California Pest Rating Proposal
Crepis pulchra: Smallflower hawksbeard
Current Pest Rating: None
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R
Crepis pulchra had no previous pest rating; it has been reported in Napa, Solano and Contra Costa counties. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.
History & Status:
Background: Crepis pulchra is a flowering plant in the daisy family with the common name smallflower hawksbeard. Crepis pulchra is widespread in Europe, Central Asia and parts of Africa. It has become naturalized in the parts of United States and Canada1. It is annual herb up to 40 inches tall with erect, glandular stem. One plant can produce up to 40 flower heads and each flower can produce 30 yellow ray florets. The leaves are alternate, toothed and the basal leaves are pinnately lobed. Flowering occurs from April to August. It can grow up to 3000 m elevation in dry open habitats, rolling grasslands, pastures, abandoned fields, waste areas, railroads and roadsides1.
Worldwide Distribution: Crepis pulchra is widespread across much of Europe, Morocco, Algeria, western and central Asia. It has been reported in Ontario Canada and TX, OK, MO, AR, LA, MS, AL, FL, GA, SC, NC,VA, DE, WV, OH, IL, KY, TN & OR in the United States3,1.
Official Control: Crepis pulchra is not declared or considered noxious by any state government authorities7.
California Distribution: Crepis pulchra currently is known in limited areas of Solano, Napa & Contra Costa counties2.
California Interceptions: There were 8 vouchers submitted from Solano, Napa & Contra Costa counties between 1999 and 20112.
The risk Crepis pulchra (Smallflower hawksbeard) would pose to California is evaluated below.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: The plant has adapted to a wide area in the eastern states and Oregon. California has similar ecologically conditions as its native range, so it may be established on a larger but limited part of California. Therefore Crepis pulchra receives a Medium (2) in this category.
Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:
– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Most plants do not require any one host, but grow wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.
Evaluate the host range of the pest.
– Low (1) has a very limited host range.
– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
– High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Crepis pulchra reproduces only by seed; each plant can produce 40 seeded fruits5. These fruits are dispersed short distances by foraging animals, human activity or by wind. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles, on larger animals and in contaminated agricultural produce. It receives a Medium (2) in this category
Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.
– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Crepis pulchra is a weed in some agricultural situations and it may reduce crop yield where it establishes. It receives a Low (1) in this category.
Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.
Economic Impact: A
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
Economic Impact Score: 1
– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Crepis pulchra has not yet spread widely in California. If it does spread, it might trigger new chemical treatments by ranchers and land managers. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.
Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.
Environmental Impact: D
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
Environmental Impact: Score: 2
– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Crepis pulchra (Smallflower hawksbeard): Medium (10)
–Low = 5-8 points
–Medium = 9-12 points
–High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Crepis pulchra has been reported in Napa, Solano & Contra Costa counties and seems likely to be restricted to this area at this time. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.
Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)
Crepis pulchra has been present in California about 30 year ago and it is localized in a limited area. Due to its relatively noninvasive nature, there are limited chances that it will spread widely in California.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a medium risk. A “C” rating is recommended, because of lake of evidence of its invasiveness.
- Flora of North America online. Accessed March 9, 2017 http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242416376
- Jepson Herbarium. Online UC Berkeley. Accessed March 9, 2017 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_consort.pl?taxon_name=Crepis%20pulchra
- Plant profiles USDA Accessed March 9, 2017 https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CRPU3
- Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
- Wildflower of the southeastern US. Accessed March 9, 2017 http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H270.htm
- S. National Plant Germplasm System Accessed March 9, 2017 https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=310895
- USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed January 03, 2017 https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
9/12/17 – 10/27/17*
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