Category Archives: Hemiptera

Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell

California Pest Rating Proposal
Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Current Pest Rating:  Q
Proposed Pest Rating: B

 


♦ Comment Period:* 1/24/18 – 3/10/18 ♦


Initiating Event:

Poliaspis media has recently been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego counties and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Poliaspis media is a polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on the undersides of leaves of host plants1.  The scale insect’s feeding induces galls on some host plants1.  Some of the known hosts are: Achariaceae: Melicytus alpinus1; Aizoaceae: Disphyma australe1; Araliaceae: Raukaua anomalus1; Asteliaceae: Astelia fragrans1; Asteraceae: Craspedia sp.1, Ozothamnus sp.1, Sonchus sp.1; Brassicaceae: Streptanthus sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas revoluta1; Ericaceae: Acrothamnus colensoi1, Cyathodes sp.1, Dracophyllum latifolium1, Dracophyllum lessonianum1, Dracophyllum oliveri1, Dracophyllum recurvum1, Dracophyllum sp.1, Dracophyllum traversii1, Leptecophylla juniperina1, Leucopogon fraseri1, Leucopogon sp.1, Pentachondra pumila1; Gaultheria depressa1, Gaultheria rupestris1, Gaultheria sp.1; Myrtaceae: Leptospermum scoparium1; Orchidaceae: Orchidaceae sp.1; Plantaginaceae: Veronica decumbens1, Veronica elliptica1, Veronica hulkeana1, Veronica macrantha1, Veronica pentasepala1, Veronica subalpina1, Veronica venustula1; Podocarpaceae: Lepidothamnus laxifolius1; Primulaceae: Myrsine australis1, Myrsine divaricata1, Myrsine salicina1, Samolus repens1; Ranunculaceae: Clematis afoliata1; Restionaceae: Emposidisma minus1; Rubiaceae: Coprosma arborea1, Coprosma chathamica1, Coprosma cheesemanii1, Coprosma depressa1, Coprosma propinqua1, Coprosma pumila1, Coprosma rhamnoides1, Coprosma robusta1, Coprosma rubra1, Coprosma sp.1, Coprosma spathulata1, Coprosma tenuifolia1, Coprosma virescens1; Rutaceae: Leionema nudum1; Santalaceae: Exocarpos bidwillii1; Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea prostrata1, Pimelea urvilleana1; Zamiaceae: Dioon edule1Poliaspis media may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Poliaspis media was described from specimens collected in New Zealand before 1880, but it may be native to Asia1,2.  It has been found in New Zealand, Fiji, India, Greece, the United Kingdom, and the United States1.  It was first found in Florida in 20072.

Official Control: Poliaspis media is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution Poliaspis media was collected in the environment of California at a residence in Tustin (Orange County) in 1999 and at a residence in Villa Park (Orange County) in 2016 and again in 2017.  It was found at a park in San Diego County in 2018.

California Interceptions Since 1993, samples of Poliaspis media have been collected 22 times in inspections of nurseries in San Diego, Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties.  The scale insects were also intercepted once on a shipment of sago palms (Cycas revoluta) from Florida.

The risk Poliaspis media (cycad poliaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Poliaspis media is established in nations with Mediterranean climates similar to much of California and it is expected to establish a widespread distribution here. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Poliaspis media is known to feed on a variety of plants in 21 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and could potentially disrupt markets for nursery stock and other fresh plant material.  Poliaspis media receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Cycads are high value, slow-growing ornamental plants that are popular in California and may be significantly impacted by this insect.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Poliaspis media (Cycad Poliaspis Scale):  High (14) 

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Poliaspis media is only known to be established in the environment of Orange County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Over the course of 20 years, Poliaspis media has been found multiple times in nurseries in California but it has only been intercepted coming into the state once.  It has been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego Counties.  There have been no recent formal surveys for this pest.  It is possible that this scale insect is more widely established in the environment of Southern California and is infesting nurseries locally.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Poliaspis media has been established in the environment of Orange County for several years, was recently found in San Diego County, and is not under official control.  It is expected to have significant impacts on the nursery industry and ornamental plantings as it expands its distribution in the state.  A “B” rating is justified.


References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Poliaspis%20media/

2 Hodges, Greg and W.N. Dixon. 2007.  The Poliaspis Cycad Scale Poliaspis cycadis Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): A new exotic scale insect for Florida.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/68154/1612633/Pest_Alert_-_Poliaspis_cycadis,_The_Poliaspis_Cycad_Scale.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls

A mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley

California Pest Rating Proposal
A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 Comment Period: 1/17/18 – 3/3/18


Initiating Event:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is a small (approximately 1.4 mm long) mealybug that occurs on palms.  It was described recently and is very similar to N. nipae (Beardsley, 1999).  It is possible that some identifications of N. nipae were actually misidentified N. floridensisNipaecoccus nipae is present in California (reported from Alameda, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, and Ventura counties).  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported on the palms Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta and Psidium guajava (guava) (Beardsley, 1999; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2010).  In the nursery environment, it has been found on a variety of palms.

Worldwide Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis is reported from Cuba and Florida (where it infests palms) (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2005; Novoa et al. 2015).  It is possibly native to Florida (Peña, 2013).

Official Control: Nipaecoccus floridensis is apparently not under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found in numerous instances at California nurseries, but there do not appear to be any reports of this species being present in California outside of nurseries.  For this reason, it is assumed that it is not present in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Nipaecoccus floridensis has been intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit (probably from Florida) in 2015 (PDR # 570P06363493) and on a plant from Florida in 2017 (PDR # 010P06660306).  It has been found at nurseries (usually on palms) numerous times: Ventura County in 2000 (PDR # 1190499); Orange County in 1997, 1998, and 2001 (PDR # 1145197, 1212115, 1204342, and 085566); Los Angeles County in 1995, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 1122913, 1212067, 1294290, 1352589, 1352580, 1352496, 1352477, 190P06058690, 190P06058654, 190P06058656, 190P06058655, 190P06059656, 190P06059651, 190P06059638, 190P06620202, 190P06620188, 190P06620166, 190P06620165, 190P06620164, 190P06620167, 190P06620155, 190P06620155, 190P06620147, 190P06620146, 190P06620146, 190P06620134, 190P06620133, 190P06620125, 190P06620114, 190P06620113, 190P06620059 , 190P06619989, 190P06619878, 190P06060247, 190P06060186, 1252840, and 190P06060156); San Bernardino County in 2013, 2016, and 2017 (PDR # 360P06147027, 360P06381148, 360P06381138, 360P06578933, 360P06380913, 360P06380914, and 360P06202635); San Diego County in 2012 (PDR # 1508906); and Ventura County in 2012, 2015, and 2017 (PDR # 1508906, 56VP06083122, 56VP06083121, 56VP06084073, and 56VP06084022).

The risk Nipaecoccus floridensis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Nipaecoccus floridensis is only known to occur in Florida and Cuba, although see Uncertainty, below. It is apparently restricted to tropical and subtropical areas.  It is possible that it could become established in a limited portion of California, perhaps the coastal, southern portion of the state.  Therefore, Nipaecoccus floridensis receives a Low (1) in this category.

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Nipaecoccus floridensis has been reported from a few species of palms and from guava. It was intercepted on Annona squamosa fruit.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can be dispersed passively in the first instar (“crawler”) stage by wind (CABI, 2017).  Based on the numerous detections on palms at nurseries, Nipaecoccus floridensis is evidently capable of being dispersed artificially via transport of infested plants.  In addition, some Nipaecoccus are capable of producing over 1000 offspring per female (Bartlett, 1978).  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Nipaecoccus floridensis feeds on palms.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California (Hoddle).  If N. floridensis was introduced to California, it could become a pest in nurseries and increase the cost of palm production.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact: B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Nipaecoccus floridensis became established in California, it could trigger treatments if ornamental palms became infested. As palms are widely planted in the state, infestations and treatments in response could be widespread as well.  The only native California palm species, Washingtonia filifera, occurs in desert, and N. floridensis is unlikely to thrive in such an environment.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nipaecoccus floridensis: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Although Nipaecoccus floridensis has been found at California nurseries numerous times, the species is presumed to not be established in the state, as no records outside of nurseries have been found. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

As stated above, Nipaecoccus floridensis is similar to, and could have perhaps been misidentified as Nipaecoccus nipae in the past.  Therefore, N. floridensis may have a more widespread distribution than is reflected in literature and collecting records, which means that the climatic tolerance and feeding habits may be broader than what is suggested by those records.  It is apparent that N. floridensis has had numerous opportunities to become established in California, based on the fact that it has been found in nurseries multiple times, and it is possible that N. floridensis is already established in a limited part of the state but has gone undetected.  If the species is not established in California, it may be possible that it is not capable of becoming established here outside of the nursery environment.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nipaecoccus floridensis is a palm-feeding mealybug that is not known to be established in California but could become a pest of ornamental palms.  Ornamental palms are an important industry in California, and they are an iconic symbol of the state.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Bartlett, B.R. 1978. Pseudococcidae, p. 137–170. In: C.P. Clausen (ed.). Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review. Agriculture Handbook. 480. USDA, Washington, DC.  545 pp.

Beardsley, J.W.  1999.  Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell) and two apparently undescribed sibling species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  Entomologica, Bari.  33: 49-57.

CABI.  2017.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. www.cabi.org/isc

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.  Florida cooperative agriculture pest survey program quarterly report no. 2-2005.  10 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., N.B. Hardy. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed 3 November 2017. http://scalenet.info.

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Hamon, A., Kondo, T., Oliver, P.H., Herrera, M.D.M., and A.H. Marrero.  2015.  Insectos escama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) del Parque Natural Topes de Collantes, Sancti-Spíritus, Cuba y la relación con sus plantas hospedantes.  Insecta Mundi.  426: 1-27.

Novoa, N.M., Hodges, G.S., Rubio, M.V., Bonnin, P.C., and P.H. Oliver.  2010.  Nuevos registros de insectos escamas (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) para Cuba.  Fitosanidad.  14(3): 181-183.

Peña, J.  2013.  Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.  464 pp.

Stocks, I.  2013.  19: Recent adventive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida and the Caribbean basin, pp. 342-362.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:*

1/17/2018 – 3/3/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls

Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)

California Pest Rating for
Image of a Gray Sugarcane Mealybug. Click on image for photo citation.
Click on image for photo citation.
Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted on January 18, 2017 at a nursery in Los Angles during a regulatory inspection. This species has a temporary Q rating. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Trionymus boninsis, known as the gray sugarcane mealybug, is a mealybug species common on sugarcane growing areas of the world. It is generally found on the stem under the leaf blade and tended by various ant species. Trionymus boninsis is currently known to feed on plants of 11 families and 31 genera, and is found often on grasses other than sugarcane, including Sorghum and corn, but also on coconut, Ipomeas and Citrus among others (Williams & Granara de Willink 1992; Garcia Morales et al. 2016).

Worldwide Distribution: Trionymus boninsis is recorded to be present in ASIA, Bonin Islands, Formosa, Japan, AFRICA, Egypt, Mauritius, AUSTRALASIA and PACIFIC ISLANDS, Australia, CarolineIs. Hawaiian islands, Marianas. New Caledonia, New Guinea, NORTH AMERICA, Mexico, United States, CENTRAL AMERICA and WEST INDIES, Panama, West Indies, SOUTH AMERICA, Brazil, Surinam, Venezuela. (CABI 2016).

U.S. Distribution: Trionymus boninsis has been reported only in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi (Garcia Morales et al. 2016).

U.S. Quarantine Interceptions: Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted 13 times at United States ports of entry between 1995 and 2012. This species is commonly collected on sugarcane from every warm part of the world where sugarcane is grown. It is also reported from 10 families of host plants, predominantly species of grasses (Miller et al. 2014).

Official Control: Trionymus boninsis has been listed as a harmful organism by the republic of Korea (USDA APHIS- PCIT 2017).

California Distribution:  Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural environment in California.

California Interceptions:  Trionymus boninsis has been found multiple times by CDFA through border station inspections, dog team inspections, and high risk pest exclusion activities and nursery regulatory inspections. Between January 1990 and October 2017, it has been intercepted 10 times.

The risk Trionymus boninsis (gray sugarcane mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Sugarcane is not commonly grown in California. Grasses are common throughout the state. However Trionymus boninsis attacks grasses in temperate and warm areas. If this species were to get established in state it can attack grasses in deserts areas. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Trionymus boninsis is a common pest of Sugarcane but is also found on other plants in 11 families including many grasses, maize, sorghum and rice. It is also reported to occur on weeds especially Lactuca in the water canals around sugarcane farms (M. Moghaddam 2006).  There is a record of this species on Citrus sp. (Marotta 1987), and there is the chance that it could become established throughout Citrus growing areas in California. It receives a High (3) in this category as some of its potential hosts in California are staple crops.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs have high reproductive rate and can spread long distances by movement of infested plant parts. Sugarcane mealy bugs can survive for up to four months in the leaf sheaths attached to canes. Several species of ants can help spread the mealybugs from infested to healthy canes. Among other factors affecting the number of mealybugs include rainfall pattern tightness of leaf sheath and incidence of predators and parasites (Inkerman et al. 1986). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trionymus boninsis is a widespread pest in sugar cane growing areas of the world. This species also attacks grasses in warm and warm temperate areas. This species could significantly impact cultural practices in citrus, maize and rice growing areas of California. Currently, sugarcane is being planted on a small scale in the Imperial Valley for research (Western farm press, 2001). If boninsis were to establish, it could lower the quality and value of these crops. This species is capable of transmitting Sugarcane bacillifrom badnavirus (SCBV) through infected sugarcane setts. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Since mealybugs are spread by ants, chemical treatments for ant control may have detrimental environmental impacts because of their slow degradation (Kessing & Mau 2007). If this species were to establish in California, it may trigger new chemical treatments in areas where host grasses are present.

It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction of Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug into California:  High (14)

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

         -High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment of California. Therefore, it receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: (14)

Uncertainty:

Trionymus boninsis has been intercepted many times by CDFA through regulatory pathways.  There have not been any recent surveys for Trionymus boninsis. If it goes undetected, there is a good possibility that it can spread in the state based on its rapid dispersal potential. Its main host is sugarcane and although it attacks citrus, maize and rice, it is not known how serious a pest it could be on these crops.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Trionymus boninsis has not been found in the natural or agricultural environment in California. If this species were to become established in California, there could be significant economic and environmental impacts. Based on all the above evidence, an “A” rating is proposed at this time.


References:

CAB International 2016: Dysmicoccus boninsis. [Distribution map]  https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20056600116

García Morales M, Denno BD, Miller DR, Miller GL, Ben-Dov Y, Hardy NB. 2016.ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info. http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Trionymus%20boninsis/ Accessed 10/23/2017

Inkerman, P.A., N. J. Ashbolt, Mary Carver and D. J. Williams. 1986. Observation on the pink sugarcane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) in Australia (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  http://www.issct.org/pdf/proceedings/1986/1986%20Inkerman%20Observations%20on%20the%20Pink%20Sugarcane%20Mealybug%20in%20Australia.pdf

Kessing JLM, Mau RFL, 2007. Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley). Crop Knowledge Master.  http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/d_neobre.htm

Marotta, S. 1987 An annotated list of the Italian mealybugs. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria ‘Filippo Silvestri’. Portici 43: (1986, Supplement): 107-116. 

Miller, D., A. Rung, G. Parikh, G. Venable, A.J. Redford, G.A. Evans, and R.J. Gill. 2014. Scale Insects, Edition 2. USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP). Fort Collins, CO. Accesed 10/23/2017 http://idtools.org/id/scales/

Moghaddam, M. 2006. The mealybugs of southern Iran (Hem.: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 26(1), 1-11.

Pest and Damage Report Database: Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture: Accessed 10/19/2017

Western farm press.  2001. Sugarcane: California’s triple threat? http://www.westernfarmpress.com/sugarcane-californias-triple-threat

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT): Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD), Accessed 10/19/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ReportFormat.jsp


Author:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916)403-6617, raj.randhawa@cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: * CLOSED

1/5/2018 – 2/19/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Armored Scale | Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)

California Pest Rating for
Armored scale |  Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Melanaspis leivasi was found on Florida stranger fig (Ficus aurea Nutt.) at a residence in West Palm Beach by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Resources and identified by USDA APHIS on 11/9/2017 (USDA/APHIS/PPQ, 2017). This is the first domestic record for this pest in the United States. In California, it currently has a “Q” rating.  Due to its potential economic and environmental impacts, a permanent rating is proposed

History & Status:

Background:  Melanaspis is a genus of armored scales that includes 64 described species, of which M. leivasi is the largest, adult females measuring up to 2.4 millimeters in length (Deitz and Davidson, 1986).  Melanaspis leivasi has been associated with Anacardium excelsum (Anacardiaceae), Bursera sp. (Burseraceae), Ficus sp. (Moraceae), and Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) (Claps et al., 1999; Garcia Morales et al., 2016).

Worldwide Distribution:  Melanaspis leivasi is reported from South America (Brazil and Colombia), Central America (Guatemala and Panama), and Mexico. This species is not known to occur in the continental United States (Garcia Morales et al., 2016).

Official Control: Melanaspis leivasi is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Melanaspis leivasi is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Melanaspis leivasi has been intercepted three times in California; all three interceptions were in San Diego on tropical apricot (Mammea americana) from Mexico.

The risk Melanaspis leivasi would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Of the four genera of plants that M. leivasi has been associated with, only Vitis is widely distributed in California. The family Anacardiaceae contains other genera in California that could possibly serve as host plants.  Because of the apparent restriction to a tropical or subtropical climate, it appears unlikely that M. leivasi could become established in more than a limited portion of California. Therefore, Melanaspis leivasi receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Melanaspis leivasi has been associated with four families of plants: Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, and Vitaceae (Garcia Morales et al., 2016). Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Natural dispersal in diaspidids is limited, because adult females do not fly.  They can, however, be artificially dispersed via movement of infested plant material.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: There is little information available on the biology of Melanaspis leivasi.  The genus Melanaspis includes several pest species.  Some species are pests in their native range.  One, M. deklei, is not known to be a pest in its native range, but became a pest of ornamental wax myrtle trees in South Carolina after it was introduced there (Chong et al., 2009).  It is possible that M. leivasi could become an agricultural pest of grapes in California if it became established here; if so, this could lower crop yield, increase production costs, and negatively change normal cultural practices.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The genus Melanaspis has a demonstrated pest potential, as several species are economic pests. In addition, M. leivasi apparently feeds on at least four families of plants; some of these families include species native to California.  Three members of the Anacardiaceae, Rhus ovata, R. ovatifolia, and Malosma laurina, are prominent or dominant members of shrub-dominated communities in southern California. If this pest were to attack these species and reduce their fitness, then it could cause modification of habitat types including coastal strand, southern sagebrush scrub, sumac scrub, and various types of chaparral. As these plant communities serve as habitat for the federally endangered Least Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), then this pest could indirectly affect this endangered species.   Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Melanaspis leivasi: High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Melanaspis leivasi is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There is significant uncertainty.  Little information is available on the biology of M. leivasi.  For example, the breadth of its feeding habits is apparently broad, but this is based on a small number of literature records.  It is possible that it would feed on a far wider range of host plants. It is also possible that M. leivasi would not be capable of becoming established in California because it requires a tropical climate, although there are areas of subtropical climate in southern California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Melanaspis leivasi is a scale insect with apparently broad feeding habits.  It is possible that it could become established in California.  This species belongs to a genus with several economic pests, and it is not known to be present in California.  However, if this species gets established in California, it could cause significant economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Chong, J.-H., Hodges, G.S., and M. Samuel-Foo.  2009.  First record and management of the armored scale, Melanaspis deklei Dietz & Davidson (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in South Carolina.  Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology.  26(2): 63-75.

Claps, L.E., Wolff, V.R.S, and R.H. González.  1999.  Catálogo de las especies de Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoides) nativas de Argentina, Brasil y Chile.  Insecta Mundi.  13(3-4): 239-256.

Deitz, L.L. and J.A.  Davidson.  1986.  Synopsis of the armored scale genus Melanaspis in North America (Homoptera: Diaspididae). North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin No. 279.  92 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. 2016.  ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info.  Accessed 15 November 2017

http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Melanaspis%20leivasi/

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed 15 November 2017.

http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

USDA/APHIS/PPQ 2017. PestID record APEMD173124536001


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

12/12/17 – 1/26/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Odermatt Mealybug | Pseudococcus odermatti

California Pest Rating for
Pseudococcus odermatti – Odermatt mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus odermatti is frequently intercepted by CDFA. Currently it has a temporary rating of Q. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly known as odermatt mealybug. Like other species in the genus Pseudococcus, odermatt mealybug can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Annonaceae: Sugar apple (Annona squamosa); Araliaceae: Fetsia paper plant (Fatsia japonica), Araceae: Aglaonema spp., Rosaceae: Pyracantha spp., Ebenaceae: Diospros spp., Pittosporaceae: Japanese cheesewood (Pittosporum tobira), Rutaceae: (Citrus aurantium & Citrus latifolia) 1, 4.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti is established in Bahamas, Belize, China, Costa Rica, India and Japan. In the United States it is reported from Hawaii and Florida1.

Official Control:  There is no data available for Pseudococcus odermatti, but Pseudococcus spp. are listed as harmful organisms in Dominica, Grenada, Japan, Saint Luci, Taiwan and Panama 3.

California Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Pseudococcus odermatti is regularly found by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and November, 2016 this mealybug was intercepted 94 times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida and Hawaii2.

The risk Pseudococcus odermatti would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on a large variety of plants cultivated in California, especial widely planted citrus. It is likely to establish wherever host plants are grown and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: (3)

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on seven different families of plants which grown throughout in California1. It has a moderate host range. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: (2)

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Most species of Pseudococcus genus are famous for their high reproductive rates. They may spread long distances when host plants are moved. Furthermore, they may be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.

Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: (3)

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is considered an economic pest of several crops that are grown in California and may be expected to lower crop yields and increase crop production costs. If the scale were to enter the state, it may disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. It has the potential to trigger loss of markets. Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact:  A B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control its infestation. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: (2)

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Odermatt mealybug:  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly intercepted. There have been no formal surveys for this scale in the state. It is therefore possible that it could be present in some locations in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California and its entry to the state has potentially significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Miller & Williams 1997, Downie, D.A. Gullan, P.J. Scale Net. Accessed 12-19-16 http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudococcus%20odermatti/
  2. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  3. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).             https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  4. USDA,  APHIS, Identification Technology Program,  Fact sheet   Accessed on 12-19-16 http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=7011

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/12/17 – 10/27/17*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


PEST RATING:  A


Posted by ls

Seed Bugs | Nysius spp.

 California Pest Rating for
Nysius spp.  : (Seed Bugs)
Hemiptera: Lygaeidae
Pest  Rating: NR

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Nysius spp. (Seed Bugs) are frequently intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs and at border stations. These have a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to evaluate their pest risk.

History & Status:

Background: The insects of the Nysius spp. commonly known as seed bugs or ground bugs and these are found on every continent except Antarctica2. The Lygaeidae is a very successful family of true bugs found worldwide. Several species of this family are well-known as major economic pests of a variety of crops. Some members of genus Nysius spp. are very useful for insect studies especially, insect physiology and evolutionary ecology.2

The insects of Nysius spp. are small insect commonly found within grassy or weedy fields, pastures, and foothills. Each spring, once the plants in these areas dry up, these insects migrates to find new places to feed. This becomes a nuisance for homeowners when these bugs migrate into their landscapes and homes and can cause problems for gardeners and farmers. The problems are most serious in the year with wet and cool springs.1

Nysius species are polyphagous insects that feed on a large number of crops, fruits & weeds5. The members of this genus have been associated with both endemic and introduced plant species from sea level to over 13,000 feet3. Crops attacked by these insects include: cabbage, rape, turnip, clover, lucerne, cucumber, carrots, potato, beets, cotton, sorghum, tomatoes and all types of squash, barley, wheat and many more crops. Many fruits plants were attacked by the insects of this genus, especially soft skin fruit like strawberries, kiwifruit and apple are seriously injured. Several weeds are reservoir hosts of these bugs, particularly those belonging to the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Portulacaceae families.4, 5

Worldwide Distribution: The insects of Nysius spp. are considered among the most successful insects on earth; they are found on every continent except Antarctica.2

Official Control: Nysius spp. are listed as harmful organisms by New Zealand, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Canada and Taiwan.8

California Distribution: Nysius spp. are distributed all over California, but there are no official surveys done for these insects to confirm their presence. There are 106 described species in the genus Nysius and many of these have never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Nysius spp. have been intercepted multiple times through border station inspections, dog teams and high risk pest exclusion activities. Between January 2000 and December 2016, they have been intercepted 990 times. Many of these specimen were submitted by homeowners from all over the state.

The risk Nysius spp. (Seed bugs) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Nysius spp. are commonly grown in California and these species are expected to be established wherever the hosts are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The insects of Nysius are highly polyphagous that can feed on variety of field crop and wild plants. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The female of Nysius spp. generally lay eggs in clutches, which can range in size from 10 to over 100 eggs and may lay many clutches in their lifetime. The adults travel short distance in search of food and overwintering sites. They may move longer distances as result of hitchhiking on infested planting material or field equipment. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Some species of Nysius considered pests of seedlings and in severe infestations they can damage young almond, pistachio, pomegranate, and citrus trees. Nysius huttoni feed on wheat grain in the milk-ripe stage with sucking mouthparts, which pierce through the glumes into the developing grain. It inject saliva that contains an enzyme, which bring changes in the flour protein makes it runny dough unsuitable for baking.4, 5  Most of the species are viewed as agricultural pests.  It might reduce the crop yield and increase crop production costs for farmers. It is not expected to change cultural practice vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. Depending on the species they could receive a Low (-1) to Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1-2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The insects of Nysius spp. are not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It may effect sensitive species of Brassicaceae such as Caperfruit tropidocarpum (Tropidocarpum capparideum), Santa Cruz Wallflower (Erysimum teretifolium), Tiburon jewel flower (Streptanthus niger) and Metcalf canyon jewel flower (Streptanthus albidus ssp. Albidus). However, no significant documented impact occurs from native species on sensitive species. It would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats. If pest species were established then would it very likely trigger new treatment programs by farmers and residents who find infested plants unsightly. Depending on species  it would a receive Low (-1)  to  High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score:  1-3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nysius spp. (Seed bugs): Low -High (11-14)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: There are 106 described species of Nysius and many of them are established in California. They receive a High (-3) in this category.   Nysius not established in California receive a Not established (0) in this category.

This genus receives a Not Established (0) to High Established (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8) to High (14).

Uncertainty:  

Uncertainty is high as the species are hard to identify and they vary substantially in their current status and risk to CA.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

There are many species of Nysius that have not been found in the environment of California.  New species could have significant economic and environmental impacts. Examples of species of Nysius that are not found in California and would be likely to have significant impacts here include Nysius nemorivagus from Hawaii3 and Nysius vinitor from Australia.  While on the other hand there are lot more species which are commonly found in California and are not expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California. Example of these species are Nysius raphanus Howard & Nysius tenellus Barber.

It is not possible combine pest rating all 106 species in one proposal. Pest ratings can be lawfully proposed for each individual species versus the whole genus. Non-native Nysius species can have significant impact on California agriculture whereas native species are already present in the state and are being monitored for spread and growth. Considering these facts, a “NR” rating is justified this genus.

References:
  1. R. Haviland, W. J. Bentley, 2016   UC IPM.   Accessed on 2-08-17. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74153.html
  2. R. Burdfield – Steel, David M Shuker. 2014. The evolutionary ecology of the Lygaeidae.  On line NCBI.  Accessed on 2-08-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201440/
  3. Jayma L. M. Kessing, Ronal F.L. Mau. 1993. Crop knowledge master Hawaii.    Accessed on 2-08-17. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/nysius.htm
  4. Brambila. 2007.  USDA- APHIS – PPQ   Invasive Arthropod workshop. Accessed on Feb, 6 2017. https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/9865/135458/pdf_brambila_heteroptera_spdn2007-small.pdf
  5. Baker, R. Cannon. 2006.  CSL pest risk analysis for Nysius huttoni Accessed on 2-08-17. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/downloadExternalPra.cfm?id=3865
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. Pest Information wiki. Online   Accessed on 1-31-17. http://wiki.pestinfo.org/wiki/Nysius_vinitor
  8. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 1-31-17.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

 


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 14, 2017 – April 28, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest  Rating: NR


Posted by ls

Kilifia Americana Ben-Dov | Soft Scale

California Pest Rating for
Kilifia americana Ben-Dov: Soft scale
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Kilifia americana was found recently in Monterey County in a nursery. It was intercepted earlier in 90’s and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Kilifia americana is member of the soft scale family Coccidae.  It has broadly oval body, triangular, and narrowly rounded head. Kilifia americana looks flat on leaves and it is pale green or yellow green in color without an obvious wax covering2.

Like other species in the genus Kilifia, it can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Anacardiaceae: mango (Mangifera indica); Apocynaceae: pinwheel flower (Tabernaemontana divaricata); Rubiaceae: coffee (Coffea arabica); Rutaceae: citrus (Citrus limon, Citrus maxima & Clausena lansium); Araceae: Dieffenbachia seguine; Arecaceae: Chamaedorea spp.; Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia spp. and gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides) 3. Its recent finding at a Monterey nursery on orchids (Orchidaceae) constitutes a new host record for this species5.

Worldwide Distribution: Kilifia americana was described from Texas in the United States2 and it is also reported from China and Mexico2. It also has been intercepted on shipments coming from Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama and Puerto Rico2.

Official Control: Kilifia americana is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations7.  However, Arizona maintains a quarantine against all citrus surface pests5.

California Distribution: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Kilifia americana was found recently at a nursery in Monterey County (PDR 272P06144846)6. It was intercepted two times earlier in 1990’s3.

The risk Kilifia americana (Soft scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Kilifia americana are growing throughout California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kilifia americana has been reported to feed on plants of at least ten genera in eight families, mostly from the tropics1, and it is likely that this host range is much broader than presently known, considering that its closest relative, Kilifia acuminata, is known to feed on over 50 genera4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment. Kilifia americana receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower the crop yields. It might reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increase crop production costs in nurseries and orchards. It could also disrupt movement of citrus to Arizona5. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category. Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

3) Environmental Impact: Kilifia americana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. No hosts of the scale are listed as threatened or endangered species in California and the scale is not expected to affect critical habitats. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kilifia americana (Soft scale):  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kilifia americana has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

It is likely that the host range of Kilifia americana is greater than presently known. It is possible that if introduced in California it could easily spread and become established in the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kilifia americana has never been found as established in California and might cause significant economic and environmental impacts if this pest were to become established in California. Currently, an “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Ben-Dov., 1979. A taxonomic study of the soft-scale genus Kilifia (Coccidae). Systematic Entomology 4: 311-324.
  1. Scale insects: Kilifia americana. Accessed on 2-6-17  http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6890
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Kilifia%20americana/
  1.  Accessed on 2-6-17  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/kilifia%20acuminata/
  1. Summary of Exterior Quarantines.    Arizona Department of Agriculture.  Accessed on 2-6-17. http://nationalplantboard.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/summaries/arizona.pdf
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 2-6-17  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 1, 2017 – April 15, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

 

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock: Florida Wax Scale

California Pest Rating for
Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock: Florida Wax Scale
Hemiptera: Coccidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ceroplastes floridensis is regularly intercepted by CDFA and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating.

History & Status:

Background: Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants. Females have a reddish brown body coated with a thick layer of pinkish-white wax (11). Males are not known in this species (5). Eggs are laid under the female’s wax covering. Females feed and develop through three immature stages before becoming adult, producing eggs and dying (1). Three generations occur in Florida, but two generations per year are common throughout its global range. Each generation lasts about three to four months. Florida wax scales overwinter as newly mature females (11). The species is highly polyphagous feeding on plants of more than 150 genera (9). In Florida, this scale is considered a major pest of Citrus. It has also been recorded from species of holly, Elm, crepe myrtle, oaks, loblolly pine, deodar cedar, and other hardwoods and soft woods (4). In Texas, infestations have been observed on elephant ear, golden euonymus, honeysuckle, pomegranate, winged elm and Virginia creeper. Adult scales that colonize the underside of leaves, twigs and branches are difficult to spot, protected from heavy rains and foliar insecticides do not reach them easily (1).

Worldwide Distribution: Ceroplastes floridensis is thought to have originated from northern Neotropics, but they now occurs throughout the world. It has been found in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Pacific islands, Central America, the Caribbean, Europe, North America and South America (11).

US Distribution: Ceroplastes floridensis occurs from New York to Florida and west to New Mexico (7).

US Interceptions: Ceroplastes floridensis was intercepted 108 times on a variety of hosts at ports of entry between 1995 and 2012 (10).

Official Control: Ceroplastes floridensis has been reported as a harmful organism in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and the Republic of Korea (12).

California DistributionCeroplastes floridensis has never been found in the natural environment of California (6).

California InterceptionsCeroplastes floridensis has been intercepted 58 times between January 1, 2000 and November 2016 by CDFA’s high risk inspections, dog teams and nursery inspection programs (8).

The risk Ceroplastes floridensis (Florida Wax Scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Ceroplastes floridensis are grown throughout California. The climate is ideal to grow its hosts like Citrus, Almond, Quince, Apple, Fig, Japan Plum, Myrtle, Ferns, Oleander, Mango, Red Bay, Pomegranate, Ilex glabra, Anona reticulate, Andromeda and Anthurium (4). This species is likely to establish wherever these hosts are grown in the state. Florida wax scale receives a High (3) in this Category

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ceroplastes sp. attacks over 150 genera from 60 plant families from all geographic regions (9). Ceroplastes floridensis has been reported infesting a wide range of host plants including shrubs, trees and several herbaceous plant species (1). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: A female of Ceroplastes floridensis produces about 75-100 eggs during its life time (4). There are 2-3 generations per year and each generation lasts about 3-4 months. Crawlers emerge from underneath the female, disperse and settle on leaves. Older nymphs move around with in same plant to search for new flushes of growth (11) .The colonization of scales on upper leaves makes them vulnerable to heavy rain and other environmental factors, reducing their ability to survive and disperse (1). From a quarantine perspective, dispersal of any stage of Ceroplastes floridensis can occur through the transport of host plant material. The fact that this species has been intercepted many times at ports of entry, indicates that there is high likelihood of risk of introduction and spread in California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Ceroplastes floridensis were to enter and become established in California, it is likely to cause heavy infestations of host plants. These infestations could cause discoloration of leaves, pre-mature leaf drop, branch dieback and even plant death. The crop losses could be significant in hosts like citrus and almond that are major crops in California and ornamentals such as crape myrtle, oleander and bay laurel that are widely distributed. To add to these losses, the sticky honeydew secreted by this scale could vector sooty mold fungus that can significantly reduce photosynthesis and the aesthetic value of host plants (11). It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural use

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The establishment of Ceroplastes floridensis in California would likely impact cultural practices and ornamental plantings. Infested plants would need to be pruned off and pest resistant varieties would need to be planted. Sanitation and planting practices are likely to be impacted in the state if this scale were to spread in ornamental and horticultural plantings (11). Florida wax scale infestations could also trigger additional treatments, especially the use of systemic insecticides and foliar sprays (1). The application of broad spectrum insecticides is likely to disrupt local natural enemies including beneficial predators and parasites. (2). It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ceroplastes floridensis: High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ceroplastes floridensis has never been found in the natural environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Ceroplastes floridensis has been intercepted multiple times at ports of entry, border stations and through regulatory pathways in California. Therefore the likelihood of introduction risk of this species is high. The four Ceroplastes species already present in California are found on similar hosts like citrus, oleander and gardenia. There have not been any formal surveys of Ceroplastes floridensis in California. It is possible that this species might be present in some areas of the California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ceroplastes floridensis has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:
  1. Drees, Bastian M, Reinert James and William, Michaels. 2006. Florida Wax Scale: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees. Texas A & M University, Department of Entomology http://landscapeipm.tamu.edu/ipm-for-ornamentals/florida-wax-scales/
  1. Dreistadt, S.H. and Kabashima, J.N. UC Statewide IPM Program Davis, Scales. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape professionals. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnscales.pdf 
  2. Essig, E.O. 1915. Injurious and Beneficial Insects of California. Comstock Memorial Library of Entomology. Host Index of Injurious insects Described or Cited. P 112-113       https://books.google.com/books?id=fBRDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR8&lpg=PR8&dq=hosts+of+ceroplastes+floridensis+in+california&source=bl&ots=X1otK7Bpd9&sig=26PJwmeUF3U5LmS4dPSdwulIu1Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj1sJGj8fTQAhVMwWMKHWdbAdQQ6AEIHzAB#v=onepage&q=hosts%20of%20ceroplastes%20floridensis%20in%20california&f=false
  3. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 1983. Forest Health Publications. Bulletin No. 196-A, Florida Wax Scale http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Florida-Forest-Service/Our-Forests/Forest-Health/Forest-Health-Publications/Insects-and-Diseases/Florida-Wax-Scale
  1. Futch SH, McCoy Jr CW, Childers CC. (April 2009). A guide to scale insect identification. EDIS. .
  1. Gill, Raymond J. 1988. The Soft Scales (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). California Department of Food and Agriculture https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/Technical_Series_01.pdf
  1. Hamon AB, Williams ML. 1984. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas, Vol. 2. Florida Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.
  2. Pest and Damage Record Database, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. Scale net database: Ceroplastes floridensis (Comstock) http://scalenet.info/catalogue/ceroplastes%20floridensis/
  1. Scalenet: Identification Tools for Species of quarantine significance, Edition 2. Ceroplastes floridensis Fact Sheet http://www.idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=6876
  1. Sharma Shweta and Buss, Eileen. Florida Wax Scale. University of Florida- Entomology and Plant Pathology. Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/florida_wax_scale.htm
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/ViewPExD.jsp

Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, Senior Environmental Scientist; Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 654-0312; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/17/2017 – 3/3/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

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Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Adelges piceae: Balsam Woolly Adelgid

California Pest Rating for
Adelges piceae:  Balsam Woolly Adelgid
Hemiptera: Adelgidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Adelges piceae has been detected by CDFA in Mendocino County and has a temporary rating of “Z”. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Adelges piceae is a tiny, non-flying, sucking, soft-bodied insect which appears as a white, woolly spot on true firs3. Adults are blackish purple, roughly spherical in shape, less than 1mm long and produce a thick mass of wool-like waxy strands over their bodies. The first immature motile stage of this insect is known as a crawler. The crawlers are orange in color with legs and black eyes. The crawler is the only mobile stage in its life cycle and it is capable of crawling more than 30 m. Adelges piceae has 2-3 generations per year over most of its range with an occasional fourth generation1.

Adelges piceae has long, tube-like mouthparts, and causes great damage to fir forests in Canada and the United States. It was introduced into North America from Europe in the 1900s1. It is a serious pest to landscape and to the Christmas fir tree industry. Adelges piceae causes significant damage to true firs including Abies alba, A. balsamea, A. cilicica, A. fraseri, A. grandis, A. nordmanniana, and others. It is invasive outside of its native central Europe from where it spread via timber imports. Adelges piceae populations in North America are composed entirely of females and as a result, its reproduction is parthenogenetic (i.e. without mating and fertilization)3.

In Europe, host trees are relatively insensitive to attack and the insect is not considered a significant forest pest. In North America, however, it has caused significant damage and mortality to true firs (Abies spp.) in both eastern and western forests. In some localities, firs are slowly being eliminated from the ecosystem; and Adelges piceae populations continue to spread to previously uninfested areas2.

Worldwide Distribution: Adelges piceae is native to Europe where it is well distributed in Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland and UK. In Asia it is present in Turkey. In North America it is introduced in Canada and USA. In South America it is invasive in Chile4.

In the United States it can be found in California, Idaho, Maine, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, West Virginia4.

Official Control: Adelges piceae is listed as a harmful organism in Canada, Japan, Guatemala and Ecuador 5.

California Distribution: Adelges piceae was first detected in California in 1928 in the SF Bay Area. Since then, according to Jack Marshall (CA Dept Forestry & Fire Protection, CA Forest Pest Council, 2012), it has been collected in Palo Alto (1934), Berkeley (1958), Sacramento (1986), and Mendocino Co. (2011, 2012)4.

California Interceptions: Adelges piceae was collected by State fire dept. in Mendocino County (PDR MVAP06099309)6.

The risk Adelges piceae (Balsam woolly adelgid) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Adelges piceae are grown on a limited part of California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Adelges piceae feeds on fir (Abies spp.) and some other pine species which are present only in high elevation. It has moderate host range. So it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: 2

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adelges piceae females produce up to 200 eggs per clutch and normally two clutches produced per year2. Adelges piceae eggs and newly hatched nymphs are spread by wind, on animals and the movement of infested plant material. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Adelges piceae is a major pest of fir species and causes a billion feet of fir timber loss in North America. It is a serious pest to seed production, landscape fir, natural fir, and fir Christmas tree industry. It is listed as an invasive pest by Canada & Japan so it has the potential to trigger a loss of markets. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control its infestation. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Adelges piceae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Adelges piceae is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It could impact the habitat of endangered species Zayante band-winged grasshopper which feed on grass grown at the base of pines forest. Adelges piceae may trigger new chemical treatments in forests and the nursery industry.  It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. Adelges piceae receives a High (3) in this catego

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  C, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened endangered species or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Adelges piceae:  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Adelges piceae has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate and receive Low Score (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -1

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

Adelges piceae is introduced in California about 90 years ago; luckily it spread only a very limited area. Since, the host plants are growing on higher elevations and foot hills. Therefore, it is a strong possibility that it can be establish in other new areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Adelges piceae has been established in   Northern coastal area of California especially, in Mendocino County and is not under official control. Its establishment in the state is likely to have significant economic impacts to nurseries that produce and distribute Christmas trees. It is also likely to have environmental impacts as it triggers new chemical treatments and significantly affects ornamental plantings.  A “B” rating is justified.

 References:
  1. Amman, Gene D. 1962. Seasonal biology of the balsam woolly aphid on Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 55(1):96-98. Accessed on 11-15-16  http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/fidls/bwa.pdf
  1. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2015. Species profile Adelges piceae National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). Accessed on 11-23-16 http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=226
  1. Hain, F.P. (1998). The balsam woolly adelgid in North America. pp 87-109. In: Ed. Berryman, A.A. Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations: Patterns, Causes, Implications, Plenum and New York. http://influentialpoints.com/Gallery/Adelges_piceae_Balsam_woolly_adelgid.htm#biolog
  1.  Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/3268
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Responsible party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/10/2017 – 2/24/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug

California Pest Rating for
Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug
Hemiptera:  Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Paracoccus marginatus, papaya mealybug, from actionable to non-actionable for the entire United States.  The insect is currently unrated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundParacoccus marginatus is a polyphagous mealybug that feeds on at least 55 plant species in at least 18 families1.  Although papaya is the preferred host, other hosts include economically important crops such as citrus, avocado, cotton, cherry, tomato, and a variety of ornamentals1,2,3.  Infestations of the mealybug are typically observed as cotton-like clusters on the above ground portions of plants2.  Feeding can result in chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early leaf and fruit drop, a heavy build-up of honeydew, and plant death2.   Paracoccus marginatus can move long distances through commerce in infested fruit, plants, or leaves.

Worldwide Distribution: Paracoccus marginatus is believed to be native to Mexico and Central America.  From there it has spread throughout the Caribbean, southern Asia, and to Benin, Ghana, Togo in Africa, and French Guiana in South America.  It was found in Florida in 1998, Puerto Rico in 2001, Guam in 2002, and Hawaii in 2004.   A greenhouse infestation in Illinois in 2001 was successfully controlled with biological control agents.

Official Control: Paracoccus marginatus is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California Distribution:  Paracoccus marginatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Paracoccus marginatus has been intercepted four times by California, on Plumeria rubra and betel from Hawaii, papaya from Mexico, and rambutan fruit from Honduras.  USDA has intercepted the mealybug nearly 650 times since 1994, mostly on fruit and other plant parts from Mexico destined for California1.

The risk Paracoccus marginatus (Papaya mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Paracoccus marginatus is limited to USDA plant hardiness zones 10+. In California this corresponds with portions of the southern part of the state as well as greenhouses.  Papaya mealybug receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 2

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Paracoccus marginatus is known to feed on 55 species of plants in at least 18 familes1.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs reproduce rapidly; Paracoccus marginatus is thought to lay 100-600 eggs each and have up to 15 generations per year.  Mealybugs may be dispersed long distances by wind, as hitchhikers on clothing or animals, and through commerce in infested plants and plant parts.  Papaya mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Paracoccus marginatus is not reported to cause economic damage in Florida and has been successfully controlled by biological control on several Caribbean islands.  Papaya mealybug is not expected to lower crop yield, change normal cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Although marginatus is not known to be listed as a quarantine pest by any nation, due to its limited worldwide distribution and frequent interceptions on fruit it is reasonable to conclude that it may disrupt some markets for fresh fruit exports.  It is also possible that the mealybug may increase crop production costs in the nursery and/or fruit industries by triggering additional treatments or disfiguring plants with their presence.  Papaya mealybug receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Paracoccus marginatus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila) is a potential host of the mealybug and is listed as an endangered species.  The mealybug is not expected to disrupt critical habitats.  Papaya mealybug may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry, fruit industry, and by some residents.  The mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Paracoccus marginatus (Papaya mealybug):  High(13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Paracoccus marginatus has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(13)

Uncertainty:

It is likely that incursions of Paracoccus marginatus into California may have already occurred based on the large number of interceptions by USDA.  It is possible that the mealybug may already be present in parts of southern California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The polyphagous nature and high frequency of Paracoccus marginatus interceptions make it likely that papaya mealybug will establish in southern California.  Economic impacts of the mealybug may include possible disruptions to fresh fruit exports as well as possible increased production costs in the nursery and fruit industries.  Potential environmental impacts include triggering new chemical treatments and direct feeding on endangered San Diego ambrosia.  An A-rating is justified.

References:

1Landry, Cynthia.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink: Papaya mealybug.

2Walker, Alison, Marjorie Hoy, and Dale Meyerdirk.  2006.  Papaya mealybug.  University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/fruit/mealybugs/papaya_mealybug.htm

3Sakthivel, P., Karuppuchamy, P., Kalyanasundaram, M. & Srinivasan, T. 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal 99(7-9): 615-619.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan): Rufous scale

California Pest Rating for
Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan): Rufous scale
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Selenaspidus articulatus is frequently intercepted by CDFA. A pest rating proposal is required to support its permanent pest rating.

 History & Status:

Background: Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale), also called the West Indies scale, is considered as a serious pest of certain citrus producing areas of South America, West Indies and coastal regions of Peru2.

Rufous scale is a highly polyphagous species that can feed on vegetative growth, flowers, fruits and post-harvest stages of its host plants. Species of Citrus are favored hosts of this pest, but it also feeds on members from the families Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Palmae. Known hosts include Acalypha, Anacardium, Annona spp., Antidesma, Ardisia, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Arundinaria, Averrhoa spp., Barringtonia, Bauhinia, Bignonia, Brunfelsia, Calathea, Calea, Calophyllum, Camellia sinensis (tea),  Carissa, Cassia, Celastrus, Ceratonia, Chrysalidocarpus, Chrysophyllum, Cladoxylon, Cocos nucifera, Codiaeum, Cordyline, Croton, Cycas,Cyperaceae, Decaspermum, Dictyosperma, Dovyalis, Dracaena, Elaeis,Eriobotrya, Eucalyptus, Eugenia, Excoecaria, Ficus, Fortunella,Furcraea, Garcinia, Gardenia, Gliricidia, Hedera, Hedychium, Hevea brasiliensis, Hibiscus, Howea, Hyphaene, Ixora, Jacquemontia, Jasminum, Lagerstroemia, Lantana, Ligustrum, Litchi chinensis, Lonchocarpus, Maclura, Magnolia, Malachra, Mammea, Mangifera indica, Olea europaea, Palmae, Pandanus, Passiflora edulis, Persea americana, Phaseolus, Phoenix dactylifera,Pilea, Plumeria, Rosa, Saccharum officinarum, Sambucus, Schinus, Spondias, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Tambourissa, Tecoma, Theobroma, Thespesia,Tricalysia, Vitis vinifera, Washingtonia and Xanthosoma sagittifolium2.

Rufous scale damages both sides of the leaves, but mostly the upper surface exposed to the sun. The damage is caused by sap-depletion, and through injection of toxic saliva, which causes chlorosis and death of plant tissue in the area of penetration. Parasitism is the most successful technique to control this scale2.

Worldwide Distribution: Rufous scale is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It spread through many of the citrus growing countries including Peru, Jamaica, Montserrat, Philippines, Panama, Nicaragua, Solomon Islands, Mozambique, Trinidad and Tobago, Mexico, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Togo, Uganda, United Kingdom, Mauritius, Tanzania, Comoros, Grenada, Martinique, Australia, Barbados, Brazil, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Kenya, Chad, Madagascar, Eritrea, French Guiana, and Fiji Island3.

In the United States it can be found in Florida and the Virgin Islands.

Official Control: Rufous scale has been listed as a harmful Organism by 11 nations including China, Japan, Paraguay, Guatemala, Venezuela, Chile, India, New Zealand, Vietnam, Republic of Korea and Republic of Bolivia5.

California Distribution: Rufous Scale has never found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Rufous scale has been intercepted multiple times by CDFA’s border stations and nursery regulatory inspections. Interceptions were typically on plants or plant material imported from South American countries.

The risk Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Rufous scale are grown throughout California and this insect presents the possibility of spread and become established wherever the hosts are grown within the state. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Rufous scale is a highly polyphagous species that has been recorded from hosts belonging to 60 genera in 31 plant families4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Rufous scale females produce large number of eggs (71-124 each) and can be easily transported with the movement of infested plant material. It receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

3) Economic Impact: Rufous scale is mainly a pest of citrus but also has the potential to devastate California grape, avocado and olive industry. It is listed as a damaging pest by several nations so it has the potential to trigger a loss of markets. Furthermore, it may increase production costs in citrus and in nursery industries as growers may treat to ensure fruit or plant cleanliness It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Rufous scale is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It could affect threatened and endangered species such as Wiggins’ croton

(Croton wigginsii) and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia); it would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats. It is very likely to trigger new treatment programs in citrus, olive & avocado orchards and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It may also significantly impact ornamental plantings. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: C, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Selenaspidus articulatus (Rufous scale):  High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Rufous scale has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There are no surveys done recently for the detection. Since most of the host plants are grown throughout California, it could easily spread and get established in the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Rufous scale has never been found in California and might cause significant economic and environmental impacts if this pest were to get established in California. Currently, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

1DISCOVERIES IN NATURAL HISTORY & EXPLORATION UCR website. Accessed on 11-15-16. http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biotact/ch-95.htm

2Davidson, J.A. and D.R. Miller, 1990. Ornamental plants. In: D. Rosen (ed.), armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 4B. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 603-632 http://wbd.etibioinformatics.nl/bis/diaspididae.php?menuentry=soorten&id=175

3Biological Records Centre: Global Species : Accessed on 11-15-16 http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/385773

4USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 11-15-16. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

 Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Ceroplastes rubens Maskell: Red wax scale

California Pest Rating for
Ceroplastes rubens Maskell: Red wax scale
Hemiptera:  Coccidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

February 26, 2014, USDA distributed a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report proposing to change the status of Ceroplastes rubens, red wax scale, from actionable to non-actionable for the entire United States.  The insect is currently A-rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundCeroplastes rubens is a highly polyphagous scale, feeding on hundreds of species of plants in at least 80 families1,5.  It is considered to be a serious pest of citrus2,3,4,5; however, biological control programs have been successful at keeping populations below damaging levels1,3.   In addition to citrus, other economically important hosts in California include avocado, Prunus spp., apple, fig, and an extremely wide variety of ornamentals1,5.  Adults and nymphs feed on foliage, twigs, and stems and are said to have a preference for the upper surface of leaves4.  Red wax scale can move long distances through the international trade of infested plants or plant parts.

Worldwide Distribution: Ceroplastes rubens is so widely distributed that its origin is uncertain.  It is thought to possibly be native to Africa, India, or Sri Lanka2.  From there it has spread widely across much of Asia, Oceania, Australia, and the Caribbean1.  It has also been found in Colombia and greenhouses in Europe1.  The scale has been known from Hawaii since 1894 and Florida since 19551.

Official Control: Ceroplastes rubens is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.

California DistributionCeroplastes rubens has not been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsCeroplastes rubens is commonly intercepted by California on shipments of nursery stock from Florida and Hawaii.  The scale is also frequently intercepted by USDA on plants, cuttings, cut flowers, leaves, and fruit1.  Although these interceptions are most common in passenger baggage, they also include finds on large permitted commercial shipments of plants (Aglaonema sp. and Schefflera sp.) from Costa Rica to California1 that would have been likely to contaminate the state’s nursery industry.

The risk Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present distribution of Ceroplastes rubens extends across USDA plant hardiness zones 7-13. This corresponds to most of California, with the exception of high elevation areas.  The polyphagous nature of the scale makes it likely that it will find suitable hosts throughout this area.  Red wax scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ceroplastes rubens is known to feed on hundreds of plant species in at least 80 families1,5.  The scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ceroplastes rubens has a high reproductive rate.  In Australia the scale has two generations per year with each female producing an average of about 300 eggs4.  The scales may be spread long distances by wind, as hitchhikers on clothing or animals, or by commerce in infested plants.  Red wax scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.  Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact:  Ceroplastes rubens may lower crop value and increase production costs in the nursery and fresh fruit industries.  The insects disfigure plants by their presence and their honeydew contributes to the development of sooty mold, which can lower the value of ornamental plants and fruit.  The scale is not known to be listed as a quarantine pest in any nations; however, due to its absence from most of the Americas and New Zealand, it is reasonable to conclude that the scale could interrupt some fresh fruit export markets.  Red wax scale receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ceroplastes rubens is likely to trigger new chemical treatments by the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Potential hosts of red wax scale include plants listed as threatened or endangered in California including Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevenii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia), and Algodones Dunes sunflower (Helianthus niveus ssp. tephrodes).  Red wax scale receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ceroplastes rubens has not been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that Ceroplastes rubens would be managed by existing IPM programs in California fruit production.  It is also possible that existing packing house procedures would mitigate potential trade disruptions.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale) is a highly polyphagous scale insect that is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts in California.  The scale is likely to contaminate fresh fruit (Citrus and Prunus spp.) with its presence and sooty mold, reducing fruit marketability and possibly disrupting export markets.  The scale is also likely to increase production costs in the nursery industry as it feeds on an extremely wide variety of ornamental plants.  Red wax scale is likely to trigger new chemical treatments in the nursery and fruit industries, as well as by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  At least four threatened or endangered plants are potential hosts of the scale in California and are likely to be directly affected by feeding.  These potential economic and environmental impacts justify an A-rating for Ceroplastes rubens.

References:

1Culliney, T.W.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Ceroplastes rubens Maskell: Red wax scale.

2Loch, A.D. 1997.  Natural enemies of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees in southeastern Queensland.  Australian Journal of Entomology 36:303-306.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1997.tb01475.x/pdf

3UC Riverside, Red wax scale.  http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biotact/ch-92.htm

4Malumphy, C. and D. Eyre.  2011.  Pink wax scale: Ceroplastes rubens.  Plant pest factsheet.  The Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera). U.K.  http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk/plants/publications/documents/factsheets/ceroplastesRubens.pdf

5Dekle, G.W.  2001.  Featured Creatures: Red wax scale: Ceroplastes rubens.  Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/scales/red_wax_scale.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

12/21/2016 – 2/4/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls