by CDFA in a warehouse on a wood pallet in Ventura County (PDR 1079984).
The risk Trichoferus campestris (VLB) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Trichoferus campestris are commonly grown in agriculture, as ornamentals, and in the environment of California. The beetles may also develop in dry wood. VLB is likely to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Trichoferus campestris is only confirmed to feed on 12 species of trees in 6 families. However, it has also been found feeding on a wide variety of dry wood. It receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Trichoferus campestris has a relatively slow life cycle with larvae taking up to two or more years to develop2. Beetles are strong fliers and may be transported long distances when infested wood is moved in commerce or by residents. VLB receives a Medium (2) in this category.
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Trichoferus campestris is likely to reduce crop yields in apple, cherry, and peach orchards as well as managed forests. It is likely to increase crop production costs in these systems as growers and forest managers attempt to mitigate damage. The beetle may disrupt markets for wood from California. VLB receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: VLB is likely to have significant environmental impacts including lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, and changing ecosystem processes as it feeds on forest and riparian trees. It is likely to trigger additional treatment programs in orchards, managed forests, and by residents who wish to save infested ornamental trees. Host trees of VLB are commonly grown as ornamentals and in home/urban gardens and are likely to be significantly impacted. Trichoferus campestris receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Trichoferus campestris (VLB): High (14)
Add up the total score and include it here.
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trichoferus campestris has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)
In Utah there has been official confirmation of VLB emerging from live cherry and peach trees. It was previously thought that VLB only fed on dry wood of these trees. There are other recorded dry wood hosts of VLB such as grape (Vitis vinifera2) that may be discovered to be live hosts in California.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Trichoferus campestris has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state. An “A” rating is justified.
1 Burfitt, Clinton E., Kristopher Watson, Caressa A. Pratt, and Joey Caputo. 2015. Total Records of Velvet Longhorn Beetle Trichoferus campestris Faldermann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Utah. Utah Department of Agriculture and Food. Plant Industry and Conservation Division. http://ag.utah.gov/documents/Insect_Velvet_Longhorn_Beetle.pdf
2 CAPS Exotic Wood Borer/ Bark Beetle Survey Reference: Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann). https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/webfm_send/2204
3 Dascălu, Maria-Magdalena, Rodica Serafim, and Åke Lindelöw. 2013. Range expansion of Trichoferus campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe with the confirmation of its presence in Romania. Entomologica Fennica 24: 142-146. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=11&ved=0CEgQFjAK&url=http%3A%2F%2Fojs.tsv.fi%2Findex.php%2Fentomolfennica%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F8981%2F6534&ei=yA8kVY3DJ4GWyATKzoHYDA&usg=AFQjCNFMd0N5q4wAbCOFancqBI34xf-DgQ&bvm=bv.89947451,d.aWw
Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
Comment Period: CLOSED
The 45-day comment period opened on March 4, 2016 and closed on April 18, 2016.
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Consequences of Introduction: 1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]
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Pest Rating: A
Posted by ls