Category Archives: Hemiptera

A Mealybug | Trionymus sasae (Kanda)

California Pest Rating Proposal
Trionymus sasae (Kanda): a mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 4/30/18 – 6/14/18


Initiating Event:

Trionymus sasae is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Trionymus sasae is only known to occur in Japan and it is associated with (and presumably feeds on) bamboo (García Morales et al., 2016).  The localities it is reported from in Japan have a subtropical climate (Kawai, 1980).  Other species of Trionymus are also associated with grasses (Poaceae), and some are pests of crop (e.g., barley and sugarcane) or ornamental (e.g., bamboo) plants (Alvarez, 2004; Jansen, 2009; Portilla and Cardona, 2004).

Worldwide Distribution:  Trionymus sasae is only known from Japan.  It was reportedly intercepted in California on bamboo from Oregon in 1995, so it is possible that this mealybug may be established in other areas (possibly Oregon), but if so, this has not been reported (Gill, 1995).  Alternatively, this bamboo may have originally been shipped from Japan.

Official Control: Trionymus sasae is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Trionymus sasae is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Trionymus sasae has been intercepted on bamboo from Japan and Oregon (California Department of Food and Agriculture; Gill, 1995).

The risk Trionymus sasae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The areas in Japan where sasae is reported to occur have a subtropical climate. If this mealybug became established in California, it might be limited to warmer areas, for example, the southern coast.  Therefore, T. sasae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Trionymus sasae has been associated with two genera of bamboo. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Trionymus sasae has been intercepted on bamboo, so it is apparently capable of being dispersed through shipment of plant material.  Bamboo is a popular plant and is presumably moved frequently throughout the state.  Therefore, sasae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Trionymus sasae lives on bamboo plants, which are popular ornamentals in California.  If this mealybug became established in California, it could attack bamboo plants in nurseries, impacting their health or at least detracting from their appearance and value.  This could increase production costs.  Therefore, sasae receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are many rare species in the family Poaceae in California (Calflora). If sasae became established in California, it could threaten some of these species.  This mealybug could also impact ornamental bamboo plantings, and this could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Trionymus sasae: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Trionymus sasae is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

The known distribution of this species suggests it may be limited to warmer (subtropical) climates.  If so, it may not be capable of establishment in California, or its area of potential distribution in the state could be quite limited.  The potential of T. sasae to damage plants is also not known.  Little information is available on this species, so the pest significance of other Trionymus species was considered in this proposal.  The potential of this mealybug to impact native grasses in California would require that this species not be limited to bamboo.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Very little information is available regarding the biology of Trionymus sasae.  This mealybug is not known to be present in California and it attacks bamboo (an important ornamental plant in the state).  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Alvarez, J.M.  2004.  Trionymus haancheni McKenzie: A new pest of barley in Idaho.  Plant Management Network.  5 pp.

Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of California Herbaria.  Accessed March 30, 2017 http://www.calflora.org

California Department of Food and Agriculture.  Pest and damage record database.  Accessed March 30, 2018. https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and Hardy, N.B. 2016.  ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed March 28, 2018  http://scalenet.info

Gill, R.J.  1995.  Exclusion.  California Plant Pest and Disease Report.  14: 8-12.

Jansen, M.  2009.  New and less observed scale insect species for the Dutch fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).  Entomologische Berichten.  69: 162-168.

Kawai, S.  1980.  Scale Insects of Japan in Colors.  National Agricultural Education Association.  Tokyo.  455 pp.

Portilla, A.A.R. and Cardona, F.J.S.  2004.  Coccoidea de Colombia, con énfasis en las cochinillas harinosas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín.  57: 2383-2412.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 30, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/30/18 – 6/14/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

A Leafhopper | Paraulacizes irrorata (Fabricus)

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Paraulacizes irrorata (Fabricius): a leafhopper
Hemiptera: Cicadellidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 4/30/18 – 6/14/18


Initiating Event:

Paraulacizes irrorata is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  This is a large (~14 mm in length) leafhopper that is dark with numerous tiny, yellow spots (Overall and Rebek, 2017; Young, 1968).  It is reported to feed on a variety of plants, including thistles (Cirsium spp.) (Asteraceae), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) (Lythraceae), Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus) (Poaceae), horseweed (Conyza canadensis) (Asteraceae), prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) (Asteraceae), wholeleaf rosinweed (Silphium integrifolium) (Asteraceae), and sorghum (Sorghum sp.) (Poaceae).  It is found in vineyards, fruit orchards, and tree nurseries, so it is possible that it feeds on grapevines and trees (Ma et al., 2010; Myers et al., 2007; Overall, 2013).  Eggs are laid inside twigs and woody/hardened stems and leaf petioles (Tipping et al., 2006).  In a study in North Carolina vineyards, P. irrorata was shown to carry Xylella fastidiosa, the bacteria that causes Pierce’s disease and almond leaf scorch (Myers et al., 2007; Sisterson et al., 2010).  However, P. irrorata has not yet been shown to transmit the disease (Overall and Rebek, 2017).

Worldwide Distribution:  Paraulacizes irrorata is reported from the central, northeastern, and southeastern United States, Canada (Ontario), and northern Mexico (Maw et al., 2000; Pajero et al., 2008).

Official Control: Paraulacizes irrorata is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Paraulacizes irrorata is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Paraulacizes irrorata has been intercepted on plants from Arkansas, West Virginia, Louisiana, and Oklahoma in 1992, 2000, and 2007, in a trailer from Arkansas in 2017, on aircraft from Tennessee in 2000 and 2002, and on a FedEx shipment from Florida in 2017 (California Department of Food and Agriculture).

The risk Paraulacizes irrorata would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The distribution of Paraulacizes irrorata extends from northern Mexico to Ontario, Canada.  This suggests that it could become established over a wide area in California.  This leafhopper feeds on a wide variety of plants, and there are likely suitable host plants in much of the state.  Therefore, Paraulacizes irrorata receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Paraulacizes irrorata has been reported to feed on at least seven genera of plants in three families, but it probably has a much broader host range than this. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Paraulacizes irrorata presumably flies.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Paraulacizes irrorata feeds on a broad range of plants.  The feeding damage could possibly lower crop yield, but a more serious concern, and a general one for the family Cicadellidae, is the potential for vectoring plant diseases.  It is not known if irrorata can vector plant diseases, but it has been confirmed as a carrier of Xylella fastidiosa, the bacteria that causes Pierce’s disease and almond leaf scorch.  If it was introduced to California, P. irrorata could potentially vector such pathogens and impact crops, including grapes and almonds.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The presence of Praulacizes irrorata could trigger treatment programs. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Paraulacizes irrorata: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Paraulacizes irrorata is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

The possible impact of Paraulacizes irrorata is somewhat speculative and it is based on demonstrated examples of impact from other cicadellid species and the possibility of this leafhopper vectoring Pierce’s disease (or other diseases) in crops, including grapes.  This leafhopper has not been proven to transmit any plant diseases.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Paraulacizes irrorata is a plant-feeding insect that is potentially capable of vectoring plant diseases, including the causative agent of Pierce’s disease, Xylella fastidiosa.  There is little evidence that P. irrorata has a significant economic or environmental impact in its current range.  However, if it was established in California, this insect would be exposed to a new combination of variables, including new host plants and plant diseases; it is difficult to predict what impacts could result.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

California Department of Food and Agriculture.  Pest and damage record database.  Accessed April 2, 2018. https://pdr.cdfa.ca.gov/PDR/pdrmainmenu.aspx

Maw, H.E.L., Foottit, R.G., Hamilton, K.G.A., and Scudder, G.G.E.  2000.  Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska.  National Research Council, Canada.  220 pp.

Myers, A.L., Sutton, T.B., Abad, J.A., and Kennedy, G.G.  2007.  Pierce’s disease of grapevines; Identification of the primary vectors in North Carolina.  Phytopathology.  97: 1440-1450.

Overall, L.M.  2013.  Incidence of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma, survey of potential insect vectors, and identification of potential plant reservoir hosts.  Ph.D. Dissertation.  Oklahoma State University.  155 pp.

Overall, L.M. and Rebek, E.J.  2017.  Insect vectors and current management strategies for diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa in the southern United States.  Journal of Integrated Pest Management.  8: 1-12.

Paiero, S.M., Marshall, S.A., Pratt, P.D., and Buck, M.  2008.  The insects of Ojibway Prairie, a southern Ontario tallgrass prairie.

Sisterson, M.S., Thammiraju, S.R., Lynn-Patterson, K., Groves, R.L., and Daane, K.M.  2010.  Epidemiology of diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa in California: Evaluation of alfalfa as a source of vectors and inocula. Plant Disease. 94: 827-834.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 2, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Tipping, C., Triapitsyn, S.V., and Mizell III, R.F.  2006.  First record of an egg parasitoid for the North American proconiine sharpshooter Paraulacacizes irrorata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with notes on rearing techniques.  Florida Entomologist.  89(2): 288-289.

Young, D.A.  1968.  Taxonomic study of the Cicadellinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); Part 1: Proconiini.  United States National Museum Bulletin.  261.  287 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/30/18 – 6/14/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug | Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Pink Hibiscus Mealybug | Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Current Pest Rating:  A
Proposed Pest Rating:  B

 


Comment Period: 4/25/18 – 6/9/18


 

Initiating Event:

August 26, 2014, Dr. Gillian Watson identified Maconellicoccus hirsutus from a sample collected on 100 heavily infested silk oak trees at a golf course in Rancho Mirage, Riverside County.  The mealybug was previously eradicated from Riverside County in 2011.  Follow-up surveys have revealed that the pest is now widespread and abundant in Riverside County.  An updated pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundMaconellicoccus hirsutus is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on the stems, leaves, buds, fruit, and roots of plants in more than 200 genera in 77 plant families1,2.  Economically important hosts include grapes, citrus, avocado, cotton, Prunus spp., Solanum spp., and ornamentals.  While feeding, the mealybug injects toxic saliva into plants that inhibits cell enlargement, causing stunting of new growth and curling and contortion of leaves7.  Entire plants may be stunted and deformed7.  High populations can lead to the death of plants7.  The mealybug can spread long distances through the trade in host plants and fruit.

Worldwide Distribution: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is considered to be native to southern Asia1,2 and has invaded much of the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australia, Oceania, and South America.  In North America it has been found in Mexico, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, and Imperial and Riverside counties, California3.  It has recently been detected and is under eradication in Tennessee6.

Official Control: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is listed as a quarantine pest by many nations including Antigua and Barbuda4, Bermuda4, Brazil4, Cayman Islands4, Chile4, Colombia4, Costa Rica4, Ecuador4, El Salvador4, Guatemala4, Honduras4, Israel4, Jamaica4, Japan4, Republic of Korea4, Mexico4, Morocco4, Nicaragua4, Panama4, Paraguay4, Peru4, South Africa4, Turkey4, Uruguay4, and the European Union2.

California DistributionMaconellicoccus hirsutus has been present in Imperial County since 1999.  The mealybug was detected in Riverside County in 2011 and successfully eradicated by the county.  The mealybug was detected again in Riverside County in 2014 infesting 100 silk oak trees at a golf course.

California Interceptions:  Maconellicoccus hirsutus is occasionally intercepted on fruit or plants headed for destinations within California, most often on longan fruits.

The risk Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Maconellicoccus hirsutus, due to its polyphagous nature, is likely to encounter suitable hosts throughout California. The present distribution of the mealybug corresponds to USDA plant hardiness zones 9-131, which encompasses much of California.  Pink hibiscus mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is known to feed on plants in more than 200 genera in 77 plant families.  The mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pink hibiscus mealybug has a high reproductive rate.  Each female lays 150-600 eggs and there can be up to 15 generations per year2.  The crawlers of this mealybug are reported to be very active and are capable of spreading to nearby plants; furthermore, they may be dispersed by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  The mealybugs may also be spread long distances through the movement of infested plants or fruit.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Maconellicoccus hirsutus has been present in Imperial County since 1999, where it has been successfully controlled by biological control agents.  No economic damages in California are presently attributed to this pest.  In the presence of effective biological control, the mealybug is not expected to lower crop yields.  In the absence of effective biological control, yields are likely to be reduced (see uncertainty section below).  As it feeds on a wide variety of ornamentals, the mealybug may increase crop production costs in nurseries by triggering new chemical treatments to ensure clean nursery stock.  The mealybug is listed as a quarantine pest by many nations and its presence is likely to disrupt markets for California fresh fruit.  Pink hibiscus mealybug is not expected change cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure agriculturally important animals, or interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Algodones Dunes sunflower (Helianthus niveus tephrodes), Bakersfield cactus (Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) are listed as threatened or endangered plants in California and are potential hosts of this mealybug.  An infestation of the mealybug in Riverside County in 2011 was eradicated by the county, indicating that the presence of this pest may trigger additional official treatment programs.  Additional treatments are also likely in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  In some cases, the mealybug is likely to be managed by biological control programs such that it does not significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  However, due to its extremely high reproductive rate and broad host range it is likely to sometimes cause significant damage to ornamental plants as it encounters them before biological control agents.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is only known to be established in Imperial and Riverside counties. The mealybug receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(13)

Uncertainty:

There have been no recent statewide surveys for the mealybug, so it may have a larger distribution within California.  In the absence of surveys or official control, trading partners are likely to regulate the entire state, so range expansions of pink hibiscus mealybug may not trigger new impacts on fruit exports.  Pheidole megacephala (bigheaded ant) has recently been detected in California.  This is an aggressive ant that is likely to tend pink hibiscus mealybug and consume all parasites and predators it encounters, reducing the effectiveness of biological control5.  As bigheaded ant expands its range through southern California it is likely to facilitate the invasion of Maconellicoccus hirsutus and may disrupt the presently successful biological control program.  If this were to occur, yield of economically important crops such as almonds, peaches, pistachios, walnuts, olives, and citrus may be reduced.  Crop quality and production costs by increase in the long term.  This may elevate the economic impact of the pest to High (3).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Maconellicoccus hirsutus is a highly polyphagous mealybug with a limited distribution within California at present.  If it enters commercial fruit groves and vineyards the presence of the mealybug is likely to close or restrict export markets for fresh fruit.  If found outside of its present distribution, it will likely trigger treatment or biological control programs.  However, pink hibiscus mealybug has been known to be present in California since 1999 and is not under official control.  Therefore, the A-rating can longer be justified. A “B” rating is now the appropriate rating.


References:

1Culliney, T.W.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green): Egyptian hibiscus mealybug, pink hibiscus mealybug.

2Data sheets on quarantine pests:  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  2005.  European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.  OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, 413-415.  http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Maconellicoccus_hirsutus/DS_Maconellicoccus_hirsutus.pdf

3Ben-Dov, Y. 2014. ScaleNet, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Available online at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Maconellicoccushirsutus.htm  Accessed on 9 April 2014.

4USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5Buckley, Ralf and Penny Gullan.  1991.  More aggressive ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) provide better protection for soft scales and mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccidae, Pseudococcidae).  Biotropica 23(3): 282-286. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2388205?uid=3739560&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21104122016081

6NAPIS; Email updated dated September 2, 2014.  http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/capsreview.php?code=IRAWBIA

7Hoy, Marjorie A., Avas Hamon, and Ru Nguyen. 2006. Common name: pink hibiscus mealybug. University of Florida Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/mealybug/mealybug.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


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Posted by ls

Gray Scale | Pseudoparlatoria ostreata

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Gray Scale | Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Cockerell
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 4/19/18 – 6/3/18


 Initiating Event:

Pseudoparlatoria ostreata was reported to be established on the island of Oahu, Hawaii (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  The scale cover is thin and circular in adult female P. ostreata.  These scales can form dense aggregations on host plants.  Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is reported to feed on (apparently causing damage to plants, in some cases) plants in 39 families, including Agavaceae (Agave sp.), Arecaceae (various palms), Cactaceae, Caricaceae (Carica papaya), Euphorbiaceae (including Acalypha spp.), Fabaceae, Orchidaceae (various orchids), and Vitaceae (Vitis sp.).  (Malumphy & Redstone, 2012; Sweezey, 1945; Wolff, 2008).  In agricultural situations, this scale is reported to be a pest of papaya (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Miskimen & Bond, 1970; Wolcott, 1948) avocado (McKenzie, 1935), and Acalypha species (Dekle, 1965; Wolcott, 1948).  It appears to be primarily tropical and subtropical, but it has managed to become a pest in greenhouses in temperate areas (in the United Kingdom, for example) (Malumphy & Redstone, 2012).

Worldwide Distribution:  Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is native to the Caribbean and has been introduced to North America (Mexico, Florida, and Texas), Central America (Guatemala), South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela), Hawaii, Africa, and Europe (indoor plantings only) (Claps et al., 2001; Claps et al., 2006; García et al., 2016; Malumphy & Redstone, 2012; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Sweezey, 1945).

Official Control: Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is considered a prohibited, declared pest in Australia (Government of Western Australia).

California Distribution:  Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Pseudoparlatoria ostreata was intercepted in 2012 at a California border station on palms from Mexico (BL0P06030809).

The risk Pseudoparlatoria ostreata would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Most of the areas where Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is known to occur have a subtropical or tropical climate. For example, in the United States, it is restricted to Florida, Texas, and Hawaii.  However, some locations (for example, in Argentina) have a more temperate climate (Claps et al., 2001).  This scale is highly polyphagous, and suitable host plants are probably present over much of California.  It appears possible that Pseudoparlatoria ostreata could become established in a significant portion of California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is highly polyphagous, and has been reported to feed on plants in 39 families. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: It is apparent that Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is easily transported on infested plant material, as it has been introduced to many locations.  In addition, another species in this genus, parlatorioides (Comstock), has a high reproductive capacity (females lay up to 130 eggs) and is suspected to be parthenogenic, and this may apply P. ostreata as well (Miller & Davidson, 2005).   Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Pseudoparlatoria ostreata became established in California, it could become a pest of many different crops because it is so polyphagous.  Avocados and grapes are known hosts, but there could be many more.  Infestations of this scale could increase production costs and affect normal cultural practices.  As scales are easily transported with infested plant material, the presence of this scale in California could also result in the loss of markets because of the phytosanitary risk to an area importing California plants or plant products.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B, C, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is a polyphagous scale insect that has been documented to cause damage to plants through its feeding. It is possible that this scale could directly affect rare plants.  There are rare California plants in some of the plant families that are hosts of this scale, for example, Shaw’s agave (Agave shawii), which occurs in southern, coastal California (Calflora).  If this scale becomes established in California, it is also likely to impact ornamental plantings and it could trigger treatments as well.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudoparlatoria ostreata: High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

The distribution of Pseudoparlatoria ostreata appears to be mostly limited to areas with a subtropical or tropical climate, although there are a few locations that suggest this scale could survive in a more temperate climate.  Therefore, there is some uncertainty regarding its ability to become established in a significant portion of California.  There is little uncertainty regarding the presence of suitable host plants in California, because this scale is highly polyphagous.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudoparlatoria ostreata is a polyphagous scale that has a demonstrated ability to attack a wide variety of plants and cause damage.  It is not known to be present in California, and if it became established in this state, there is a significant possibility that it could have economic and environmental impacts.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the  Consortium of California Herbaria.  [web application].  2017. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization].  Accessed 28 December 2017. http://www.calflora.org

Claps, L.E., Wolff, V.R.S, & González, R.H.  2001.  Catálogo de la Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exόticas de la Argentina, Brazil, Brasil y Chile.  Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina.  60 (1-4): 9-34.

Claps, L.E., Zamudio, P., & Briz, L.D.  2006.  Las Dactylopiidae y Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) de la Colecciόn Kenneth Hayward, Tucumán, Argentina.  Revista Brasileira de Entomologia.  50 (1): 33-38.

Dekle, G.W.  1965.  Florida armored scale insects.  Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas.  3:  1-265.

García, M.M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., & Hardy, N.B.  2016.  ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed 28 December 2017. http://scalenet.info.

Government of Western Australia.  Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development.  Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Cockerell, 1892.  Accessed: 27 December 2017. https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/organisms/128755

Malumphy, C. & Redstone, S.  2012.  Grey scale Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), a pest of indoor plantings new to Britain.  Entomologist’s Gazette.  63: 107-114.

Miller, D.R. & Davidson, J.A.  2005.  Armored scale insect pests of trees and shrubs.  Comstock Publishing Associates.  Ithaca, NY.  442 pp.

McKenzie, H.L.  1935.  Biology and control of avocado insects and mites.  University of California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin.  592: 1-48.

Miskimen, G.W. & Bond, R.M.  1970.  Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands.  Volume XIII – Part I.  The New York Academy of Sciences.  New York, NY.  114 pp.

Sweezey, O.H.  1945.  Insects associated with orchids.  Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.  12(2): 343-403.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed 20 November 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Wolcott, G.N.  1948.  The insects of Puerto Rico.  The Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico.  20(1): 1-224.

Wolff, V.R.S.  2008.  Revisão de Pseudoparlatoria (Hemiptera, Diaspididae).  Iheringia Série Zoologia.  98(3): 291-307.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/19/18 – 6/3/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

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Posted by ls 

Plant Bug | Rubrocuneocoris calvertae

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Plant Bug | Rubrocuneocoris calvertae Henry
Hemiptera: Miridae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18


Initiating Event:

Rubrocuneocoris calvertae was reported to be established on Hawaii and Oahu islands, Hawaii (Henry, 2017; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is a small plant bug (approximately 2.5 millimeters in length) that is dull brown in color except for distinctive red markings on the posterior portion of the forewings (a character shared with other members of the genus).  This species is only known from Hawaii, but it is presumed to have been introduced from somewhere in Asia or the Pacific, because the other species in the genus are native to these areas.  In Hawaii, R. calvertae is reported to feed on Macaranga tanarius (Euphorbiaceae) and Pipturus sp. (Urticaceae) (Henry, 2017; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.), but no information is available on the extent of damage inflicted on these plants by this bug.  Very little information was found on the biology of this genus.  Most collections of Rubrocuneocoris appear to have been made with light or malaise traps, which provides little biological information.

Worldwide Distribution:  Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is only known from Hawaii (Hawaii and Oahu islands), and it was presumably introduced there from an unknown location in east Asia or the Pacific (Henry, 2017; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Official Control: Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Rubrocuneocoris calvertae has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Rubrocuneocoris calvertae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rubrocuneocoris calvertae has been reported to feed on plants in the families Euphorbiaceae and Urticaceae. There are plants in these families present throughout California.  This insect is only known to be present in Hawaii, although it is presumed to be native to somewhere in east Asia or the Pacific.  At least one species in the genus Rubrocuneocoris occurs in the Primorye region of the Russian Federation, which suggests it may be tolerant of a more temperate climate (Vinokurov et al., 1988).  Therefore, even though it is likely that calvertae originated in a tropical or subtropical area and is limited to such climates, it is also possible that this species is native to an area with a temperate climate, and thus could survive in much of California.  Therefore, R. calvertae receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: This species has been reported to feed on two families of plants, the Euphorbiaceae and Urticaceae. Its native distribution is unknown, but this species may feed on other plants there.  The unknown feeding habits in the (also unknown) native range are considered here.  Therefore, calvertae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Rubrocuneocoris calvertae presumably flies, because other species in the genus are caught at light traps (Schuh, 1984).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: This species feeds on plants.  It is not known to be present in California, and it is possible that it has a very limited distribution and may not have been exposed to some economically-significant plants that are present in California.  Therefore, even though there is no evidence that calvertae is a pest elsewhere, there is still the possibility that it could become a pest in California if it became established here.  If it became a pest in California, it could lower crop yield and increase crop production costs, for example, through increased pesticide use.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: As explained above, under Economic Impacts, there is the possibility that calvertae could become a pest if it was established in California. This could trigger treatment programs, for example, in agriculture or ornamental plantings.  There is a rare Euphorbia species in California, E. hooveri, which could be attacked by R. calvertae if it became established in California.  Therefore, R. calvertae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Rubrocuneocoris calvertae: Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty:

The full extent (including native range) of the distribution of R. calvertae are presumably not known.  This means that the climatic tolerances and feeding habits of this insect are also unknown, which makes it challenging to determine its potential for impact in California.  No information was found suggesting that any species in the genus Rubrocuneocoris is a pest.  This suggests that the genus may have a low potential for economic or environmental impact.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Rubrocuneocoris calvertae is only known from Hawaii, but it is presumed to be native somewhere in Asia or the Pacific.  It is possible that it could have economic and environmental impacts if it became established in California.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Henry, T.  2017.  A new species of the plant bug genus Rubrocuneocoris Schuh (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) from Hawaii.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  119(1): 63-69.

Lin, C-S.  2006.  Genus Rubrocuneocoris Schuh (Hemiptera: Miridae) of Taiwan.  Formosan Entomologist.  26: 295-302.

Schuh, R.T.  1984.  Revision of the Phylinae (Hemiptera, Miridae) of the Indo-Pacific.  Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.  177: 1-476.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 20, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Vinokurov, N.N., Golub, V.B., Kanyukova, E.V., Kerzhner, I.M., and G.P. Tshernova.  1988.  Volume II: Homoptera and Heteroptera.  In (P.A. Lehr, ed.) Keys to the Insects of the Far East of Russia.  Nauka Publishing House, Leningrad.  972 pp.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/10/18 – 5/25/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Stink Bug | Kalkadoona pallida

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Stink Bug | Kalkadoona pallida (Van Duzee)
Hemiptera: Pentatomidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18


Initiating Event:

Six adult specimens of K. pallida were collected in a natural area reserve on Oahu Island, Hawaii, on May 26, 2016 (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  This apparently represents the first detection of the species in the United States.

History & Status:

Background: Kalkadoona pallida is a pale brownish-yellow stink bug that measures 7-8 mm in length (Van Duzee, 1905).  This bug lives in desert sand dunes in Australia, where it has been recorded feeding on plants in the genera Dodonaea (Sapindaceae) and Enchylaena (Amaranthaceae) (Atlas of Living Australia; Cassis & Gross, 2002).  The specimens recently (2016) collected in Hawaii were found feeding on Atriplex suberecta (sprawling saltbush) (Amaranthaceae) (J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).

Worldwide Distribution: Kalkadoona pallida is native to southern Australia.  It was recently reported in a natural area on Oahu Island, Hawaii, United States, where it was presumably introduced.

Official Control: Kalkadoona pallida is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Kalkadoona pallida is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions: This species is not known to have been intercepted in California.

The risk Kalkadoona pallida would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The area of Australia in which Kalkadoona pallida occurs has a semi-arid to arid climate. There are large areas in California that have a similar climate.  In addition, pallida is established on Oahu Island, Hawaii, which suggests that this species has a relatively broad climatic tolerance.  Therefore, Kalkadoona pallida receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Kalkadoona pallida is known to feed on three species of plant, in three genera. Therefore, pallida receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Kalkadoona pallida is capable of flight, as at least some of the collecting records from Australia indicate specimens were captured in flight or were attracted to light. Reproductive potential is unknown for this species.  Therefore, pallida receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Within the plant families that Kalkadoona pallida has been recorded feeding upon, there are some crops (spinach and beets, in the Amaranthaceae) and ornamental plants (in the Scrophulariaceae). However, this insect prefers arid or semi-arid conditions, and there do not appear to be any reports of it being a pest in Australia, which has a similar climate to California.  In Hawaii, it feeds on an introduced weed growing near the shore and is not known to be a pest there.  For these reasons, it seems unlikely that Kalkadoona pallida could significantly impact agriculture in California.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The reported host plants of this species in Australia belong to the families Amaranthaceae and Scrophulariaceae. Also within these families are some rare California plants, including the Federally-endangered Suaeda californica Watson (California seablite), which is limited to the California coast, the rare Amaranthus watsonii Standley (Watson’s amaranth), which occurs in creosote bush scrub in southern California, a number of Atriplex species (saltbushes, etc.), and the rare Scrophularia villosa Pennell (Santa Catalina figwort).  It is possible that, if K. pallida was introduced to California, it could feed on and threaten these species.  The Atriplex species are perhaps most at risk because K. pallida is known to feed on A. suberecta in Hawaii.  Pentatomids are known to transmit plant diseases.  If K. pallida can transmit such diseases, this would pose an additional risk to California native plants.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Kalkadoona pallida: Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Kalkadoona pallida is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

This species is not known to be a pest in Hawaii, which is the only locality to which this species is known to have been introduced.  However, there are native species of Atriplex present in California, and these native species could be more heavily impacted.  It is also possible that this species could feed on a much broader range of hosts if it became established in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Kalkadoona pallida is a phytophagous insect that is likely capable of becoming established in California.  If it did so, it is unlikely to have an economic impact, but it could attack multiple species of rare plants.  The potential for environmental damage, and the fact that this species is not yet present in the state, justify an “A” rating.


References:

Atlas of Living Australia.  Accessed March 2, 2018.  https://www.ala.org.au/

Calflora.  Accessed March 2, 2018. http://www.calflora.org

Cassis, G. & Gross, G.F.  2002.  Entomological Catalogue of Australia.  CSIRO Publishing.  737 pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 2, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Van Duzee, E.P.  1905.  Notes on Australian Pentatomidae, with descriptions of a few new species.  Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.  21: 187-214.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/10/18 – 5/25/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

False Trochanter Mealybug | Pseudococcus dolichomelos

California Pest Rating Proposal for
False Trochanter Mealybug | Pseudococcus dolichomelos Gimpel and Miller
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18


Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus dolichomelos is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  This mealybug is found underground on the roots and crown of its host plants (Gimpel and Miller, 1996).  It presumably feeds on roots.  It has been associated with plants in at least 12 families: Amaryllidaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Hypericaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae, Urticaceae, and Zingiberaceae (García Morales et al., 2016).  The biology of this recently-described (1996) species is poorly known.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pseudococcus dolichomelos occurs in the eastern United States (Florida, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia) and Hawaii (García Morales et al., 2016; Gimpel and Miller, 1996; von Ellenrieder and Watson, 2016).

Official Control: Pseudococcus dolichomelos does not appear to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Pseudococcus dolichomelos is not known to occur in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Pseudococcus dolichomelos has been intercepted in California associated with cut flowers of Alpinia purpurata, Oncidium sp., and Zingiber sp. from Hawaii (PDR # 1367825, 1367535, 070P06137999, and 100P06282530), peaches from Utah (PDR # TR0P06024371), and primrose plants from Florida (PDR # 370P06678226).

The risk Pseudococcus dolichomelos would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus dolichomelos occurs over a wide portion of the United States, including areas with temperate (e.g., Michigan) as well as tropical/subtropical (e.g., Hawaii, south Texas) climates. This suggests that this species is capable of becoming established over a wide portion of California. It has been associated with a wide variety of plants in 12 families, so it is not expected to be limited by distribution of potential host plants.  Therefore, Pseudococcus dolichomelos receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus dolichomelos has been associated with, and presumably feeds on at least 12 families of plants. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pseudococcus dolichomelos has been intercepted multiple times on cut flowers and other commodities, so it is evidently capable of being spread artificially on infested plants.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Root-feeding mealybugs include species that are pests of food and ornamental plants.  However, dolichomelos is not known to be an economic pest anywhere it is known to occur, even though it occurs over a wide area.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Root-feeding mealybugs have the potential to impact the health of plants, as demonstrated by the fact that some are economically-significant pests. If Psuedococcus dolichomelos became established in California, it would encounter species of native plants, including many rare ones, that it has not previously been exposed to.  It is possible that it could have an impact of some of these plants.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pseudococcus dolichomelos: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus dolichomelos is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

The most important uncertainty regarding this species is its ability to significantly impact the health of plants; this has not been shown to be the case anywhere it currently occurs.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus dolichomelos is a root-feeding mealybug with a broad host range.  It is not known to occur in California, but it is likely capable of becoming established over a large portion of the state.  If this was to occur, it is not likely to become an economic pest, but there is a chance that it could impact the environment.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and Hardy, N.B. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.  Accessed November 7, 2017.  http://scalenet.info.

Gimpel, W. F. and Miller, D.R. 1996. Systematic analysis of the mealybugs in the Pseudococcus maritimus complex (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). In (B.K. Gupta, ed.) Contributions on Entomology, International (pp. 38-42).  Associated Publishers.  Gainesville, Florida.  163 pp.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed March 7, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

von Ellenrieder, N., and Watson, G.  2016.  A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.  Zootaxa.  4105: 65-87.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/10/18 – 5/25/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

A Burrowing Bug | Rhytidoporus indentatus

California Pest Rating Proposal for
A Burrowing Bug | Rhytidoporus indentatus Uhler
Hemiptera: Cydnidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: C

 


Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18


Initiating Event:

Rhytidoporus indentatus is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Rhytidoporus indentatus has an appearance typical of members of the family Cydnidae; it is small (3.8-5.8 mm in length), oval-shaped, dark, and shiny (Froeschner, 1954; Froeschner and Maldonado-Capriles, 1992).  Very little information is available on the biology of this species.  It has been found in caves in Cuba and Jamaica, and it was reported to feed on fruit and seeds in bat guano (Barroso and Díaz, 2014; Peck, 1992).  It has also been intercepted on various root commodities, which suggests it may feed on roots as well (see below).  The members of this family are referred to as “burrowing bugs” because most species live underground and feed on roots, but some live above ground and feed on fallen seeds or the exposed parts of plants.  Few species in this family are recognized as economically significant pests.  Among them are some species that damage cassava roots or peanuts (Bellotti et al., 1994; Chapin et al., 2006).  Besides the direct damage to the roots, feeding by these insects can allow infection by pathogens, including fungi.

Worldwide Distribution:  Rhytidoporus indentatus is known from Pacific islands (including Guam), the Greater Antilles (including Cuba), and the United States (southern Florida and Hawaii) (Bishop Museum, 2002; Froeschner, 1976; Lis and Zack, 2010).  It was also apparently collected from Baja California, although additional evidence of this species occurring there was not found (Cervantes Peredo and Ramos Rivera, 2017).  The Greater Antilles distribution is presumed to represent the native range of the species, and the Pacific island, Mexico, and United States records represent introductions (Froeschner, 1954).

Official Control: Rhytidoporus indentatus is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Rhytidoporus indentatus is not known to be present in California (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

California Interceptions:  Rhytidoporus indentatus has been intercepted on ginger, sweet potatoes, taro, and turmeric from Hawaii (PDR # 926381, 926378, 1308357, 190P06060306, 190P06620121, and 190P06620007), in the soil of plants from Hawaii (PDR # 1239534), with cut flowers from Hawaii (PDR # 1040836, 1418527, 1418527, and 1396118), with palms from Florida (PDR # 1039799), and in miscellaneous shipments from Hawaii and Florida (PDR # 975978 and 1376006).

The risk Rhytidoporus indentatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Except for the record from Baja California, Rhytidoporus indentatus is apparently restricted to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate. The climate of California appears largely unsuitable, but it is possible that this species could become established in a limited portion of the state.  Therefore, Rhytidoporus indentatus receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: There is very little information available on the biology of Rhytidoporus indentatus. If it is assumed that the interception records represent feeding on the associated commodities, this species may feed on roots and seeds of a broad range of food plants.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Rhytidoporus indentatus presumably flies, as it is sometimes collected at light (Froeschner, 1976).  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Rhytidoporus indentatus is found in the Caribbean, Florida, and Pacific islands.  Yet, there are no reports of this species being an economic pest, even though it presumable occurs in agricultural situations, based on the fact that it has been intercepted on commodities.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Rhytidoporus indentatus has been introduced to the United States (Florida and Hawaii) and other localities. Although this species presumably feeds on plants (possibly seeds and roots), there is no evidence that it can cause significant damage to plants.  As explained above, this species is not expected to become an economic pest, so it is unlikely that its establishment in California would trigger treatment programs. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Rhytidoporus indentatus: Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Rhytidoporus indentatus is not known to be present in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

There is very little information on the biology of Rhytidoporus indentatus.  The absence of reports of it being a pest anywhere it has so far been introduced to suggests that there is a low pest potential in California as well.  However, it is possible that R. indentatus causes damage to roots underground but the damage is not recognized or not realized to be caused by this species.  There is also uncertainty regarding potential for environmental damage, because this species would have access to native plants in California that it has not previously encountered.  It could, for example, feed on seeds of a rare plant to the extent that populations of such a plant would be threatened.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

There is no evidence that Rhytidoporus indentatus is a pest or has an environmental impact anywhere it is found.  Although it is not possible to predict with certainty what impact it would have in California, it appears highly unlikely that this species would become a problem in this state if it became established here.  For these reasons, a “C” rating is justified.


References:

Barroso, A.A. and R.B. Díaz.  2014.  Estado de conservaciόn de Jimeneziella decui, una especie cavernícola de Cuba (Opiliones: Laniatores).  Revista Ibérica de Aracnología.  25: 43-57.

Bellotti, A.C., Braun, A.R., Arias, B., Castillo, J.A., and Guerrero, J.M.  1994.  Origin and management of neotropical cassava arthropod pests.  African Crop Science Journal.  2: 407-417.

Bishop Museum.  2002.  Hawaiian All-Species Checklist.  Accessed March 27, 2018. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/checklist/query.asp

Chapin, J.W., Sanders, T.H., Dean, L.O., Hendrix, K.W., and J.S. Thomas.  2006.  Effect of feeding by a burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), on peanut flavor and oil quality.  Journal of Entomological Science.  41(1): 33-39.

Froeschner, R.C.  1976.  The burrowing bugs of Hawaii, with description of a new species (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).  Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society.  22(2): 229-236.

Froeschner, R.C.  1954.  Monograph of the Cydnidae of the Western Hemisphere.  Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State College.  552 pp.

Froeschner, R.C. and Maldonado-Capriles, J.  1992.  A synopsis of burrowing bugs of Puerto Rico with description of new species Melanaethus wolcotti (Heteroptera: Cydnidae).  Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico.  76: 177-185.

Lis, J.A. and R.S. Zack.  2010.  A review of burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae sensu lato) of Guam.  Zootaxa.  2523: 57-64.

Peck, S.B.  1992.  A synopsis of the invertebrate cave fauna of Jamaica.  National Speleological Society Bulletin.  54: 37-60.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN).  Accessed March 28, 2017. http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/10/18 – 5/25/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Palm Mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum

image of Palm Mealybug and its damage
California Pest Rating for
Palm mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Palmicultor palmarum is currently Q-rated. A pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Palm mealybugs are slow moving, piercing-sucking insects that feed on plant sap and are usually found in clusters along leaf veins, on the undersides of leaves, and in hidden areas at joints. These insects exude honeydew that becomes infested by sooty mold and gives the leaves a dirty appearance. Ants may be attracted to the honeydew. Plants infested with mealybugs become weak and may eventually die3.

Known hosts include: Arecaceae: Areca catechu, Borassus flabellifer, Caryota mitis, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis lutescens, Elaeis guineensis, Hyophorbe indica, Phoenix roebelenii, Roystonea regia, Washingtonia filifera, Licuala spp. & Thrinax spp.; Pandanaceae: Freycinetia spp.; Fabaceae: Acacia asak; Poaceae: Phyllostachys spp.1, 5.

Worldwide Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum was described from Hawaii and has been introduced to many places in the world, including much of the Caribbean islands, the Bahamas, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Caledonia, Niue, China, Mexico, and Florida in the continental United States 1.

Official Control: Palmicultor palmarum is listed as a harmful organism by the Republic of Korea and Egypt6.

California Distribution: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions: Palmicultor palmarum was found in 2017 at a nursery in San Diego County (PDR 370P06678075 & 370P06678076). It has been intercepted 53 times since 19904.

The risk Palmicultor palmarum (palm mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Host plants of Palmicultor palmarum are mostly palm trees, and this species appears to be restricted to areas with a tropical/subtropical climate; it is possible that it may become established in a limited portion of southern California. Therefore, Palmicultor palmarum receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Palmicultor palmarum has been reported to feed on plants of at least fifteen genera in four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved. Palmicultor palmarum frequently moves long distances in the trade of infested palm trees. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Palmicultor palmarum could reduce the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence and increasing crop production costs in nurseries. It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Palmicultor palmarum is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments in orchards and the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Palmicultor palmarum  (Palm mealybug):  Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Palmicultor palmarum has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:  

There have not been any recent surveys for Palmicultor palmarum.  It is possible that it could be present in coastal parts of the state.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Palmicultor palmarum is not known to be present in California. If it became established here, it could have a significant impact on the ornamental palm industry ($70 Million industry in California – Hoddle.) 2 Therefore, an “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and N.B. Hardy. Scale Net: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.             http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Palmicultor%20palmarum/


  2. Hoddle, M. Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research.  Accessed on 12/18/2017.  http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

  3. Missouri Botanical Garden. Online, Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/help-for-the-home-gardener/advice-tips-resources/pests-and-problems/insects/mealybugs/mealybugs-indoors.aspx

  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed on 12/18/2017. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  5. Stocks, I.   19: Recent Adventive Scale Insects in Florida and the Caribbean Region. pp. 346-347.   CABI.  Accessed on 12/18/2017. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/FullTextPDF/2013/20133231104.pdf

  6. USDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 12/18/2017  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/16/18 – 4/30/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

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Example Comment:
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♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

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Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae

California Pest Rating for
Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae Corbett
Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Aleurotrachelus anonae was recently reported to be established on the island of Hawaii.  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).  The adults of Aleurotrachelus species are small (1-2 mm in length), whitish (covered by white wax), fly-like insects (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  The immature stages are found on leaves, where they feed on plant fluids.  The last immature stage (“puparium”) of A. anonae is approximately 0.5 mm long, pale yellow, and oval in shape with finely-toothed margins (Corbett, 1935).  This species has been reported from Annona squamosa, Morus indica, Persea americana, and Zingiber sp.  Infestations on avocado in Hawaii apparently caused sooty mold, which grows on plant surfaces in association with the honeydew excreted by the whiteflies (Dubey and Ko, 2010; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.; Malumphy and Reid.  2017; Mound and Halsey, 1978).

Worldwide Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is reported from Bangladesh, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Hawaii (Dubey and Ko, 2010; Evans, 2008; J. Matsunaga, pers. comm.).  An Aleurotrachelus infestation that may have been A. anonae was found in a nursery in Florida.  It is not known if this whitefly is currently present in that state (Stocks, 2016).

Official Control: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Aleurotrachelus anonae has not been intercepted in California.

The risk Aleurotrachelus anonae would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Aleurotrachelus anonae appears to have a moderate host range, and potential host trees are grown widely in California (Morus alba, the genus of which contains a reported host, and Persea americana, which was attacked in Hawaii and possibly in Florida). The areas where A. anonae is known to occur have tropical/subtropical climates. Aleurotrachelus anonae may be able to become established in a limited portion of southern California.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although details are scarce, reports suggest that A. anonae feeds on plants in at least four families. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Adult whiteflies are capable of dispersing via flight, although they may not move great distances that way.  Immature Aleyrodidae are sedentary and affixed to the surface of their host plant and thus are easily dispersed via movement of infested plant material, as proven by their frequent interception at ports of entry.  Therefore, Aleurotrachelus anonae receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Although Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on several different plants, little is known regarding the impact of such feeding.  In support of the pest potential of A. anonae, other species of Aleurotrachelus are pests.  For example, A. socialis is the most important whitefly pest of cassava in Colombia, and A. atratus is a pest of coconut in Africa and South America (Holguín et al., 2006; Kityo et al., 2017).  Aleurotrachelus anonae was reported to attack avocado in Hawaii and possibly Florida.  The Hawaii infestation was associated with sooty mold, which can reduce photosynthesis in affected plants (Malumphy and Reid, 2017).  Avocados are an important crop in California, and if A. anonae was established in this state, it could lower yields of avocado.  This could trigger treatments as well.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: There are no native California plants in the host genera reported for A. anonae. However, mulberry (Morus alba) is planted in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae has been reported to feed on another Morus species; if it was established in California, it could impact plantings of M. alba.  Infestations on crop or ornamental plants could trigger treatments.  Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D,E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

 E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Aleurotrachelus anonae: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California. It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

The field reports of A. anonae lack detail.  For example, except for the report of sooty mold associated with this species on avocado in Hawaii, there is no indication of the level of damage (if any) inflicted on host plants.  This may be an indication of a lack of impact on the host plants.  There is also uncertainty regarding the suitability of California’s climate for A. anonae.  The areas this species is currently known to occur in are tropical or subtropical.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Aleurotrachelus anonae is a whitefly that has been reported to feed on plants in at least four families.  One of these plants is avocado, an important crop in California.  Aleurotrachelus anonae is not known to be present in California.  It could potentially become established in southern portions of the state, and if it did so, it could impact agriculture and ornamental plantings.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Corbett, G. H. 1935. 48. Malayan Aleurodidae. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums. 17 (4): 722-852.

Dubey, A.K. and C.-C. Ko.  2010.  Aleurotrachelus Quaintance & Baker (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and allied genera from Taiwan.  Zootaxa.  2685: 1-29.

Evans, G.A.  2008.  The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the world and their host plants and natural enemies.  Version 2008-09-23.

Holguín, C.M., Carabali, A., and Bellotti, A.C.  2006.  Tasa intrínseca de crecimiento de Aleurotrachelus socialis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en yuca Manihot esculenta.  Revista Colombiana de Entomología.  32(2): 140-144.

Kityo, R., Cugala, D., and Nampala, P.  2017.  First record of parasitoids associated with the invasive coconut whitefly in Inhambane Province, Mozambique.  International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research.  3(2): 2568-2583.

Malumphy, C. and Reid, S.  2017.  Solanum or pepper whitefly, Aleurotrachelus trachoides.  Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs.

Mound, L.A. and Halsey, S.H.  1978.  Whitefly of the world.  A systematic catalogue of the Aleyrodidae (Homoptera) with host plant and natural enemy data.  British Museum and John Wiley and Sons.  340 pp.

Stocks, I.  2016.  Aleurotrachelus near anonae (Corbett), a new continental record whitefly in Florida.  Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry.  Pest Alert.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed November 28, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Mealybug | Palmicultor browni

California Pest Rating for
Mealybug | Palmicultor browni (Williams)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Palmicultor browni is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  This mealybug is associated with palms, including Adonidia merrillii, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Cocos nucifera (coconut palm), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm), Howeia forsteriana, Phoenix roebelenii, and Veitchia spp. (Arzola, 2014; Evans and Dooley, 2013; García Morales et al. 2016; Mille et al., 2016; Stocks, 2013).   Its pest status is uncertain.  Several sources state it is not a significant pest, but one suggests that it sometimes causes dieback of infested palms in Florida (Hodges and Hodges; Miller et al., 2002; Stocks, 2013).

Worldwide Distribution:  Palmicultor browni is probably native to the Australasian region.  It has been introduced to the United States, South America, the Caribbean, and areas in the Pacific outside its native range, including New Caledonia (Evans and Dooley, 2013; Mille et al., 2013).  It was found in Florida in 1995, and as of 2013, it was present in five counties in that state (Miller et al., 2002; Stocks, 2013).  This species has been intercepted in California on shipments originating in Florida (see below).  It has not been reported from anywhere other than Florida in the United States.

Official Control: Palmicultor browni is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Palmicultor browni is not known to be present in California.

California Interceptions:  Palmicultor browni has been intercepted on palm plants from Florida (PDR # 1261855) and was found on a palm in a Los Angeles County nursery (PDR # 190P06620038) and on a palm (apparently from Florida) at an Orange County store, (PDR # 300P06609688).

The risk Palmicultor browni would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Palmicultor browni is apparently restricted to tropical/subtropical areas.  It is only known to feed on palms.  It is possible that it could become established in a very limited portion of California, including coastal southern California.  Therefore, Palmicultor browni receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Palmicultor browni has been associated with seven genera of palms. Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Mealybugs can be transported with plants.  Adult female mealybugs do not fly, and Palmicultor browni only reproduces sexually (unlike some mealybugs, it is not capable of parthenogenesis). Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Palmicultor browni is only known to feed on palms.  Therefore, the only possible economic impacts in California appear to be date production and ornamental palms.  It seems unlikely that this tropical/subtropical species could thrive in the California desert areas where dates are grown.  It is more likely that it could be a problem in palm nurseries, especially in coastal southern California.  Infestations in nurseries could increase production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Palmicultor browni only feeds on palms. There is only one species of palm native to California, Washingtonia filifera.  It is unlikely that browni could thrive in the desert environment where this native palm occurs naturally.  This mealybug could attack ornamental palm plantings.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Palmicultor browni: Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Palmicultor browni is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

It is possible that this mealybug could become established in coastal California, but there is little evidence that it is a serious pest anywhere.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Palmicultor browni is a palm-feeding species that is not known to occur in the state.  Ornamental palms are a $70 million industry in California, and damage (including lowering of yield) to palms in nurseries could result if P. browni becomes established here (Hoddle).  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.

References:

Arzola, C.G.D.  2014.  Revisión anotada sobre la taxonomía de Pseudococcidae

(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) en Puerto Rico.  M.S. thesis, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

Evans, G.A. and Dooley, J.W.  2013.  18: Potential invasive species of scale insects for the USA and Caribbean Basin., pp. 320-341.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and Hardy, N.B.  2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118.  Accessed December 18, 2017. http://scalenet.info

Hoddle, M.  Has the South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, established in southern California?  University of California, Riverside, Center for Invasive Species Research. Accessed: November 17, 2017 http://cisr.ucr.edu/palmarum.html

Hodges, A. and Hodges, G.   Exotic Palmicultor mealybugs in Florida.  University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services.  Accessed October 30, 2017.  http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/exoticscale&mealybug.htm

Mille, C., Henderson, R.C., Cazères, S., and Jourdan, H.  2016.  Checklist of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) of New Caledonia.  Zoosystema.  38(2): 129-176.

Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Hodges, G.S., and Davidson, J.A.  2005.  Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. agriculture.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  107(1): 123-158.

Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., and Watson, G.W.  2002.  Invasive species of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their threat to U.S. agriculture.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  104(4): 825-836.

Stocks, I.  2013.  18: Potential invasive species of scale insects for the USA and Caribbean Basin., pp. 342-362.  In J. Peña (ed.), Potential Invasive Pests of Agricultural Crops.  CABI.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/15/18 – 4/29/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls 

Bamboo Pit Scale | Bambusaspis miliaris

California Pest Rating for
Bamboo pit scale | Bambusaspis miliaris (Boisduval)
Hemiptera: Asterolecaniidae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Bambusaspis miliaris has been collected multiple times in California.  It is currently Q-rated, and a permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Bambusaspis miliaris is a tiny (adult females measure up to 1.4 millimeters in length) pit scale insect that is covered with a slightly flattened or convex cover that is green, brown, or pale yellow in color, and has a fringe of pale wax filaments (García Morales et al., 2016; Russell, 1941).  Bambusaspis miliaris apparently feeds only on bamboo and is found on the stems and both sides of the leaves of these plants.  Reported host bamboo genera are Arundinaria, Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Oxytenanthera, Phyllostachys, and Schizostachyum (Ben-Dov, 2006; Russell, 1941).  It should be noted that the genus Bambusa has been split, so the host range may be greater than indicated here.  No reports were found indicating that this scale is a significant pest in California.

Worldwide Distribution:  The origin of Bambusaspis miliaris appears to be in doubt, but it was originally described in 1869 based on material from Algeria, and it may be native to Africa.  This scale is currently widespread in distribution and reported from Bermuda, the Caribbean (including Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico), the United States, Mexico, Central America (including El Salvador and the Panama Canal Zone), South America (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela), Africa (including Algeria, Angola, and Morocco), Europe (Canary Islands, and in greenhouses in France), Mauritius, Réunion Island, Southern Asia (Burma, southern China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan), Australia, Fiji, Niue, Samoa, and Tonga (Ben-Dov, 2006; Germain et al., 2002; Germain et al., 2014; Monarch, 2017; Pellizzari and Porcelli, 2017; Russell, 1941; Stumpf and Lambdin, 1999; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network; Varshney, 1992; Wyckhuys et al., 2013).  In the United States, it is present in Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, and California and in greenhouses in Illinois (Miller et al., 2005; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).

Official Control: Bambusaspis miliaris is not known to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Pest and Damage Record Database and collection records suggest it is present in Contra Costa, Orange, and San Diego counties.  However, it has not been verified that these finds represent established populations (Monarch, 2017; Pest and Damage Record Database; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network).  There is greater confidence that this scale is established in southern California, because most of the finds are from there, as opposed to the single Contra Costa County record.

California Interceptions:  Bambusaspis miliaris has been intercepted frequently on bamboo and unidentified plants from Florida and Hawaii between 1990 and 2017 (PDR # 863733, 1223332, 023344, 1145117, 1070615, 954461, 982835, 965679, 965093, 965181, 1367488, 1254656, 1316253, 1436777, 1436483, 070P06223630, 370P06144368, 400P06775061, 190P06059264, 190P06059253, 19TP06177184).  This scale has been found on bamboo at nurseries in Orange, Riverside, and San Diego counties between 1989 and 2017 (PDR # 830364, 1544578, 1316260, 1544048, 1397024, 1254530, 300P06298425, 300P06298415, 300P06194857, 300P06040168, 300P06040167, 300P06040163, 300P06040160, 300P06040156, 300P06040119, 1609243, 300P06040056, 1609240, 300P06040055, 1609320, 300P06610100, 331P06200175, 331P06143313, 370P06227605, 370P06227606, 331P06142882, 370P06228244, 370P06228245), and it has been found on bamboo in gardens, a park, and a recreation area in Contra Costa, Orange, and San Diego counties between 2000 and 2017 (PDR # 041454, 1395276, 331P06141874, 300P06610109, 300P06610108, 300P06610128, 300P06610082) (Pest and Damage Record Database).

The risk Bambusaspis miliaris would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Bambusaspis miliaris appears to be mostly restricted to areas with a tropical or subtropical climate, although the Contra Costa record suggests it may be able to tolerate more temperate climates. This scale feeds on bamboo.  Bamboo is planted widely in California, but nevertheless, this suggests that cultivated landscapes are required by this scale rather than native vegetation.  This scale may be able to become established in a larger, but still limited portion of California.  Therefore, Bambusaspis miliaris receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Bambusaspis miliaris appears to be restricted to five genera of bamboo, although some host plants were not identified. Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Bambusaspis miliaris has a demonstrated ability to disperse and expand in distribution.  It has been spread to many new localities.  The most effective means of dispersal is probably through transport of infested plant material.  The scale is tiny and is probably not easily detected.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Asterolecaniids damage plants in two ways.  First, they feed on the sap, and second, they excrete honeydew.  This honeydew can lead to the growth of molds, which can reduce photosynthesis.  Infestations of miliaris detract from the appearance of bamboo, and this could increase production costs (Ben-Dov, 2006).  Therefore, it receives a Low (1) in this category.

Economic Impact:  B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Bamboo is grown and sold widely in California and it is a popular landscaping plant. If Bambusaspis miliaris became established in this state, it could impact ornamental plantings and trigger treatments.   Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

 E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score:

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Bambusaspis miliaris: Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pest and Damage Record Database and collection records suggest that B. miliaris may be present outdoors in Contra Costa, Orange, and San Diego counties.  It has not been verified that these finds represent established populations, but for the purposes of this proposal, it will be assumed that B. miliaris is established in these three counties.  Therefore, it receives a Low (-1) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

No reports were found indicating the severity of damage caused by B. miliaris.  The climatic tolerances of this scale are also somewhat ambiguous.  On one hand, the distribution of this scale is mostly restricted to tropical and subtropical areas.  This suggests it may only be capable of becoming established in coastal southern California.  However, if the Contra Costa County record represents an establishment, this indicates that this species has broader climatic tolerances, and it could potentially establish over a much wider area in the state.  A survey targeting this species has not been conducted (N. von Ellenrieder, pers. comm.).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Bambusaspis miliaris is apparently established in a limited portion of southern California and possibly in Contra Costa County as well.  Of the seven PDR records that are considered here to possible represent the establishment of this species in California, five are from 2013 or later.  There are no reports of this scale causing significant damage to bamboo in the state.  However, it is possible that the full pest potential of this scale has not been realized, because it was (apparently) so recently established here, and it is still (apparently) so limited in distribution.  It is possible that a lower rating will be proposed in the future, but at the current time, a “B” rating is justified.

References:

Ben-Dov, Y.  2006.  A systematic catalogue of eight scale insect families (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the world: Aclerdidae, Asterolecaniidae, Beesoniidae, Carayonemidae, Conchaspididae, Dactylopiidae, Kerriidae and Lecanodiaspididae.  Elsevier.  388 pp.

García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., and Hardy, N.B. 2016.  ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info.  Accessed December 29, 2017 http://scalenet.info

Germain, J.F., Matile-Ferrero, D., Picart, J.L., Delvare, G., and Piron, N.  2002.  Inventaire des cochenilles présentes sous serre en France et connaissance de leurs parasitoides, un préalable au développement de la lute biologique.  AFPP – 6ème Conférence Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture.  Montpellier, 4-5-6 Décembre 2002.

Germain, J.F., Minatchy, J., Pastou, D., Bagny, P., Mérion, S., Pallas, R., Quilici, S., and Matile-Ferrero, D.  2014.  An updated checklist of the scale insects from Réunion Island (Indian Ocean).  Acta Zoologica Bulgarica.  Supplement.  6: 21-27.

Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Hodges, G.S., and Davidson, J.A.  2005.  Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. agriculture.  Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington.  107(1): 123-158.

Monarch. 2017.  Accessed December 28, 2017. http//:monarch.calacademy.org/index.php

Pellizzari, G. and Porcelli, F.  2017.  Aspidiotus bornmuelleri Lindinger, 1911, rev. comb.  (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), a neglected endemic species from Macaronesia, with comments on the genus Cryptophyllaspis, and further notes on the scale insect fauna of Canary Islands, Spain.  Zootaxa.  4300 (1): 099-110.

Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed December 29, 2017.

Russell, L.M.  1941.  A classification of the scale insect genus Asterolecanium.  United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 424.  United States Department of Agriculture.  322 pp.

Stumpf, C.F. and Lambdin, P.L.  1999.  Taxonomic status of Bambusaspis miliaris, B. robusta, and B. pseudomiliaris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Asterolecaniidae).  Insecta Mundi.  13 (3-4): 205-211.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed December 28, 2017. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Varshney, R.K.  1992.  A check list of the scale insects and mealy bugs of South Asia.  Part 1.  Zoological Survey of India Occasional Paper.  139: 1-152.

Wyckhuys, K.A.G., Kondo, T., Herrera, B.V., Miller, D.R., Naranjo, N., and Hyman, G.  2013.  21: Invasion of exotic arthropods in South America’s biodiversity hotspots and agro-production systems.  In (J. Peña, ed.): Potential pests of agricultural crops (pp. 373-400).  CAB International.


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


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3/15/18 – 4/29/18


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Pest Rating: B

 


Posted by ls