Tag Archives: insects and mites

Palm Mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum

image of Palm Mealybug and its damage
California Pest Rating Proposal for
Palm mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/16/18 – 4/30/18


Initiating Event:

Palmicultor palmarum is currently Q-rated. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Palm mealybugs are slow moving, piercing-sucking insects that feed on plant sap and are usually found in clusters along leaf veins, on the undersides of leaves, and in hidden areas at joints. These insects exude honeydew that becomes infested by sooty mold and gives the leaves a dirty appearance. Ants may be attracted to the honeydew. Plants infested with mealybugs become weak and may eventually die3.

Known hosts include: Arecaceae: Areca catechu, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota mitis, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis lutescens, Elaeis guineensis, Hyophorbe indica, Phoenix roebelenii, Roystonea regia, Washingtonia filifera, Licuala spp. & Thrinax spp.; Pandanaceae: Freycinetia spp.; Fabaceae: Acacia asak; Poaceae: Phyllostachys spp.1, 5.

Worldwide Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum was described from Hawaii and has been introduced to many places in the world, including much of the Caribbean islands, the Bahamas, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Caledonia, Niue, China, Mexico, and Florida in the continental United States 1.

Official Control: Palmicultor palmarum is listed as a harmful organism by the Republic of Korea and Egypt6.

California Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Palmicultor palmarum was found in 2017 at a nursery in San Diego County (PDR 370P06678075 & 370P06678076). It has been intercepted 53 times since 19904.

The risk Palmicultor palmarum (palm mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Palmicultor palmarum are mostly palm trees, and this species appears to be restricted to areas with a tropical/subtropical climate; it is possible that it may become established in a limited portion of southern California. Therefore, Palmicultor palmarum receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Palmicultor palmarum has been reported to feed on plants of at least fifteen genera in four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. Palmicultor palmarum frequently moves long distances in the trade of infested palm trees. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Palmicultor palmarum could reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increasing crop production costs in nurseries. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Palmicultor palmarum is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Palmicultor palmarum  (Palm mealybug):  Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:  

There have not been any recent surveys for Palmicultor palmarum.  It is possible that it could be present in coastal parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Palmicultor palmarum is not known to be present in California. If it became established here, it could have a significant impact on the ornamental palm industry ($70 Million industry in California – Hoddle.) 2 Therefore, an “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. Scale Net: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.             http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Palmicultor%20palmarum/


  2. Hoddle, M. Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.  http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

  3. Missouri Botanical Garden. Online, Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/help-for-the-home-gardener/advice-tips-resources/pests-and-problems/insects/mealybugs/mealybugs-indoors.aspx

  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  5. Stocks, I.   19: Recent Adventive Scale Insects in Florida and the Caribbean Region. pp. 346-347.   CABI.  Accessed on 12/18/2017. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/FullTextPDF/2013/20133231104.pdf

  6. USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 12/18/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/16/18 – 4/30/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica (Saunders)
Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18


Initiating Event:

Diaphania indica is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Diaphania indica is a pest of cucurbit crops, including cucumber, melon, and watermelon.  It has also been reported to feed on plants in the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae (Arcaya et al., 2004; Ganehiarachchi, 1997; MacLeod, 2005).  Adults have a wingspan of 24-33 mm.  The hind and forewings have solid white centers and thick, brown margins (Evaratt et al., 2015).  Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves.  The larvae feed on leaves as well as flowers and fruits (Ganehiarachchi, 1997; Kinjo and Arakaki, 2002).  This moth is mostly restricted to tropical and subtropical climates.  For example, in the United States, it is only found in Florida.  However, it has become a pest in greenhouses in Japan and Korea, and it may be capable of living in more temperate climates in these situations (Kinjo and Arakaki, 2002; MacLeod, 2008).

Worldwide Distribution:  Diaphania indica is native to the Old World tropics (Waterhouse, 1993).  It is reported from tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, Australia, the Middle East, Asia, Pacific islands, Central America, South America, and the southeastern United States (only in Florida) (Clavijo A., 1990).  There are a few records from Alabama and Texas, but these may not represent established populations (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

Official Control: Diaphania indica is considered reportable by the United States Department of Agriculture.

California Distribution:  Diaphania indica is not known to occur in California.

California Interceptions:  Diaphania indica has been intercepted on mango fruit from Florida (PDR # 430P06135915).

The risk Diaphania indica would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of Diaphania indica appears to be largely restricted to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate. It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California.  Therefore, Diaphania indica receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Diaphania indica feeds on a variety of crop plants in three families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Diaphania indica  Eggs or larvae could be moved with infested plants.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Diaphania indica feeds on a variety of crops in the family Cucurbitaceae, causing loss of fruit and plant mortality.  This species has achieved pest status both in fields as well as in greenhouses.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

 B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are native California plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. It is possible that, if established, Diaphania indica could disrupt natural communities where these plants occur.  Crop infestations could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Diaphania indica: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Diaphania indica is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There is no uncertainty regarding the potential of Diaphania indica to be a pest in the right environment.  However, there is significant uncertainty regarding its ability to become established in California, as this species is apparently restricted to tropical/subtropical climates (except for greenhouses).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Diaphania indica is a pest of cucurbit crops and it is not known to occur in California.  It is possible that it could become established over a limited portion of the state, and if this occurred, this species could have economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Arcaya S., E., Díaz B., F., and Paz L., R.  2004.  Primer registro de Diaphania indica (Saunders, 1851) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en el cultivo de pepino en Venezuela.  Bioagro.  16(1): 73-74.

Clavijo A., J.A.  1990.  Systematics of black and white species of the genus Diaphania Hubner (1818) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Pyraustinae).  Ph.D. thesis.  McGill University.  215 pp.

Evaratt, M., Korycinska, A., and C. Malumphy.  2015.  Plant pest factsheet; cucurbit moths; Diaphania species.  Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.

Ganehiarachchi, G.A.S.M.  1997.  Aspects of the biology of Diaphania indica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka.  25(4): 203-209.

Kinjo, K. and N. Arakaki.  2002.  Effect of temperature on development and reproductive characteristics of Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  Applied Entomology and Zoology.  37(1): 141-145.

MacLeod, A.  2005 (revised).  Pest risk analysis for Diaphania indica.  Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs: Central Science Laboratory.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN).  Accessed March 6, 2018. http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu

Waterhouse, D.F.  1993.  The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Distribution, Importance and Origin.  Australian Center for International Agricultural Research.  141 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae Corbett
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18


Initiating Event:

Aleurotrachelus anonae was recently reported to be established on the island of Hawaii.  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).  The adults of Aleurotrachelus species are small (1-2 mm in length), whitish (covered by white wax), fly-like insects (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  The immature stages are found on leaves, where they feed on plant fluids.  The last immature stage (“puparium”) of A. anonae is approximately 0.5 mm long, pale yellow, and oval in shape with finely-toothed margins (Corbett, 1935).  This species has been reported from Annona squamosa, Morus indica, Persea americana, and Zingiber sp.  Infestations on avocado in Hawaii apparently caused sooty mold, which grows on plant surfaces in association with the honeydew excreted by the whiteflies (Dubey and Ko, 2010; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Malumphy and Reid.  2017; Mound and Halsey, 1978).

Worldwide Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is reported from Bangladesh, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Hawaii (Dubey and Ko, 2010; Evans, 2008; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  An Aleurotrachelus infestation that may have been A. anonae was found in a nursery in Florida.  It is not known if this whitefly is currently present in that state (Stocks, 2016).

Official Control: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Aleurotrachelus anonae has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Aleurotrachelus anonae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Aleurotrachelus anonae appears to have a moderate host range, and potential host trees are grown widely in California (Morus alba, the genus of which contains a reported host, and Persea americana, which was attacked in Hawaii and possibly in Florida). The areas where A. anonae is known to occur have tropical/subtropical climates. Aleurotrachelus anonae may be able to become established in a limited portion of southern California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although details are scarce, reports suggest that A. anonae feeds on plants in at least four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adult whiteflies are capable of dispersing via flight, although they may not move great distances that way.  Immature Aleyrodidae are sedentary and affixed to the surface of their host plant and thus are easily dispersed via movement of infested plant material, as proven by their frequent interception at ports of entry.  Therefore, Aleurotrachelus anonae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on several different plants, little is known regarding the impact of such feeding.  In support of the pest potential of A. anonae, other species of Aleurotrachelus are pests.  For example, A. socialis is the most important whitefly pest of cassava in Colombia, and A. atratus is a pest of coconut in Africa and South America (Holguín et al., 2006; Kityo et al., 2017).  Aleurotrachelus anonae was reported to attack avocado in Hawaii and possibly Florida.  The Hawaii infestation was associated with sooty mold, which can reduce photosynthesis in affected plants (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  Avocados are an important crop in California, and if A. anonae was established in this state, it could lower yields of avocado.  This could trigger treatments as well.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are no native California plants in the host genera reported for A. anonae. However, mulberry (Morus alba) is planted in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on another Morus species; if it was established in California, it could impact plantings of M. alba.  Infestations on crop or ornamental plants could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D,E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

 E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aleurotrachelus anonae: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

The field reports of A. anonae lack detail.  For example, except for the report of sooty mold associated with this species on avocado in Hawaii, there is no indication of the level of damage (if any) inflicted on host plants.  This may be an indication of a lack of impact on the host plants.  There is also uncertainty regarding the suitability of California’s climate for A. anonae.  The areas this species is currently known to occur in are tropical or subtropical.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly that has been reported to feed on plants in at least four families.  One of these plants is avocado, an important crop in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.  It could potentially become established in southern portions of the state, and if it did so, it could impact agriculture and ornamental plantings.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Corbett, G. H. 1935. 48. Malayan Aleurodidae. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums. 17 (4): 722-852.

Dubey, A.K. and C.-C. Ko.  2010.  Aleurotrachelus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and allied genera from Taiwan.  Zootaxa.  2685: 1-29.

Evans, G.A.  2008.  The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the world and their host plants and natural enemies.  Version 2008-09-23.

Holguín, C.M., Carabali, A., and Bellotti, A.C.  2006.  Tasa intrínseca de crecimiento de Aleurotrachelus socialis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en yuca Manihot esculenta.  Revista Colombiana de Entomología.  32(2): 140-144.

Kityo, R., Cugala, D., and Nampala, P.  2017.  First record of parasitoids associated with the invasive coconut whitefly in Inhambane Province, Mozambique.  International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research.  3(2): 2568-2583.

Malumphy, C. and Reid, S.  2017.  Solanum or pepper whitefly, Aleurotrachelus trachoides.  Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.

Mound, L.A. and Halsey, S.H.  1978.  Whitefly of the world.  A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data.  British Museum and John Wiley and Sons.  340 pp.

Stocks, I.  2016.  Aleurotrachelus near anonae (Corbett), a new continental record whitefly in Florida.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry.  Pest Alert.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 28, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

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Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

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♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Longhorned Beetle | Acalolepta aesthetica

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Longhorned Beetle | Acalolepta aesthetica (Olliff)
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18


 Initiating Event:

Acalolepta aesthetica is currently Q-rated.  It was introduced to, and is now established on the island of Hawaii.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Acalolepta aesthetica is a large (approximately 3 cm in length) longhorned beetle.  The species has long antennae, which is typical of the family, and the dorsal (upper) surface is brown in color and velvety (Olliff, 1890).  As is the case with many cerambycids, the larvae feed inside tree trunks.  On the island of Hawaii, this beetle has been reported attacking Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae), Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae), Citrus x latifolia (Rutaceae), Cycas sp. (Cycadaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), and Trema orientalis (Cannabaceae).  Reports indicate that healthy trees are attacked (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Worldwide Distribution:  Acalolepta aesthetica is native to Australia and was introduced to Hawaii at least as early as 2009, when the first specimens were collected there (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Official Control: Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Acalolepta aesthetica has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Acalolepta aesthetica would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Although Acalolepta aesthetica feeds on a variety of trees, and suitable hosts may be present over much of California, this beetle appears to be limited to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate (Atlas of Living Australia). There is little evidence this species could become established in more than a small portion of California.  Therefore, Acalolepta aesthetica receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Acalolepta aesthetica was reported to attack trees in six families in Hawaii. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Acalolepta aesthetica presumably flies, and due to its size, it could probably cover long distances.  Because the larvae live inside wood, this species could be dispersed artificially via movement of infested wood.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The genus Acalolepta includes several species that are known pests (Slipinski and Ascalona, 2013).  Acalolepta aesthetica is reported to damage trees, including crop trees, in Hawaii.  Citrus is one of the trees reported to be attacked.  If it became established in California, Acalolepta aesthetica could become a pest of crop trees, including citrus.  This could result in lower yield and increased production costs for citrus, and there could also be a loss of markets.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

 B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

 C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Acalolepta aesthetica is reported to attack and damage a variety of trees in six families. If this beetle became established in California, it could attack native California trees.  In addition, ornamental trees, including citrus, and cycads, could be attacked.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Acalolepta aesthetica: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

7) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Acalolepta aesthetica is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

There is very little information available on the biology of this species.  The most significant uncertainty regarding this species is climatic tolerance, but there could also be host range extension once it encountered the diverse flora of California.  There is a possibility that it may require a tropical or subtropical climate, in which case it may not be capable of becoming established in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Acalolepta aesthetica attacks a wide range of trees, including citrus.  The species is not known to be present in California, but if it was established here, it could become a pest of trees in agriculture and ornamental settings, and potentially in the environment.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Atlas of Living Australia website.  Accessed November 13, 2017. http://www.ala.org.au

Olliff, A.S.  1890.  Contributions towards a knowledge of the Coleoptera of Australia.  Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales.  5: 5-11.

Slipinski, A. and Escalona, H.  2013.  Australian Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Volume 1: Introduction and Subfamily Lamiinae.  CSIRO Publishing.  504 pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 13, 2017.  http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

 

 

Click Beetle | Conoderus posticus

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Click Beetle | Conoderus posticus (Eschscholtz)
Coleoptera: Elateridae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18


Initiating Event:

Conoderus posticus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult Conoderus posticus have a typical elaterid body form, are brown in color, and measure approximately 6 mm in length (Eschscholtz, 1822; Johnson et al. 2017).  The larvae of Elateridae are referred to as wireworms and typically live underground or inside decomposing plant tissue.  Many species are omnivorous, the larvae feeding on plant roots as well as insects, and some are considered to be both plant pests as well as predators of pests (Robertson, 1987).  Pest species attack crops including sugarcane, peanuts, and potatoes.  The biology of C. posticus is poorly known.  The species was found in bat guano in caves in Cuba; it is not known what it was feeding on in that environment, but it may have been seeds (Peck et al. 1998).  Larvae of other, better-studied species of Conoderus are known to feed on plant roots.

Worldwide Distribution:  Conoderus posticus is apparently native to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.  The species has been introduced to Hawaii and Mediterranean Europe (Denux and Zagatti, 2010; Johnson et al. 2017; Platia and Kakiopoulos, 2014).

Official Control: Conoderus posticus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Conoderus posticus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Conoderus posticus has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Conoderus posticus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Conoderus posticus has become established in the Mediterranean region, which has a climate similar to much of California. Little is known regarding its biology, but many Conoderus species possess generalist feeding habits, and posticus likely does as well.  Therefore, Conoderus posticus receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Little is known regarding the biology of Conoderus posticus. Many Conoderus species are generalists, feeding on many different plant families.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Conoderus species can fly, as they are collected at light (Stone and Wilcox, 1979).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The genus Conoderus includes species that are pests of various crops.  Little is known about the biology of posticus, but it likely feeds on plant roots, like other species in the genus.  If it was established in California, it could become a pest of agriculture, lowering crop yield.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: As stated under Economic Impacts, Conoderus posticus may feed on plant roots and could potentially impact native plants in California if it was established here. There are species of plants in California that posticus has not yet encountered, and it could have an impact in this state greater than that seen where this beetle is already present.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Conoderus posticus: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Conoderus posticus is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

There is little uncertainty regarding the ability of Conoderus posticus to successfully establish in California, as it is probably a generalist feeder and it has a proven ability to become established in areas with a Mediterranean climate.  There is, however, much uncertainty regarding its potential for economic or environmental impact.  On one hand, no reports were found of this species being a pest or having an impact on the environment anywhere it has become established.  It is possible (perhaps likely) that it would have no significant economic or environmental impact in California if it was established here.  However, as a subterranean feeder, it is possible that there exists economic impact of this species that has not been recognized but instead has been attributed to other species of “wireworms” or to underground insects in general.  In this case, it could be a significant pest but be unrecognized as such.  Environmental impacts, if there are any, are even more likely to have gone unrecognized.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conoderus posticus is a poorly-known species in a genus that includes significant agricultural pests.  The species is not known to occur in California.  If it was established in this state, it could have an economic and/or environmental impact.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Denux, O. and Zagatti, P.  2010.  Coleoptera families other than Cerambycidae, Curculionidae sensu lato, Chrysomelidae sensu lato and Coccinelidae.  Chapter 8.5.  BioRisk.  4(1): 315-406.

Eschscholtz, F.  1822.  Entomographien.  Erste Liererung.  G. Reimer, Berlin.  128 pp.

Johnson, P.J., Ogura-Yamada, C., Krushelnycky, P.D., and Samuelson, G.A.  2017.  Conoderus posticus (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), a new state record for Hawai’i, and a key to local species.  Bishop Museum Occasional Papers.  119: 19-22.

Norris, D.M.  1957.  Bionomics of the southern potato wireworm, Conoderus falli Lane.  1.  Life history in Florida.  Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society.  70: 109-111.

Platia, G. and Kakiopoulos, G.  2014.  Interesting records of beetles from Greece, with description of a new species (Coleoptera, Elateridae and Plastoceridae).  Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa.  54: 117-120.

Robertson, L.N.  1987.  Food habits of pasture wireworm, Conoderus exsul (Coleoptera: Elateridae).  New Zealand Journal of Zoology.  14: 535-542.

Seal, D.R.  2011.  A wireworm Conoderus rudis (Brown) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elateridae).  University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension.

Stone, M.W. and Wilcox, J.  1979.  Population build-up of two introduced Conoderus elaterid species in California (Coleoptera: Elateridae).  The Coleopterists Bulletin.  33(4): 473-475.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 9, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Williams, E.M. and Galbreath, R.A.  1987.  Diet and development in Conoderus exsul and Agrypnus variabilis (Coleoptera: Elateridae).  New Zealand Journal of Zoology.  14: 85-88.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

 

Difficult White-Footed Ant | Technomyrmex difficilis Forel

­California Pest Rating Proposal for
Photo by Alexander Wild Photography. Click on image for photo citation.
Difficult White-Footed Ant | Technomyrmex difficilis Forel
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/2/18 – 4/16/18 


Initiating Event:

Technomyrmex difficilis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Technomyrmex difficilis is a small (2.5-3 mm in length) ant that is mostly dark brown in color with distinctively paler tarsi (Warner et al., 2016).  There are other potentially harmful species in the genus that look very similar, and microscopic examination of minute characters is necessary for a specific diagnosis (Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).  This ant feeds on plant nectar, honeydew (a sugary liquid produced by plant sap-feeding insects), and dead insects or other protein-rich foods (Warner et al., 2016).  This and other Technomyrmex species may protect plant-feeding Hemiptera and thus be agricultural pests (Deyrup, 2016; Samways et al., 1982).  Technomyrmex difficilis occurs in man-made (urban and residential areas) and natural (e.g., forest) environments and appears to be most abundant in disturbed and coastal areas.  Nests can be found in leaf litter, in trees (in tree holes or under bark), and in buildings (in wall cavities or attics) (Wetterer, 2008).  This ant often occurs in large numbers, and although it does not bite or sting and it has not been reported to cause structural damage to buildings, it is an annoyance to homeowners (Warner et al., 2016).

Worldwide Distribution:  Technomyrmex difficilis is probably native to Madagascar.  It has been introduced to Asia (including Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines), Australia, the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States, where it has been reported from Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Washington, Washington D.C., and Florida (Deyrup, 2016; Warner et al., 2016; Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).

Official Control: This ant does not appear to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Technomyrmex difficilis is not known to occur in California (Essig Museum of Entomology holdings database; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network; Wetterer, 2013).

California Interceptions:  Technomyrmex difficilis has been intercepted on fruit (grapefruit and longan) and miscellaneous goods from Florida (PDR # BL0P06126651, 430P06002358, 010P06220447, WHOPO6180098, 010P06220393, 070P06223950, BL0P06612374, NE0P06374846, NE0P06655880, WH0P06181195, 190P06619841, and NE0P06654767), cut flowers and leaves from Hawaii (PDR # 100P06282884, 190P06619904, 410P06325136, 410P06325130, and 100P06282591), and a bee colony from Texas (PDR # VL0P06677067).

The risk Technomyrmex difficilis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Technomyrmex difficilis has become established in many different parts of the world, but (with the exception of greenhouses, zoos, and other artificial environments in temperate areas) it appears to be limited to areas with a tropical or sub-tropical climate. It is possible that it could become established in a larger, but limited part of California.  Therefore, Technomyrmex difficilis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

 Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Technomyrmex difficilis is known to feed on nectar, honeydew, and a variety of protein-rich foods, which could include insects and other animals. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Winged females and males are produced by the colony each year.  They fly, copulate, and establish new colonies.  Movement of infested landscaping plants may be an important means of artificial dispersal (Warner et al., 2016).  Therefore, this ant receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Technomyrmex difficilis is reported to protect plant sap-feeding insects, including mealybugs, from natural enemies.  Another species of Technomyrmex was reported to protect the scale Aonidiella aurantii, which became abundant enough to cause defoliation of citrus trees (Samways et al., 1982).  Technomyrmex difficilis could have the same impact in California, and this could lower crop yield and increase production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ants of the genus Technomyrmex have been shown to be capable of having positive and negative impacts on plants.  An example of a possible positive impact is feeding on herbivorous insects, thus protecting the plant.  An example of a possible negative impact is tending (feeding on honeydew produced by, and protecting from natural enemies) herbivorous insects, such as mealybugs, which would hurt the plant.  This suggests that these ants could disrupt natural communities; they could for instance, facilitate the invasion of an ecosystem by an introduced plant through feeding on herbivorous insects (Lach et al., 2010).  The species albipes was shown to have “supercolony” characteristics by Dejean et al. (2010); members from widely-separated colonies recognized each other, which could give this species a competitive advantage.  Technomyrmex difficilis could behave similarly.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Technomyrmex difficilis: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Technomyrmex difficilis is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

This ant has been confused with the very similar T. albipes.  Both T. difficilis and T. albipes have been widely introduced, neither are known to occur in California, and they probably pose a similar economic and environmental threat to the state (Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).  Because of the confusion between T. difficilis and other Technomyrmex species, the distribution and impact of T. difficilis as it is currently understood may be an underestimate (Wetterer, 2013).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Technomyrmex difficilis is not yet known to occur in California.  It has demonstrated an ability to become established and abundant in a variety of habitats.  It poses a threat to California’s agriculture and environment.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Dejean, A., Fisher, B.L., Corbara, B., Rarevohitra, R., Randrianaivo, R., Rajemison, B., & Leponce, M.  2010.  Spatial distribution of dominant arboreal ants in a Malagasy coastal rainforest: Gaps and presence of an invasive species.  PLoS ONE.  5(2): 1-7.

Deyrup, M.  2016.  Ants of Florida.  CRC Press.  437 pp.

Essig Museum of Entomology holdings database.  Accessed February 27, 2018.

Databases

Lach, L., Tillberg, C.V., & Suarez, A.V.  2010.  Contrasting effects of an invasive ant on a native and an invasive plant.  Biological Invasions.  12: 3123-3133.

Samways, M.J., Nel, M., & Prins, A.J.  1982.  Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging in citrus trees and attending honeydew-producing Homoptera.  Phytophylaciica.  14: 155-157.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 27, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Warner, J., Scheffrahn, R.H., & Cabrera, B.  2016.  White-footed ant, Technomyrmex difficilis (=albipes) Forel (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae).  Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension.  https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN55100.pdf

Wetterer, J. K.  2008.  Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the West Indies.  Florida Entomologist.  91(3): 428-430.

Wetterer, J.K.  2013.  Worldwide spread of the difficult white-footed ant, Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Myrmecological News.  18: 93-97.

 


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/2/18 – 4/16/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

 

Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell

California Pest Rating for
Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Poliaspis media has recently been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego counties and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Poliaspis media is a polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on the undersides of leaves of host plants1.  The scale insect’s feeding induces galls on some host plants1.  Some of the known hosts are: Achariaceae: Melicytus alpinus1; Aizoaceae: Disphyma australe1; Araliaceae: Raukaua anomalus1; Asteliaceae: Astelia fragrans1; Asteraceae: Craspedia sp.1, Ozothamnus sp.1, Sonchus sp.1; Brassicaceae: Streptanthus sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas revoluta1; Ericaceae: Acrothamnus colensoi1, Cyathodes sp.1, Dracophyllum latifolium1, Dracophyllum lessonianum1, Dracophyllum oliveri1, Dracophyllum recurvum1, Dracophyllum sp.1, Dracophyllum traversii1, Leptecophylla juniperina1, Leucopogon fraseri1, Leucopogon sp.1, Pentachondra pumila1; Gaultheria depressa1, Gaultheria rupestris1, Gaultheria sp.1; Myrtaceae: Leptospermum scoparium1; Orchidaceae: Orchidaceae sp.1; Plantaginaceae: Veronica decumbens1, Veronica elliptica1, Veronica hulkeana1, Veronica macrantha1, Veronica pentasepala1, Veronica subalpina1, Veronica venustula1; Podocarpaceae: Lepidothamnus laxifolius1; Primulaceae: Myrsine australis1, Myrsine divaricata1, Myrsine salicina1, Samolus repens1; Ranunculaceae: Clematis afoliata1; Restionaceae: Emposidisma minus1; Rubiaceae: Coprosma arborea1, Coprosma chathamica1, Coprosma cheesemanii1, Coprosma depressa1, Coprosma propinqua1, Coprosma pumila1, Coprosma rhamnoides1, Coprosma robusta1, Coprosma rubra1, Coprosma sp.1, Coprosma spathulata1, Coprosma tenuifolia1, Coprosma virescens1; Rutaceae: Leionema nudum1; Santalaceae: Exocarpos bidwillii1; Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea prostrata1, Pimelea urvilleana1; Zamiaceae: Dioon edule1Poliaspis media may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Poliaspis media was described from specimens collected in New Zealand before 1880, but it may be native to Asia1,2.  It has been found in New Zealand, Fiji, India, Greece, the United Kingdom, and the United States1.  It was first found in Florida in 20072.

Official Control: Poliaspis media is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution Poliaspis media was collected in the environment of California at a residence in Tustin (Orange County) in 1999 and at a residence in Villa Park (Orange County) in 2016 and again in 2017.  It was found at a park in San Diego County in 2018.

California Interceptions Since 1993, samples of Poliaspis media have been collected 22 times in inspections of nurseries in San Diego, Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties.  The scale insects were also intercepted once on a shipment of sago palms (Cycas revoluta) from Florida.

The risk Poliaspis media (cycad poliaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Poliaspis media is established in nations with Mediterranean climates similar to much of California and it is expected to establish a widespread distribution here. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Poliaspis media is known to feed on a variety of plants in 21 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and could potentially disrupt markets for nursery stock and other fresh plant material.  Poliaspis media receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Cycads are high value, slow-growing ornamental plants that are popular in California and may be significantly impacted by this insect.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Poliaspis media (Cycad Poliaspis Scale):  High (14) 

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Poliaspis media is only known to be established in the environment of Orange County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Over the course of 20 years, Poliaspis media has been found multiple times in nurseries in California but it has only been intercepted coming into the state once.  It has been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego Counties.  There have been no recent formal surveys for this pest.  It is possible that this scale insect is more widely established in the environment of Southern California and is infesting nurseries locally.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Poliaspis media has been established in the environment of Orange County for several years, was recently found in San Diego County, and is not under official control.  It is expected to have significant impacts on the nursery industry and ornamental plantings as it expands its distribution in the state.  A “B” rating is justified.


References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Poliaspis%20media/

2 Hodges, Greg and W.N. Dixon. 2007.  The Poliaspis Cycad Scale Poliaspis cycadis Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): A new exotic scale insect for Florida.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/68154/1612633/Pest_Alert_-_Poliaspis_cycadis,_The_Poliaspis_Cycad_Scale.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B

 


Posted by ls

South American Palm Weevil |  Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus)

California Pest Rating for

South American palm weevil (Dynamis borassi) Champion, G.C. , 1910

South American Palm Weevil |  Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

On March 17, 2016 several adult and larval weevils collected by San Diego County officials during the removal of a Canary Island date palm in San Ysidro were identified as Rhynchophorus palmarum, South American palm weevil (SAPW) (PDR 370P06400129).  Although SAPW has been found in this area since 2011 this is the first confirmation of a breeding population in California.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult female SAPW are attracted to fresh trunk wounds of palm trees and lay their eggs inside a hole in the trunk that they have chewed1.  After hatching, larvae bore into the tree where they feed on live and rotting tissue1.  This feeding can eventually lead to death of the palm.  SAPW adult females are known to vector the nematode Bursaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode), which accelerates the death of the host palm1.  Known reproductive hosts include: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (Afrian oil palm), Euterpe edulis (assai palm), Metroxylon sagu (sago palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm); Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)1.  Adult weevils also feed on a wide variety of fruits and other plants but have never been documented to be a pest of these hosts.  SAPW may be transported long distances when infested palm trees or palm parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: SAPW is native to Central and South America, and has spread northward throughout Mexico, presumably due to unrestricted movement of palm nursery stock.   The beetle is now making incursions across the southern border of the United States into California, Arizona, and Texas.

Official Control: SAPW is listed as a harmful organism by Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, and the United Kingdom2Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, a nematode that is vectored by SAPW, is listed as a harmful organism by Antigua and Barbuda, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominica, Honduras, Jamaica, and Saint Lucia2.

California Distribution SAPW has been found in southern San Diego and Imperial counties since 2011, and may have been flying into these areas from Mexico since 19661.

California Interceptions:  SAPW has not been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Rhynchophorus palmarum (SAPW) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: SAPW can be expected to establish throughout California wherever suitable hosts are grown. The weevil is protected from the environment inside palms and is unlikely to be extirpated by cold weather.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: SAPW is known to reproduce in seven species of plants in two plant families.  Adult weevils also feed on a wide variety of food sources, including many fruits and other plants.  However, it has only been documented to be a pest of palms and sugarcane.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: SAPW has high reproductive rates.  Each female can lay 120-150 eggs over a period of 30 days and the weevils can complete a generation in 80 days1.  SAPW can fly a mile in 24 hours and may be transported long distances when infested palms or sugarcane are moved1.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: As it expands its range in California, SAPW is likely to reduce yields in date groves and palm nurseries by destroying trees.  The species might also increase crop production costs in date groves and lower the value of palm nursery stock.  SAPW is considered a quarantine pest by many of California’s trading partners and has the potential to disrupt exports as a contaminating pest.  SAPW is also known to vector the plant pathogenic nematode Bursaphelenchus cocophilus.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A, B, C, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: As it expands its range in California, SAPW is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.   The beetle is not likely to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt any critical habitats.  SAPW may trigger new treatments by residents, by the nursery industry, and by date growers.  Palm trees are an iconic ornamental plant in the California landscape and may be significantly impacted by this pest.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Common Name:  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: SAPW is only known to have established a localized distribution in southern San Diego County and to have made incursions into Imperial County. The species receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

CDFA’s palm weevil trapping was mostly discontinued in 2013, and it is possible that Rhynchophorus palmarum has expanded its range in California since that time.  The species may have additional host trees or switch hosts multiple times in California.  The weevil could switch hosts and feed on native palms, which would disrupt natural communities.  However, the weevils have significant populations in areas with many native Washingtonia palms and have not affected those trees.  Unfortunately, there is one report of SAPW feeding on Washingtonia robusta in Mexico4.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

SAPW is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts as it expands its range in California.  However, it is already found in southern San Diego and Imperial counties and is thought to regularly enter the state from Mexico.  The weevil is not under official control (e.g., quarantine or eradication).  There are no plans for federal agencies to take any action on this pest3.  A “B”-rating is appropriate.


References:

1 Rhynchophorus palmarum.  USDA APHIS 2011.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/palmweevil/downloads/Rhynchophoruspalmarum_v5.pdf

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Summary of Recommendations for Palm Weevils. 2013.  The PPQ Palm Weevil Working Group (PWWG).

4 García-Hernández, José Luis, Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales, José Guadalupe Loya-Ramírez, J.R. Morales-Cota, Enrique Troyo Diéguez, and Félix Alfredo Beltrán-Morales.  2003.  Primer informe del Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) en Baja California Sur. Folia Entomol. Mex. 42(3): 415-417.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B

 


Posted by ls

Hylesinus cingulatus Blandford

California Pest Rating for
Hylesinus cingulatus Blandford
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Hylesinus cingulatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Like most bark beetles, Hylesinus species develop in the phloem (inner bark).   Hylesinus cingulatus has been reported to feed on Fraxinus mandshurica and F. longicuspis.  According to one source, it breeds in windthrown trees and does not cause significant damage in forests (Kurenzov, 1941).  In at least some (possibly most) species of Hylesinus, adults feed on healthy trees prior to reproduction; this is referred to as maturation feeding.  Other species of Hylesinus are known to attack live, but stressed (through drought, for instance) trees.

Worldwide Distribution: Found in China, Korea, Japan, and the Primorye region of the Russian Far East.

Official Control: This species does not appear to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  This species is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions: Hylesinus cingulatus has apparently never been intercepted in California.

The risk Hylesinus cingulatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The climate represented by the native distribution of Hylesinus cingulatus suggests that it could become established in some parts of California.  Ash trees (Fraxinus) are widely distributed in California. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: This species apparently is only known to feed on two species of Fraxinus. Assuming it is likely restricted to this genus of host tree, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Hylesinus cingulatus is capable of sustained flight. The species could be moved in firewood or wood products, although the apparently limited host range might reduce the chances of such movement.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Hylesinus cingulatus has a fairly limited host range, at least in its native range.  The species apparently feeds on trees that are already damaged or in decline, although limited information on the biology of this species was obtained.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Hylesinus cingulatus does not appear to have much potential for environmental impact. The species apparently feeds on dead or stressed trees, although limited information on the biology of this species was obtained.  One California species of Fraxinus is rare ( parryi), but it occurs in a desert area that is unlikely to be invaded by H. cingulatus.  Therefore, H. cingulatus receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: 

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Hylesinus cingulatus: Low (7)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Hylesinus cingulatus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

There may be information on the biology of this species that was not accessible to this author because it is not in English, although an attempt was made to translate the available literature.  If this species was established in California, it could have a broader host range here than it does in Asia.  If Hylesinus cingulatus species behaved differently in California, for instance, by feeding on trees that were not already killed or damaged, there would be potential for environmental impact.  In addition, newly-emerged adults of some species in the genus are known to feed (“maturation feeding”) on healthy trees.  If this is the case with H. cingulatus, there is greater potential for economic and environmental impacts, especially when it is considered that fungi are associated with bark beetles and maturation feeding could possibly vector pathogenic fungi to healthy trees.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Although H. cingulatus does not behave as a serious pest in its native range, and it is perhaps likely that it would have no more serious an impact in California if it were introduced here, there are reasons to be cautious.  Maturation feeding by adults could damage trees and could result in the transmission of pathogenic fungi.  In addition, it is possible that this beetle could feed on new host trees in California.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

 Blackman, M.W.  1922.  Mississippi bark beetles.  Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin.  11: 1-130.

Kurenzov, A.I.  1941.  Bark-beetles of the Far East, USSR.  Academy of Sciences of the USSR.  Moscow. http://libarch.nmu.org.ua/bitstream/handle/GenofondUA/24318/d58a7531c60e960ba7eb551b93c67d51.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Niijima, Y.  1909.  Die Scolytiden Hokkaidos unter Berücksichtigung ihrer Bedeutung für Forstschäden.  The Journal of the College of Agriculture, Tohoku Imperial University.  3: 109-179.

Park, S.  2016.  Taxonomic review of Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Korea.  Ph.D. thesis.  Seoul National University.

Pfister, A.  2012.  Aktuelle Schäden durch Eschenbastkäfer in der Steieremark.  Forstschutz Aktuell.  54: 22-25.

Wood, S.L.  2007.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America.  Brigham Young University.  900 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

A mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley

California Pest Rating for
A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is a small (approximately 1.4 mm long) mealybug that occurs on palms.  It was described recently and is very similar to N. nipae (Beardsley, 1999).  It is possible that some identifications of N. nipae were actually misidentified N. floridensisNipaecoccus nipae is present in California (reported from Alameda, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, and Ventura counties).  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported on the palms Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta and Psidium guajava (guava) (Beardsley, 1999; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2010).  In the nursery environment, it has been found on a variety of palms.

Worldwide Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is reported from Cuba and Florida (where it infests palms) (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2015).  It is possibly native to Florida (Peña, 2013).

Official Control: Nipaecoccus floridensis is apparently not under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found in numerous instances at California nurseries, but there do not appear to be any reports of this species being present in California outside of nurseries.  For this reason, it is assumed that it is not present in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit (probably from Florida) in 2015 (PDR # 570P06363493) and on a plant from Florida in 2017 (PDR # 010P06660306).  It has been found at nurseries (usually on palms) numerous times: Ventura County in 2000 (PDR # 1190499); Orange County in 1997, 1998, and 2001 (PDR # 1145197, 1212115, 1204342, and 085566); Los Angeles County in 1995, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 1122913, 1212067, 1294290, 1352589, 1352580, 1352496, 1352477, 190P06058690, 190P06058654, 190P06058656, 190P06058655, 190P06059656, 190P06059651, 190P06059638, 190P06620202, 190P06620188, 190P06620166, 190P06620165, 190P06620164, 190P06620167, 190P06620155, 190P06620155, 190P06620147, 190P06620146, 190P06620146, 190P06620134, 190P06620133, 190P06620125, 190P06620114, 190P06620113, 190P06620059 , 190P06619989, 190P06619878, 190P06060247, 190P06060186, 1252840, and 190P06060156); San Bernardino County in 2013, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 360P06147027, 360P06381148, 360P06381138, 360P06578933, 360P06380913, 360P06380914, and 360P06202635); San Diego County in 2012 (PDR # 1508906); and Ventura County in 2012, 2015, and 2017 (PDR # 1508906, 56VP06083122, 56VP06083121, 56VP06084073, and 56VP06084022).

The risk Nipaecoccus floridensis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Nipaecoccus floridensis is only known to occur in Florida and Cuba, although see Uncertainty, below. It is apparently restricted to tropical and subtropical areas.  It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California, perhaps the coastal, southern portion of the state.  Therefore, Nipaecoccus floridensis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported from a few species of palms and from guava. It was intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can be dispersed passively in the first instar (“crawler”) stage by wind (CABI, 2017).  Based on the numerous detections on palms at nurseries, Nipaecoccus floridensis is evidently capable of being dispersed artificially via transport of infested plants.  In addition, some Nipaecoccus are capable of producing over 1000 offspring per female (Bartlett, 1978).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Nipaecoccus floridensis feeds on palms.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California (Hoddle).  If N. floridensis was introduced to California, it could become a pest in nurseries and increase the cost of palm production.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact: B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Nipaecoccus floridensis became established in California, it could trigger treatments if ornamental palms became infested. As palms are widely planted in the state, infestations and treatments in response could be widespread as well.  The only native California palm species, Washingtonia filifera, occurs in desert, and N. floridensis is unlikely to thrive in such an environment.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nipaecoccus floridensis: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found at California nurseries numerous times, the species is presumed to not be established in the state, as no records outside of nurseries have been found. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

As stated above, Nipaecoccus floridensis is similar to, and could have perhaps been misidentified as Nipaecoccus nipae in the past.  Therefore, N. floridensis may have a more widespread distribution than is reflected in literature and collecting records, which means that the climatic tolerance and feeding habits may be broader than what is suggested by those records.  It is apparent that N. floridensis has had numerous opportunities to become established in California, based on the fact that it has been found in nurseries multiple times, and it is possible that N. floridensis is already established in a limited part of the state but has gone undetected.  If the species is not established in California, it may be possible that it is not capable of becoming established here outside of the nursery environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is a palm-feeding mealybug that is not known to be established in California but could become a pest of ornamental palms.  Ornamental palms are an important industry in California, and they are an iconic symbol of the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bartlett, B.R. 1978. Pseudococcidae, p. 137–170. In: C.P. Clausen (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review. Agriculture Handbook. 480. USDA, Washington, DC.  545 pp.

Beardsley, J.W.  1999.  Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and two apparently undescribed sibling species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  Entomologica, Bari.  33: 49-57.

CABI.  2017.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  Florida cooperative agriculture pest survey program quarterly report no. 2-2005.  10 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., N.B. Hardy. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed 3 November 2017. http://scalenet.info.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Hamon, A., Kondo, T., Oliver, P.H., Herrera, M.D.M., and A.H. Marrero.  2015.  Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) del Parque Natural Topes de Collantes, Sancti-Spíritus, Cuba y la relación con sus plantas hospedantes.  Insecta Mundi.  426: 1-27.

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Rubio, M.V., Bonnin, P.C., and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad.  14(3): 181-183.

Peña, J.  2013.  Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.  464 pp.

Stocks, I.  2013.  19: Recent adventive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida and the Caribbean basin, pp. 342-362.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Black Pine Bark Beetle | Hylastes ater (Paykull)

California Pest Rating for
Black Pine Bark Beetle | Hylastes ater (Paykull)
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Hylastes ater is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Hylastes ater is fairly large (3.5-4.4 mm long) sized for a bark beetle.  The beetle is dark in color, almost black.  Hylastes ater larval feeding appears to be limited to the roots and stumps of already-cut conifers (mostly pine, Pinus spp.).  Adults burrow into the phloem (inner bark), forming tunnels in which the larvae feed.  Feeding by newly-emerged adult bark beetles takes place in seedlings.  As is commonly the case with bark beetles, multiple species of fungi are associated with H. ater.  Sapstain fungi may be transferred to recently-cut logs by adult H. ater through their feeding.  This fungus can decrease the value of wood.

Worldwide Distribution: Hylastes ater is native to a large portion of the Palearctic, including much of Europe.  The species has been introduced to Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Official Control: This species is considered a quarantine pest by Canada.

California Distribution:  This species is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions: Hylastes ater has been intercepted in California on Pinus radiata wood from New Zealand (PDR # 1166010 and 1059432).

The risk Hylastes ater would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hylastes ater is widely distributed in the Palearctic, and has demonstrated its ability to be introduced successfully to various localities, including Australia, Chile, and New Zealand. This species feeds on pines, which occur throughout California.  Therefore, Hylastes ater receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Hylastes ater has been reported to feed on many species of pines as well as other coniferous trees. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Hylastes ater flies, and has successfully been introduced to several countries. Adults are strongly attracted to freshly-cut logs, which means these beetles are likely to be present on logs/firewood that are not removed immediately after cutting.  This would enable the beetles to be moved with the logs/firewood.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Hylastes ater has been reported to cause heavy mortality of pine seedlings in New Zealand, primarily as a result of the feeding of newly emerged adults described above.  There is some evidence that healthy seedlings are generally not damaged or killed as a result of this feeding, and that it is only otherwise-compromised seedlings that are affected.  Assuming that healthy seedlings are damaged or killed, the introduction of ater to California could impact the timber industry through increasing production costs, both through loss of seedlings as well as infection of logs by sapstain fungi.  Timing of cutting or harvesting of timber could require modification, to avoid the beetles.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B, D, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There does not appear to be any evidence that Hylastes ater has a significant environmental impact in any of the areas to which it has been introduced. Any significant damage to pine seedlings in timber operations may be related to the artificially higher density of food sources (wood waste) and resulting high densities of adult beetles.  However, it is possible that this species could have a different impact in California if it was introduced here.  There is also a possibility that the species could carry a fungal pathogen to which California trees are susceptible.  Forest ecosystems and rare California conifers could be affected.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  A,B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Hylastes ater: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Hylastes ater is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Besides any damage to already-cut timber by the transmitted fungi, the only evidence so far of damage resulting from this beetle is the feeding by newly emerged adults on tree seedlings.  There appears to be some uncertainty regarding the ability of the adults to injure or kill healthy pine seedlings; some research suggests that injured/killed seedlings were originally in poor health prior to being fed upon.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Hylastes ater is a bark beetle that is not known to occur in the United States and has the potential to impact the timber industry through direct feeding damage of seedlings or transmission of pathogenic fungi.  There could be environmental impacts as well.  In addition, there are pine species in California (some of them rare) that this bark beetle has not encountered before, and the behavior (including damage) of the beetle could be different from what has been observed to date in other parts of the world.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bain, J., Berndt, L., and B. Gresham.  2009.  Forest and timber insects in New Zealand.  Number 29: Black pine bark beetle. http://www.nzffa.org.nz/farm-forestry-model/the-essentials/forest-health-pests-and-diseases/Pests/Hylastes-ater/Hylastes-aterEnt29

CABI.  2017.  Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc

EPPO.  2017.  EPPO Global Database (available online).  Accessed 21 September 2017. https://gd.eppo.int

Kliejunas, J.T, Burdsall Jr., H.H., DeNitto, G.A., Eglitis, A., Haugen, D.A., Haverty, M.I., and J.A. Micales.  2006.  Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus logs and chips from Australia.  United States Department of Agriculture.  159 pp.

Reay, S.D., Glare, T.R., and M. Brownbridge.  2012.  Hylastes ater (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) affecting Pinus radiata seedling establishment in New Zealand.  Psyche.  2012: 1-9.

Wood, S.L.  1982.  The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph.  Brigham Young University.  1359 pp.

Wood, S.L.  2007.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America.  Brigham Young University.  900 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Bark Beetle | Coccotrypes rutschuruensis Eggers

California Pest Rating for
Bark Beetle | Coccotrypes rutschuruensis Eggers
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

 

Initiating Event:

In 1987, beetles were found mining the bases of seedlings of the palm, Howea forsteriana, in Orange County (PDR # 821414).  The beetles were identified as Coccotrypes rutschuruensis (misspelled in the PDR as rutshuruensis).  This apparently represents the only detection of the species in the United States.

History & Status:

Background: This species has been found associated with the following plants: Annona sp. (Annonaceae), Astrocaryum murumura, Howea forsteriana, Phoenix reclinata (Arecaceae), and Triplochiton scleroxylon (Malvaceae).  Wood (2007) considered it possible that what he treated as C. rutschuruensis could have been two or more species.  Therefore, the biological data of multiple species may have been combined and the specific identification of members of this genus may be problematic.  Regardless, little biological information is available for the beetles that have been referred to by this name except for reports of feeding on the bases of seedlings of Howea forsteriana and in Astrocaryum palm nuts.  For both of these reasons (doubtful species identity and poorly-known biology), a cautious approach must be taken and the biology of the entire genus Coccotrypes will be drawn upon in this proposal.

Worldwide Distribution: Coccotrypes rutschuruensis was described from material collected in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and it is presumably native to that continent.  The 1987 Orange County find is apparently the only record of this species in the United States, and it is presumed that this species is not established in this country (Haack and Rabaglia 2013).  There are reports that this species has been introduced to Brazil and Suriname (Wood, 2007).  Unfortunately, these records may represent one or more different species due to the confused taxonomy.

Official Control: Coccotrypes rutschuruensis is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution: This species is not known to occur in the United States.

California Interceptions: The above-mentioned detection in Orange County is apparently the only record of this species in California (and the United States).

The risk Coccotrypes rutschuruensis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The available distribution records suggest that the species is primarily tropical but may also be capable of establishment in temperate climates, although this depends on the specimens identified as rutschuruensis in South America actually being that species. Because of the lack of biological information available on this species and the doubt regarding the species identities, the broad, collective climatic tolerance of the entire genus Coccotrypes is considered.  Regarding host plants, this beetles appears to be mostly restricted to palms.  There is only one native palm in California, but many species are planted as ornamentals in the southern half of the state.  Therefore, C. rutschuruensis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The available feeding records for Coccotrypes rutschuruensis all involve palms, although there is little biological information available. The feeding habits of the entire genus Coccotrypes are considered.  Therefore, Coccotrypes rutschuruensis receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Coccotrypes species are inbreeding and can reproduce via arrhenotokous parthenogenesis. This means that a single, unfertilized female is capable of founding a population by producing males from unfertilized eggs and mating with them.  In addition, Coccotrypes species are known to fly.  Therefore, Coccotrypes rutschuruensis receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The beetles identified as rutschuruensis were reported feeding on palm seeds and seedlings. It is possible that if it were to become established in California, this beetle could impact the date and ornamental palm industries, including lowering yield and disrupting markets and increasing production costs.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Coccotrypes rutschuruensis is reported to feed on palm seeds and seedlings. Another species of Coccotrypes, carpophagus, has been reported to feed on Washingtonia filifera and W. robusta.  If introduced into California, C. rutschuruensis could impact the regeneration of the native Washingtonia filifera palm in southern California.  This beetle could also impact ornamental palm plantings and trigger treatment programs if planted palms were attacked.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Coccotrypes rutschuruensis: High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Coccotrypes rutschuruensis been found only once in California (the Orange County find cited above).  Because there is no further evidence of this species in the state, it receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Coccotrypes is diverse (129 described species) and the body size is minute.  This makes identification challenging even in a best-case scenario (i.e., if the systematics of the group have been well-studied, or a modern revision existed).  In many cases, specimens of Coccotrypes are only identified to the level of genus.  This means that, even if C. rutschuruensis was established in the United States, it may not have been identified as that species.  In addition, the sparseness of biological data available for this species, along with the doubt regarding its identity, leads the author to consider the biology of the entire genus Coccotrypes in developing a rating.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The beetles historically identified as C. rutschuruensis have been reported feeding on palm seeds and seedlings.  This raises the possibility of economic and environmental damage if this species became established.  There is apparently a possibility that other Coccotrypes species may be referred to as C. rutschuruensis, which means that a specimen intercepted in California and identified as C. rutschuruensis may be a different species with a different biology (including feeding habits and climatic tolerances).  For this reason, a cautious approach has been taken.  Coccotrypes rutschuruensis deserves an “A” rating.


References:

Atkinson, T.H.  2017.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America. http://www.barkbeetles.info

Haack, R.A.  2001.  Intercepted Scolytidae (Coleoptera) at U.S. ports of entry: 1985-2000.  Integrated Pest Management.  6: 253-282.

Haack, R.A. and R.J. Rabaglia.  2013.  Exotic bark and ambrosia beetles in the USA: Potential and current invaders.  In (J. Peña, ed.): Potential pests of agricultural crops (pp. 48-74).  CAB International.

Vega, F.E. and R.W. Hofstetter.  2014.  Bark beetles: Biology and ecology of native and invasive species.  Academic Press.  640 pp.

Wood, S.L.  2007.  Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America.  Brigham Young University.  900 pp.

Wood, S.L. and D.E. Bright.  1992.  A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Part 2: Taxonomic index.  Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs.  13: 1-1553.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/16/2018 – 3/2/2018


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Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls