Category Archives: Hymenoptera

An Ant | Pheidole dentigula

California Pest Rating Proposal for
An Ant | Pheidole dentigula
 Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period:  4/13/18 – 5/28/18


Initiating Event:

Pheidole dentigula was frequently intercepted in 2016 and 2017 by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Pheidole dentigula is a common ant found in leaf litter and rotting stumps in mesic forests of the southeastern United States. They can be recognized in the field by the tendency of the major workers to have orange-colored gasters1.

Pheidole dentigula is associated with moisture-retentive microhabitats and nests in soil and rotten stumps3

Worldwide Distribution: Pheidole dentigula is known from the United States and Central and South America. In the United States, it is reported from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas3.   

Official Control: Pheidole dentigula is not known to be under official control in any states or nations, but the genus Pheidole is listed as a harmful organism in Japan and Republic of Korea5.

California Distribution: Pheidole dentigula has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Pheidole dentigula was intercepted 18 times in 2015, 2016, and 2017 by CDFA’s border station and nursery regulatory inspections. Interceptions were typically on plants or plant material imported from the southeastern infested States4.

The risk Pheidole dentigula would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pheidole dentigula is found in moisture-retentive microhabitats, including rotten stumps and accumulations of leaf litter in forests. Riparian areas in California would be suitable for this ant and it could establish in a limited area in California. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pheidole dentigula feeds on dead insects, dead leaves, and decaying fruit. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: There is little information available on the biology of Pheidole dentigula. Other members of the genus are known to have multiple queens and are capable of producing large numbers of eggs. Because this may be true for this species, P. dentigula receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pheidole dentigula is not expected to lower crop yields or increase crop production costs. It is not expected to disrupt any markets for Californian agricultural commodities. It is not expected to change cultural practices or vector other pestiferous organisms. These ants could injure livestock if established in California. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pheidole dentigula is not likely to disrupt natural communities, lower biodiversity, or change ecosystem processes in California. This species does not directly impact any threatened species. However, it is likely to trigger new treatments by residents if it invades homes in search of food and water. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pheidole dentigulaMedium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

 –High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pheidole dentigula has never been found in the natural environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any formal surveys for Pheidole dentigula in California. This species has been intercepted through regulatory pathways multiple times and can be transported on commodities. It is possible that it might be present in certain areas of California, but if so, it has escaped detection.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pheidole dentigula has never been found in the environment of California.  If it were to establish in the state, this ant may have an environmental impact in riparian and wetland areas of California. Other species of this genus have multiple queens and have proved invasive in areas where they are introduced. Given these considerations, an “A”-rating is justified, especially as there is a chance of excluding it.


References:
  1. Ants (Formicidae) of the Southeastern United states by Joe McGowan. Accessed November 4, 2017.      http://mississippientomologicalmuseum.org.msstate.edu/Researchtaxapages/Formicidaepages/genericpages/Pheidole.dentigula.html#.Wfn2_ltSzA4
  2. Ant web. Accessed November 4, 2017. https://www.antweb.org/description.do?name=dentigula&genus=pheidole&rank=species&project=allantwebants
  3. School of Ants. Accessed November 4, 2017.  http://www.schoolofants.org/species/2155
  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  5. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed December 23, 2016  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/13/18 – 5/28/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Tawny Crazy Ant | Nylanderia fulva

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Tawny Crazy Ant | Nylanderia fulva
Hymenoptera:  Formicidae
Current Pest Rating:  Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A  

 


Comment Period: 4/12/18 – 5/27/18


Initiating Event:

Several Nylanderia species have been intercepted 31 times in 2017 by CDFA through various regulatory pathways. Nylanderia fulva, the tawny crazy ant is an invasive species that has invaded the southern states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and Georgia (Wang et. al, 2016). Nylanderia species have been rated as Q.  A pest rating proposal is needed to assign a permanent rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Ants in the genus Nylanderia are relatively small, pale yellow to black. Nylanderia fulva in the U.S. were originally identified as Paratrechina sp. cf. pubens and later revised to N. fulva. The true N. pubens is also an invasive pest, but is apparently restricted to southern Florida. Worker ants of these two species cannot be distinguished morphologically, so clear identification requires examination of male specimens.

 Nylanderia fulva is also known as the crazy ant due to its quick and erratic movement. It is a small, reddish brown ant that forms huge colonies, and is a serious nuisance pest. (MacGown and Layton, 2010). Nylanderia fulva infests buildings and greenhouses. This ant can attack domestic animals, honeybee hives, and several crop plants; it can also displace native ant species (Hill et.al, 2013). It can aggregate in large numbers in electrical equipment and cause short circuits or clog switching mechanisms, resulting in equipment failure.

The Tawny crazy ant is a social insect usually found in large numbers that lives in large colonies and seem to be indistinguishable from each other. Males and workers are similar in size while queens are larger. Colonies contain many queens, workers and brood (larvae and pupae). Pupae are naked (without cocoons). Colonies periodically produce winged male and female forms called sexuals, alates or reproductives. Foraging activity begins in spring and worker populations increase dramatically in density by mid- summer. (Nestor, 2002)

Worldwide Distribution:

Nylanderia fulva is native to South America, specifically southern Brazil and northern Argentina along the border of Uruguay and Paraguay (Kumar et. al., 2015). It has established in Anguilla, Bermuda, Colombia, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Panama, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (Hill et. al., 2013)

In the United States, it was first recognized as N. fulva near Houston, Texas in 2002, but this record is preceded by previous misidentifications as N. pubens in Florida. Currently, Nylanderia fulva has become established in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.

Official Control: Nylanderia fulva has not been listed as a harmful organism in any U.S. states or other nations (PCIT, 2018).

California DistributionNylanderia fulva has never been found in the natural environment of California.

California InterceptionsNylanderia species were intercepted 107 times between July 2013 and January 2018 by CDFA through detection surveys, border stations, dog team inspections, and high-risk pest exclusion activities.

The risk Nylanderia fulva (tawny crazy ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Nylanderia fulva is omnivorous and its foraging trails widens  as the temperature rises to 20°C. Foraging activity begins in spring and worker density can increase to millions during July – August and the number of ants remain high throughout fall. Nests can occur in leaf litter, soil, rotten logs, under potted plants, under rocks and along underground electrical circuits (Sharma et al., 2014). California’s climate and habitat would be suitable for occurrence of nests and rapid increase in          populations. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Nylanderia fulva worker ants tend plant-feeding hemipterous insects such as aphids, scale insects, whiteflies, mealy bugs and others that excrete honeydew. Workers are also attracted to sweet parts of plants including nectaries, and damaged and over-ripe fruit. They also consume other insects and small vertebrates for protein (Nestor, 2002). These hosts can be found throughout California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 2

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Nylanderia fulva queens lay single, white, ovoid-shaped eggs that incubate for approximately 16 days. The larvae that emerge pass through three (workers) or four (males) instars and the larval stage lasts about 11 days. Workers carry pupae to the nest where they are piled into mounds. Adults emerge from pupae after 12 days. Nuptial flight activity has not been recorded until recently. New findings have confirmed that alate males fly throughout the year but females are produced only once a year (Wang, et al., 2016). Colonies spread by budding with breeding occurring at the periphery. The annual rate of spread by ground migration is about 20-30 m per month in industrial areas and about 207 m per year in rural landscapes (Nestor, 2002). Nylanderia fulva can be transported long distances by the movement of infested material including garbage, yard debris, compost, potted plants and bales of hay transported by truck, railroad and airplane. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Nylanderia fulva, in large numbers, can become a nuisance and make human activities uncomfortable and difficult. Infestations can extend to sidewalks, buildings and gardens. These ants are capable of biting small livestock, causing them to die of asphyxia and can attack large animals around their eyes, nasal fossae and hooves. Their foraging and nesting behavior can cause short circuits in electrical equipment. Since this species feeds on the exudate of hemipteran insects, it can result in the disruption of biocontrol and cause losses from increased crop damage. This species has been reported to destroy honey bee hives in Texas by consuming brood, and then colonizing the hive (Harmon, 2009). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, B, D, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Nylanderia fulva is likely to reduce biodiversity of other animals, both invertebrates and vertebrates. Larger ant populations have forced ground and tree nesting birds and other small animals to move out of the area (LeBrun et. al, 2013). Masses of these ants covering the ground and trees can cause wildlife to move out of the area. Ecological impacts by fulva include reduction in arthropod diversity, particularly native ant species. This ant can undoubtedly impact ecosystems in its adventive range and has the potential to cause cascading ecological impacts (Wang et al., 2016). Large infestations may be difficult to control and would need professional pest control services to treat affected areas. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: A, B

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nylanderia fulva (tawny crazy ant): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Nylanderia fulva (tawny crazy ant) has never been found in the environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Five species of Nylanderia are native to the southwestern United States including California. Nylanderia fulva has a potential to overlap with these native species. Since this species is currently established in the southeastern states mentioned above, any host material coming from those areas could potentially contain N. fulva. The presence of only a few workers in incoming samples can also make it difficult to identify Nylanderia to species level because males are needed to positively identify N. fulva.  Detection surveys in California would likely aid in the early detection of this invasive ant.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nylanderia fulva has not been recorded in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.


References:

Harmon, K. 2009. Honeybees Face New Threat in Texas: “Crazy” ants. Accessed 1/25/18.  (http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=honeybees-face-new-threat-in-texas-2009-08-07).

Hill, S.K., Baldwin, R.W., Pereira, R.M. &  Koehler, P.G., 2013. Tawny Crazy Ant. Publication # SP486D, University of Florida, Accessed 1/26/18 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN107600.pdf.

Kumar, S., LeBrun, E.G., Stohlgren, T.J., Stabach, J.A.,McDonald, D.L., Oi, D.H. &  J.S. LaPolla. 2015. Evidence of niche shift and global invasion potential of the tawny crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva. Ecol. 5, 4628–4641

LeBrun, E. G., Abbott. & L. E. Gilbert. 2013. Imported crazy ant displaces imported fire ant, reduces and homogenizes grassland ant and arthropod assemblages. Biological Invasions 15: 2429-2442.

MacGown, J. A. & B. Layton. 2010. The invasive Rasberry crazy ant, Nylanderia sp. near pubens (Hymenoptera:  Formicidae), Midsouth Entomologist Vol 3: 1:  441- 47. Accessed1/26/18. http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_1_html_files/vol3_1_008.htm

Nestor, P.R. 2002. Tawny (Rasberry) Crazy Ant. Center for Urban and Structural Entomology. Texas A & M Agrilife Extension. Accessed 1/25/18.  http://bugwoodcloud.org/resource/files/6305.pdf

Pest and Damage Record Database. Pest Prevention and Plant Health Services. CA Department of Food and Agriculture. Accessed 1/24/18. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Sharma, S, Warner, J and R.H. Scheffrahn, 2014. Featured Creatures. Tawny Crazy Ant. Nylanderia fulva. Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. Accessed 1/25/18.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/ants/tawny_crazy_ant.htm

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed 1/24/18. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/PExDReport.jsp

Wang, Z., Moshman, L., Kraus, E.C., Wilson, B.E. Acharya N., and Diaz, R., 2016. A Review of the Tawny Crazy Ant, Nylanderia fulva, an Emergent Ant Invader in the Southern United States: Is Biological Control a Feasible Management Option? Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; Accessed 1/24/18. www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/7/4/77/pdf


Author:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 403-6617, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/12/18 – 5/27/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

Compact Carpenter Ant | Camponotus planatus

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Compact Carpenter Ant | Camponotus planatus
Hymenoptera:  Formicidae
Current Pest Rating:  Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 4/11/18 – 5/26/18


 

Initiating Event:

Camponotus planatus has been intercepted 34 times in 2018 during January and February at various CDFA border stations during inspection of vehicles entering CA. Recently, multiple live ants of this species have been intercepted at on a trailer entering Blyth inspection station (PDR # BL0P06743971). The trailer was carrying a load of bee colonies, originating from Florida. Camponotus planatus has temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundCamponotus planatus is a small polymorphic ant. It is primarily an arboreal species, but it is increasingly becoming a structural pest in Florida. These ants feed on drops of honey dew from exterior walls of structures, trees, shrubs, along sidewalks and through lawns. This ant species is a day-active ant; therefore, they are observed more than nocturnal carpenter ants. (University of Florida)

Camponotus planatus have colonies with a single queen. Queens start new colonies and care for the first larvae until they develop into workers. Workers in turn begin to forage for food and to care for the queen, new eggs and the larvae. Colonies continue to grow for 2-5 years. Newly winged reproductives, known as Alates, are observed from spring to fall. (University of Florida)

The most common habitats of Camponotus planatus include hollow twigs, empty spaces in trunks of trees, dead wood, old termite galleries and leaf axils of palm (Deyrup 1991)

Worldwide DistributionCamponotus planatus is widely distributed in Cuba, and from Mexico to Columbia. In United State, it is well established in parts of Florida including Sarasota in Tempa, East Miami (Deyrup, 1991), Texas and Hawaii. These ants have also been reported in Fort Myers in Lee county, Coconut Groves areas in Dade county, Hillsborough ,Manatee, Monroe, Orange  and Sarasota counties areas in Miami, Florida (Warner and Scheffrahn, 2017).

Official Control: Camponotus has been named as a harmful organism in Namibia, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan (PCIT)

California DistributionCamponotus planatus has never been found in the natural environment of California.

California InterceptionsCamponotus planatus was intercepted 28 times between January 2014 and October 22, 2017 by CDFA at various border station during inspection of vehicles entering California.

The risk Camponotus planatus (compact carpenter ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Camponotus planatus has been found in tropical moist forests, wet lowland forests and tropical rain forests of the world. This species commonly feeds on honey dew from structural walls with surface temperatures of up to 37-degree Celsius. (University of Florida). Many Camponotus species are found in foothill and mountain communities of California. (Pest of Homes, Structures, People and Pets, UCANR Publication). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 3

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

– Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Camponotus planatus live in hollow tree twigs, old termite galleries, dead wood, voids in tree trunks and leaf axil bases in palms. These habitats can be found throughout California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 2

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Camponotus planatus develops by complete metamorphosis by going through egg, larva, pupa in silk cocoon and adult stages. Single queen starts new colony of male, female and worker ants. This colony can continue to grow for 2-5 years. Once the colony is mature, it produces winged adults that go for mating flights between spring and fall. Colony size can be up to 10000 worker ants. Long distance spread of this species can be caused by movement of fire wood. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Camponotus planatus has been found in a nursery in   Mississippi that specializes in palms (Arecaceae) and makes nests towards uppermost part of palms. There are nurseries in the south coast of California that produce and sell palm trees. The crop quality and value can be impacted if this species were to get establish in the state. Camponotus planatus may also be a significant predator of native ants and other arthropods. Camponotus planatus is not only likely to become a nuisance pest of exterior buildings but it can also enter the buildings through structural cracks and crevices. It has been reported to protect honeydew producing insects (MacGown 2014). It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: A, D, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Camponotus planatus is reported to exert ecological pressure on native ants. In natural ecosystem, carpenter ants play an important role by decomposing wood back into soil (Harris & Berry, 1994). Since this species is mainly a pest of structures and wood, it could significantly impact cultural practices like trimming of tree branches close to structures, sealing of potential entry points, increasing ventilation to damp areas and storing firewood away from structures and off the ground. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact: A, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Camponotus planatus (compact carpenter ant): High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Camponotus planatus (compact carpenter ant) has never been found in the environment and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

Camponotus planatus is being intercepted regularly at various border station of California. Even though it has not been found in the natural environment, it can likely be introduced from south eastern states especially Florida, Texas and Hawaii. Since various Camponotus species are found in California, it is possible that C. planatus may be present in some areas especially in palm growing nurseries in southern California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Camponotus planatus has never been found in the environment of California and would likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A”-rating is justified.


References:

Ant Wiki, Assessed 10/23/2017  http://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_planatus

Ant Key ID Guide. Introduced ants. Camponotus planatus. Assessed 10/23/2017  http://antkey.org/en/taxa/camponotus-planatus

Ant Web: Assessed 10/24/2017  https://www.antweb.org/description.do?genus=camponotus&species=planatus&rank=species&countryName=Mexico

Deyrup MA. 1991. Exotic Ants of the Florida Keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on the Natural History of the Bahamas. 21 pp.

Deyrup, M.  2003. An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomologist 86: 43-48.

Harris, Richard & Berry Jo. 1994. Invasive Ant Threat. Information Sheet Number 2: Camponotus Mayr. Biosecurity New Zealand. Assessed 10/25/2017  https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/51009/2.pdf

H. Klotz, Dept. of Entomology, UC Riverside; M. K. Rust, Dept. of Entomology, UC Riverside; and L. D. Hansen, Dept. of Life Sciences, Spokane Falls Community College.

Pest Notes: Carpenter Ants. UCANR Publication 7416, UC Statewide IPM Program, UC Davis. Assessed 10/25/2017  http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7416.html

MacGown Joe, Camponotus planatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an Exotic Carpenter Ant Found in Mississippi, Mississippi Entomological Museum, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, Assessed 10/25/2017  http://mississippientomologicalmuseum.org.msstate.edu/Researchtaxapages/Formicidaepages/ant.publications/Camponotus_planatus_MacGown2010.pdf

MacGwon, Joe. A. 2014. Ants (Formicidae) of the southeastern united states. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University. Assessed 10/25/2017.

http://mississippientomologicalmuseum.org.msstate.edu/Researchtaxapages/Formicidaepages/genericpages/Camponotus_planatus.htm#.WfJLnE2WzL8

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Assesses 10/24/2017 https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Warner, John and Scheffrahn, Rudolph. 2017. Featured Creatures: Camponotus planatus. University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology. Assessed 10/24/2017 http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/ants/c_planatus.htm


Author:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 403-6617, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/11/18 – 5/26/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

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Posted by ls 

Difficult White-Footed Ant | Technomyrmex difficilis Forel

­California Pest Rating Proposal for
Photo by Alexander Wild Photography. Click on image for photo citation.
Difficult White-Footed Ant | Technomyrmex difficilis Forel
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A

 


Comment Period: 3/2/18 – 4/16/18 


Initiating Event:

Technomyrmex difficilis is currently Q-rated.  A permanent pest rating proposal is required to support an official pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Technomyrmex difficilis is a small (2.5-3 mm in length) ant that is mostly dark brown in color with distinctively paler tarsi (Warner et al., 2016).  There are other potentially harmful species in the genus that look very similar, and microscopic examination of minute characters is necessary for a specific diagnosis (Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).  This ant feeds on plant nectar, honeydew (a sugary liquid produced by plant sap-feeding insects), and dead insects or other protein-rich foods (Warner et al., 2016).  This and other Technomyrmex species may protect plant-feeding Hemiptera and thus be agricultural pests (Deyrup, 2016; Samways et al., 1982).  Technomyrmex difficilis occurs in man-made (urban and residential areas) and natural (e.g., forest) environments and appears to be most abundant in disturbed and coastal areas.  Nests can be found in leaf litter, in trees (in tree holes or under bark), and in buildings (in wall cavities or attics) (Wetterer, 2008).  This ant often occurs in large numbers, and although it does not bite or sting and it has not been reported to cause structural damage to buildings, it is an annoyance to homeowners (Warner et al., 2016).

Worldwide Distribution:  Technomyrmex difficilis is probably native to Madagascar.  It has been introduced to Asia (including Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines), Australia, the Caribbean, Central America, and the United States, where it has been reported from Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Washington, Washington D.C., and Florida (Deyrup, 2016; Warner et al., 2016; Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).

Official Control: This ant does not appear to be under official control anywhere.

California Distribution:  Technomyrmex difficilis is not known to occur in California (Essig Museum of Entomology holdings database; Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network; Wetterer, 2013).

California Interceptions:  Technomyrmex difficilis has been intercepted on fruit (grapefruit and longan) and miscellaneous goods from Florida (PDR # BL0P06126651, 430P06002358, 010P06220447, WHOPO6180098, 010P06220393, 070P06223950, BL0P06612374, NE0P06374846, NE0P06655880, WH0P06181195, 190P06619841, and NE0P06654767), cut flowers and leaves from Hawaii (PDR # 100P06282884, 190P06619904, 410P06325136, 410P06325130, and 100P06282591), and a bee colony from Texas (PDR # VL0P06677067).

The risk Technomyrmex difficilis would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Technomyrmex difficilis has become established in many different parts of the world, but (with the exception of greenhouses, zoos, and other artificial environments in temperate areas) it appears to be limited to areas with a tropical or sub-tropical climate. It is possible that it could become established in a larger, but limited part of California.  Therefore, Technomyrmex difficilis receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

 Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Technomyrmex difficilis is known to feed on nectar, honeydew, and a variety of protein-rich foods, which could include insects and other animals. Therefore, it receives a High (3) in this category.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Winged females and males are produced by the colony each year.  They fly, copulate, and establish new colonies.  Movement of infested landscaping plants may be an important means of artificial dispersal (Warner et al., 2016).  Therefore, this ant receives a Medium (2) in this category.

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Technomyrmex difficilis is reported to protect plant sap-feeding insects, including mealybugs, from natural enemies.  Another species of Technomyrmex was reported to protect the scale Aonidiella aurantii, which became abundant enough to cause defoliation of citrus trees (Samways et al., 1982).  Technomyrmex difficilis could have the same impact in California, and this could lower crop yield and increase production costs.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Economic Impact:  A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Ants of the genus Technomyrmex have been shown to be capable of having positive and negative impacts on plants.  An example of a possible positive impact is feeding on herbivorous insects, thus protecting the plant.  An example of a possible negative impact is tending (feeding on honeydew produced by, and protecting from natural enemies) herbivorous insects, such as mealybugs, which would hurt the plant.  This suggests that these ants could disrupt natural communities; they could for instance, facilitate the invasion of an ecosystem by an introduced plant through feeding on herbivorous insects (Lach et al., 2010).  The species albipes was shown to have “supercolony” characteristics by Dejean et al. (2010); members from widely-separated colonies recognized each other, which could give this species a competitive advantage.  Technomyrmex difficilis could behave similarly.  Therefore, it receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Technomyrmex difficilis: Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

–Low = 5-8 points

–Medium = 9-12 points

–High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Technomyrmex difficilis is not known to occur in California.  It receives a Not established (0) in this category.

–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

–Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

–Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

–High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

7) The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

This ant has been confused with the very similar T. albipes.  Both T. difficilis and T. albipes have been widely introduced, neither are known to occur in California, and they probably pose a similar economic and environmental threat to the state (Wetterer, 2008; Wetterer, 2013).  Because of the confusion between T. difficilis and other Technomyrmex species, the distribution and impact of T. difficilis as it is currently understood may be an underestimate (Wetterer, 2013).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Technomyrmex difficilis is not yet known to occur in California.  It has demonstrated an ability to become established and abundant in a variety of habitats.  It poses a threat to California’s agriculture and environment.  For these reasons, an “A” rating is justified.


References:

Dejean, A., Fisher, B.L., Corbara, B., Rarevohitra, R., Randrianaivo, R., Rajemison, B., & Leponce, M.  2010.  Spatial distribution of dominant arboreal ants in a Malagasy coastal rainforest: Gaps and presence of an invasive species.  PLoS ONE.  5(2): 1-7.

Deyrup, M.  2016.  Ants of Florida.  CRC Press.  437 pp.

Essig Museum of Entomology holdings database.  Accessed February 27, 2018.

Databases

Lach, L., Tillberg, C.V., & Suarez, A.V.  2010.  Contrasting effects of an invasive ant on a native and an invasive plant.  Biological Invasions.  12: 3123-3133.

Samways, M.J., Nel, M., & Prins, A.J.  1982.  Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging in citrus trees and attending honeydew-producing Homoptera.  Phytophylaciica.  14: 155-157.

Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network.  Accessed February 27, 2018. http://scan1.acis.ufl.edu

Warner, J., Scheffrahn, R.H., & Cabrera, B.  2016.  White-footed ant, Technomyrmex difficilis (=albipes) Forel (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae).  Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension.  https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN55100.pdf

Wetterer, J. K.  2008.  Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the West Indies.  Florida Entomologist.  91(3): 428-430.

Wetterer, J.K.  2013.  Worldwide spread of the difficult white-footed ant, Technomyrmex difficilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  Myrmecological News.  18: 93-97.

 


Author:

Kyle Beucke, 1220 N Street, Room 221, Sacramento, CA, 95814, 916-403-6741, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

3/2/18 – 4/16/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Posted by ls 

 

Anoplolepis longipes: long-legged ant

California Pest Rating for
Anoplolepis longipes: long-legged ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Anoplolepis longipes was intercepted on a regular basis before 2015 by CDFA. Then, there was a hiatus on interceptions, until it was found in a cut flower shipment from Hawaii on April, 2017. The insect is currently “Q” rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Anoplolepis longipes is also known in the literature as Anoplolepis gracilipes and has three common names: long-legged ant, yellow crazy ant, and Maldive ant1. Anoplolepis longipes workers are typically small to medium-sized, around 4-5 mm long with remarkably long legs and 11 segmented antennae. The antennal scape is 1.5 times longer than the head length; this is a key diagnostic feature for the species3.

The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) considers it among the top 100 of the world’s worst invaders1. The native range of these ants is unclear. A recent study by Chen (2008) using ecological niche modelling suggested that Anoplolepis longipes originated in south Asia, expanded into Europe and Afrotropical regions. Then it formed its current distribution. The native range of the species has been obscured by a long history of human-assisted dispersal, as Anoplolepis longipes is readily moved to new areas within sea cargo. To this day, these ants are regularly detected in shipping containers and have been introduced to numerous oceanic islands in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific oceans3, 4.

Worldwide Distribution:  Anoplolepis longipes has been found widely throughout the moist tropical lowlands of Asia, Africa, Australia, Central and South America. These ants have been introduced to many Pacific, Caribbean and some Indian Ocean islands. Particularly devastating incursions have been reported on Christmas Island. In the United States these ants were introduced to the Hawaii Islands in 1952 3, 5.

Official Control: Anoplolepis longipes is listed as a harmful organism in French Polynesia and the Republic of Korea7. All ants (Formicidae) are listed as harmful organisms by Australia and Nauru7.

California Distribution:  Anoplolepis longipes has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Anoplolepis longipes has been intercepted 259 times since 1990, most recently in April, 2017 by CDFA’s border station and nursery regulatory inspection. Interceptions are typically on plants or plant material imported from Hawaii 6.

The risk Anoplolepis longipes (Long-legged ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Anoplolepis longipes have a broad diet characteristic of many invasive ants. A generalized feeding regime increases the invasiveness of an ant due to the increased ability to gain nutrition from any available resources including grains, seeds, arthropods, decaying matter and vegetation3. These ants can move into forests, rural areas, and urban environments at the same time because of their ability to gain nutrition from available resources. The California environment is very suitable for these ants and they could establish throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Anoplolepis longipes is primarily a species of lowland, tropical forest. Most collection records are below 1200m in elevation and from moist habitats. In Hawaii it is usually found from sea level to about 600 meters in elevation. It is known to invade disturbed habitats such as urban areas, forest edges and agricultural fields. The ability to live in human dwellings made these ants a serious pest in many households and buildings. However, it prefers to live in a moist habitat and does not establish in heated buildings in cities in temperate regions3.

Anoplolepis longipes have been known to successfully colonize a variety of agricultural systems, including cinnamon, citrus, coffee, cocoa, coconut, mango, sugarcane, banana and grape plantations. In agricultural regions they are typically found nesting at the base, or even in the crown, of crop plants. These ants can feed on dead insects, fish scraps, decaying fruits and on live arthropods2, 3. Anoplolepis longipes can reside in urban and forest setting anywhere near the food source. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Anoplolepis longipes colonies are polygynous (multi-queened) and generally without intraspecific aggression among workers. The life cycle of Anoplolepis longipes has been estimated to take 76-84 days at 20-22oC. Workers live approximately 6 months, and the queens for several years. Queens lay about 700 eggs annually throughout their life span. The primary dispersal within the habitat is through budding and rarely via winged female3. Historically, the rate of spread is potentially much larger through human-mediated transportation. These ants can be moved long distances through terrestrial vehicles, infested machinery, boats, cargo ships, and aircraft. They can also be transported in packaging material, timber and in soil. There have been deliberate introductions for biological control of plant pests in coconut, coffee and cacao plantations2. It receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Anoplolepis longipes feed and breed on a wide variety of plants, including economically important crops, such as grapes, citrus and many vegetables grown in the moist belt in California. Anoplolepis longipes have the potential to lower yield in these crops by feeding on leaves. These ants may also increase crop production costs by triggering additional management activities. Therefore, it is probable that if Anoplolepis longipes were to establish in California, it would trigger a loss of markets. This would be expected especially for exports of California table grapes. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Anoplolepis longipes are aggressive invaders that have the potential to cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have the potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  They may also trigger new treatment programs by residents who find infestations.  This may lead to significant impacts on cultural practices. These ants can compete with Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), as well as with native ants by taking over their habitat. On Christmas Island it attacked native crabs and, therefore, could pose a threat to California arthropods, including rare or endangered ones. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Anoplolepis longipes (Long-legged ant): High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Anoplolepis longipes has never been found in natural environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any formal surveys of Anoplolepis longipes in California. This species has been intercepted through regulatory pathways by CDFA, but it is possible that it might be present in certain areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Anoplolepis longipes is not known to be present in California and would be expected to have a significant economic and environmental impact if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. Encyclopedia of Life.   eoL online resources.   Accessed June 12, 2017. http://eol.org/pages/470492/overview
  2. Global Invasive spices database.  Accessed June 12, 2017.   http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=110
  3. Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests. Accessed June 12, 2017.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/5575 
  4. Invasive animal risk assessment Dept. of Agriculture and Fisheries Biosecurity Queensland. Accessed June 12, 2017. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/63372/IPA-Yellow-Crazy-Ant-Risk-Assessment.pdf
  5. L. H. Himmelstein, 2003. Introduced Species summary project. Accessed June 12, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Anoplolepis_gracilipes.html
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed June 12, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

August 25, 2017 – October 9, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


PEST RATING: A

Posted by ls

Flower Ant | Monomorium floricola (Jerdon)

California Pest Rating for
Monomorium floricola (Jerdon): Flower Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
 Initiating Event:

On February 21, 2017 Dr. Kevin Williams identified ants collected during inspections of beehives recently shipped into California from Florida as Q-rated Monomorium floricola.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Monomorium floricola is a widely distributed tropical arboreal ant1.  It is a generalist that feeds on honeydew, dead insects, and any other available protein and sugar sources.  It nests in trees, bushes, and structures such as beehives and can be transported long distances when those items are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Monomorium floricola is widespread in almost all of the tropical areas of the world1 and is widespread and abundant in both Florida and Hawaii.  It was first collected in Florida in 1887 and has not spread north of Putnam County, likely due to its tropical nature2.  Records of the ant from other continental states show that the ants are not able to establish there.  Records from Mississippi were collected on palm trees transported from Florida and planted in a warm coastal location4.  There are no records of the ants spreading from this location.  There is an old catalog record of the ants in Alabama but more recent comprehensive surveys of the ant fauna have not been able to find any of the ants6.  The only known collection of Monomorium floricola in Arizona occurred inside the Biosphere 2 greenhouse structure where plants had been imported from a large number of sources1,7.

Official Control: Monomorium floricola is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.  It is not listed on any nation’s harmful organism list3.

California Distribution:  Monomorium floricola has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2010 and February 23, 2017 Monomorium floricola was intercepted by CDFA 16 times.  In addition to the recent beehive interception mentioned above, recent interceptions have occurred on plants from Hawaii, firewood from Florida, guavas from Mexico, and other beehives from Florida.

The risk Monomorium floricola (flower ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: North of 35˚ latitude, Monomorium floricola has not been found to be established outdoors1.  There it has only been found in greenhouses and other heated buildings1.  35˚ latitude roughly corresponds with the Tehachapi Mountains in California.  Most of the records north of 30˚ latitude are also in heated buildings1 and/or associated with plants that have been moved from more southern locations.  The entire state of California is located north of 32˚.  It is therefore likely that this ant will only be able to establish in the warmest parts of California including greenhouses and heated buildings.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Monomorium floricola is a generalist forager that feeds on a wide variety of protein and sugar sources.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Monomorium floricola does not fly, giving it less local dispersal potential than many other ants.  However, it can be easily transported long distances when infested plants, firewood, or beehives are moved.  It has colonized most of the tropical areas of the world, demonstrating high long distance dispersal potential.  Monomorium floricola is abundant where it is found, indicating high reproductive potential.  The ant receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Monomorium floricola is not documented to be a pest outside of urban areas anywhere in the world.  The ant is not expected to lower any crop yields or values.  It is not expected to disrupt markets.  There are no reports of this ant changing cultural practices in agriculture anywhere in the world.  The ant is not known to vector other organisms or interfere with water supplies.  It is possible that it could harm biological control agents as it tends to honeydew producing insects.  However, there are already other ants in California that interfere with biological control such as argentine ant (Linepithema humile) so impacts will likely be minimal.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Invasive ants such as Monomorium floricola may cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have the potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Flower ant is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  In areas where it is abundant such as Florida, the ants are inconspicuous, difficult to find, and seldom observed.1 However, as a nuisance pest indoors they are a regular source of calls to pest control companies and do result in new treatment programs5.  The ants are slow-moving, unaggressive, and unlikely to sting and are therefore unlikely to have significant cultural impacts.  Monomorium floricola receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Monomorium floricola (Flower Ant):  Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Monomorium floricola is not known to be established in the environment of California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

There are already other invasive tramp ant species established in California.  These other ants may preclude some of the economic and environmental impacts of Monomorium floricola.  However, there is a lot of uncertainty with the introduction of tramp ants to California.  It is possible the ants could interact with well-irrigated crops in San Diego, Imperial, and Riverside counties causing unanticipated economic and environmental impacts unlike anything that has been previously experienced in other locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Monomorium floricola has never been found in the environment of California.  If it were to establish in the state, the ant is likely to have significant environmental impacts in greenhouses, heated buildings, and possibly outdoors in the warmest areas of southern California.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Wetterer, James K. 2010. Worldwide spread of the flower ant, Monomorium floricola (Hymeoptera: Formicidae).  Myrmecological News 13: 19-27.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/James_Wetterer/publication/256979598_Worldwide_spread_of_the_flower_ant_Monomorium_floricola_Hymenoptera_Formicidae/links/0c9605258d5c35ac5e000000.pdf

2 AntWiki: Monomorium floricolahttp://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Monomorium_floricola

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 MacGown, J.A. and J.G. Hill. 2010. Two New Exotic Pest Ants, Pseudomyrmex gracilis and Monomorium floricola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Collected in Mississippi. Midsouth Entomologist.  http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_2_html_files/Vol3_2_007.html

5 Klotz, John H., John R. Mangold, Karen M. Vail, Lloyd R. Davis Jr., and Richard S. Patterson. 1995. A survey of the urban pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peninsular Florida. Florida Entomologist 78(1).  https://ag.tennessee.edu/EPP/Publications1/A%20Survey%20of%20the%20Urban%20Pest%20Ants%20of%20Peninsular%20Florida.pdf

6 Forster, Jason Allen. 2003. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of Auburn University.  https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/772/FORSTER_JASON_28.pdf?sequence=1

7 Wetterer, J.K., S.E. Miller, D.E. Wheeler, C.A. Olson, D.A. Polhemus, M. Pitts, I.W. Ashton, A.G. Himler, M.M. Yospin, K.R. Helms, E.L. Harken, J. Gallaher, C.E. Dunning, M. Nelson, J. Litsinger, A. Southern, and T.L. Burgess. 1999. Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Florida Entomologist 82(3): 381-388.  http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/59473/57152


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

3/24/2017 – 5/8/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Brachyponera chinensis: Asian needle ant

California Pest Rating for
Brachyponera chinensis:  Asian needle ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Brachyponera chinensis was frequently intercepted in 2016 by CDFA and requires a pest rating proposal to support its pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Brachyponera chinensis is commonly known as Asian needle ant, in the past this species has also been called the Chinese needle ant1. Until 2014 the species was also known as Pachycondyla chinensis, this name was used in lot of older publications. Asian needle ant is native to Japan and it was first detected in the United States in Georgia in approximately 1932 (Smith, 1934). Since then, populations have spread throughout large areas along the east coast and into other regions. It is an average size dark brownish-black ant with a conspicuous sting. Asian needle ant generally nests in the soil in somewhat damp areas, especially below stones, in rotting logs and stumps, or other debris. In urban settings it may also be found under mulch, railroad ties, bricks and pavers. Colony size ranges from fewer than 100 individuals to several thousand and multiple queens may be present. Unlike many introduced, invasive ant species, it can also nest in natural wooded habitats. Asian needle ant prefers termites as a food source. It poses medical risks for humans from anaphylaxis resulting from stings. Typically, stings are a result of an individual disturbing a colony or having a winged female land on the body and become trapped between the skin and clothing layer. Stings are painful and persist for up to 30 minutes or more1, 2.

Worldwide Distribution: Brachyponera chinensis is native to Japan and is also found in China1.It has spread to New Zealand, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Republic of Korea1. The Asian needle ant has been in the U.S. since the 1930s, but their population has exploded in the past 8 years2.  Now it is found in AL, CT, FL, GA, MS, NC, NY, SC, TN, TX, VA, WA, and WI1.

Official Control: Brachyponera chinensis is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations5.

California Distribution:  Brachyponera chinensis has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Brachyponera chinensis was intercepted 6 times in 2016 by CDFA’s border stations and nursery regulatory inspections. Interceptions were typically on plants or plant material imported from eastern infested States4.

The risk Brachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Asian needle ant can move into forests, rural areas, and urban environments at the same time because it can tolerate cooler temperatures, it could spread into a broad range of territory3.California environment is very suitable for this ant and it could establish throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Asian needle ants build nests in both disturbed areas and natural habitats. They are a temperate species, found in deciduous forests, hardwood forests, agricultural land, and in urban and suburban areas, such as office parks and backyards2. Asian needle ants feed on dead insects, fish scraps, and decaying fruit. They prey on live arthropods, especially termites. It can reside in urban and forest setting anywhere near the food source3. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Asian needle ants are holometabolous, undergoing complete metamorphosis. Their first batch of eggs is laid in early spring, and egg laying continues throughout the summer. Colony size ranges from fewer than 100 individuals to several thousand, and multiple queens may be present. Asian needle ant is capable of rapid reproduction and can disperse long distances when colonies or queens are moved. It receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Asian needle ant is not expected to lower crop yields or increase crop production costs.  It is not expected to vector other pestiferous organisms. Asian needle ants are active predators of many live arthropods which may consume parasitoids, disrupting biological control of pests. Asian needle ants are an emerging health threat because their sting is painful and venomous, resulting changes in cultural practices in livestock production. The ants are not expected to interfere with water supplies.

It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: D, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: As an invasive species in the eastern United States, Asian needle ants are displacing native ants and arthropod species, such as native ants like Aphaenogaster rudis. Moreover, it can compete with Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) by making nests earlier in the year, when temperatures are too cold for Argentine ants, taking control of areas before Argentine ants have the opportunity2. It is not known to affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupted critical habitats. The ant is not known to trigger any treatment programs or impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Brachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant): High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Brachyponera chinensis has never been found in natural environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any formal surveys of Brachyponera chinensis in California. This species has been intercepted through regulatory pathways by CDFA but it is possible that it might be present in certain areas of the California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Brachyponera chinensis is not known to be present in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1.  Ants (Formicidae) of the Southeastern United states by Joe A. McGowan, updated   23 March 2016  Accessed December 23, 2016 http://www.mississippientomologicalmuseum.org.msstate.edu/Researchtaxapages/Formicidaepages/genericpages/Pachycondyla.chinensis.htm#.WFlxjFMrI2w
  1.  Animal Diversity Web.  Accessed December 23, 2016     http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Pachycondyla_chinensis/
  1.  American Association for the Advancement of Science. Article by Mary Bates, Ph.D.   Accessed December 23, 2016 https://www.aaas.org/blog/qualia/invasive-asian-needle-ants-thriving-spreading-us
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed December 23, 2016 https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

1/17/2017 – 3/3/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Camponotus floridanus (Buckley) – Florida Carpenter Ant

California Pest Rating for
Camponotus floridanus (Buckley) – Florida Carpenter Ant
Hymenoptera:  Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Camponotus floridanus is intercepted by CDFA and presently has a temporary rating of “Q”. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: The Florida carpenter ant complex is comprised of several species, two of which are common around structures: Camponotus floridanus (Buckley) and Camponotus tortuganus (Emery). These bicolored arboreal ants are among the largest ants found in Florida1. These ants are amorg the most common indoor insect pests; they can be found nesting throughout homes in wooden support pillars, window frames, attics, and wooden structures2 . During the flight season, usually between April and June, carpenter ants can be found in alarming numbers1. Camponotus floridanus nests in existing empty spaces in wood or burrow into soft materials like pithy wood and styrofoam. These ants are primarily nocturnal in their foraging behavior. They have the legs and antennal scapes with numerous long, coarse brown to golden erect hairs that are longer than body hairs. Mating flights of these ants occur in Spring and are triggered by environmental factors such as changes in photoperiod and temperature. Fertilized queens nest under loose bark or wood debris on the ground. Worker ants from the first brood are called minims and they help feed the queen and maintain the nest. Workers have a strong bite and are called “bull dogs” or “bull ants” in Florida. The developmental cycle from egg to adult ranges from 50-70 days2.  The colonies may contain up to 8,000 individuals4.

Worldwide Distribution: There are an estimated 1000 species of Camponotus worldwide4.

US Distribution: There are 25 species of Camponotus in United States and most are native species. Camponotus floridanus is a pest in the southeastern Unites States. This species ranges from North Carolina to Florida and west to Mississippi4.

Official Control: Camponotus floridanus has been listed as a harmful organism in Taiwan and both Australia and Nauru consider all ants (Formicidae) as harmful6 .

California Distribution:  The two most destructive Camponotus species found in California are C. modoc and C. vicinus 5. Camponotus floridanus has never been found in the natural environment of California.

California InterceptionsCamponotus floridanus has been intercepted 20 times between January 1, 2000 and November 2016 through CDFA’s border station inspections, dog teams and red imported fire ant program7.

The risk Camponotus floridanus (Florida Carpenter Ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Camponotus floridanus feeds on trees and shrubs infested with honeydew producing insects such as aphids, scales, and mealybugs. These honeydew producing ornamentals, fruit trees and landscape shrubs are grown throughout California. This species also feed on sweet floral nectar and can be found near campgrounds, near soda machines and areas where sweets are readily accessible. floridanus also forages in homes, looking for moisture in kitchens, bathrooms and in other rooms with water leakage from plumbing, around doors and windows1 . It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Score: 2

– Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

– High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Known hosts of Camponotus floridanus include hardwoods, softwoods and structural timber of buildings3. Additionally, this species feeds on honeydew producing trees and shrubs that are grown throughout California3. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Score: 2

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

– High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Winged males and females of Camponotus floridanus leave the nest in spring –summer and mate. Females establish a nest in suitable wood (loose bark or wood debris on the ground). When mated, the queen rears her first brood in isolation. Carpenter ants can reach alarming numbers during flight season. Typical nests will contain several thousand individuals, have all developmental stages present and can exist for several years3 . These ants can move long distances inside homes, via wall voids, attic insulation and eaves, under bath tubs, windows and door frames, around skylights, in boxes, closets, and under appliances. Queenless satellite nests can be found within 20-100 feet of a mature nest1. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Score: 3

– Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

– Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Camponotus floridanus is active year–round. These are serious house-infesting ants. They do not eat wood but remove it to construct galleries for their nests. These ants can expand their nests into sound wood, wall voids, hollow doors, insulation and compromise structural integrity of homes. Infestations can even occur in new buildings. Worker ants of this species can bite and spray formic acid for defense1. Carpenter ants have been reported preying on grasshoppers, crickets, leafhoppers, honey bees and caterpillars This species could be more injurious to the livestock than existing ant species in California.  In natural settings, fungi can be vectored by carpenter ants. They can hollow out wood that has been softened by moisture or fungi to create nests. This wood include tree stumps, dead tree limbs, or residential structures. These infestations can play an important part in the decomposition of wood5 .It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:

Economic Impact: B, E, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

– Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

– Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Camponotus floridanus is not likely to disrupt natural communities, lower biodiversity and change ecosystem processes in California. This species also does not directly impact any threatened species. If it were to become established, however, homeowners would need additional private treatments. Direct treatment of nesting sites, baits, spraying in forage areas like trees and shrubs would be needed to eliminate established colonies. Elimination of insect bridges, caused by trees and shrubs touching house exterior, would require professional treatments by pest control operators. Since tree branches and shrubs infested with honeydew producing insects can act as substrate for these ants, removal of these trees would require additional efforts1. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below:

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact:

Environmental Impact Score: 2

– Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Camponotus floridanus (Florida carpenter ant): Medium (12)

Add up the total score and include it here:

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Camponotus floridanus has never been found in natural environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (12)

Uncertainty:

At least 15 Camponotus species are known from the state in limited areas. Camponotus floridanus would be likely to impact structures, specifically homes and wood quality if it establishes in the state. There have not been any formal surveys for Camponotus floridanus in California. This species has been intercepted through regulatory pathways by CDFA, but it is possible that it might be present in certain areas of the California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Camponotus floridanus has never been found in natural environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Warner John and Scheffrahn Rudolph H., University of Florida- Entomology and Nematology; Featured Creatures; Florida Carpenter Ant http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/ants/fl_carpenter_ants.htm
  1. Vazquez R.J., Koehler P.G., Pereira R.M., Warner J. and Scheffrahn; UF-IFAS Extension; Publication # SP486C; Florida Carpenter Ants http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN107500.pdf
  1. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services; Florida Forest Services; Forest Health Publications: Florida Carpenter Ant http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Florida-Forest-Service/Our-Forests/Forest-Health/Forest-Health-Publications/Insects-and-Diseases/Florida-Carpenter-Ant
  1. Urban and Structural Entomology program at Texas A & M University: Carpenter Ants, Camponotus sphttp://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/urban-pests/ants/carpenter/
  1. Klotz, J.H., Rust, M.K. and Hansen, L. D., University of California, Davis- Statewide IPM Program; Pest Notes: Carpenter Ants http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7416.html
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT): Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD): Camponotus floridanus https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/PExD/faces/PExDReport.jsp
  1. Pest and Damage Report Database: Plant Heath and Pest Prevention Services: California Department of Food and Agriculture. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

Responsible Party:

Raj Randhawa, 1220 ‘N’ Street, Room 221, Sacramento CA 95814, (916) 403-6617, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/11/2017 – 2/25/2017

Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger): Little Fire Ant

California Pest Rating for
Little Fire Ant: Eli Sarnat, PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org
Little Fire Ant. Photo by: Eli Sarnat, PIAkey: Invasive Ants of the Pacific Islands, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org
Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger): Little Fire Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Wasmannia auropunctata is regularly intercepted by CDFA and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundWasmannia auropunctata is a common tramp ant species notorious for its painful and long-lasting sting1.  These tiny ants nest under leaf debris, rotten limbs, stones, in the crotches of trees, in clumps of grass, and behind the sheaths of palms1.  An entire colony can establish inside a macadamia nut shell2.  The ants are highly adaptable and do well under wet or dry conditions and in open or shady areas1.  They feed on honeydew, dead arthropods, small animals, live insects, and forage in homes for oily foods1Wasmannia auropunctata can easily spread long distances hidden in plants, logs, greenwaste, gravel, and even cars2.

Worldwide Distribution: Wasmannia auropunctata is native to a large region that spans from central Argentina to southern Texas4.  From there it has spread throughout the Caribbean, to parts of tropical Africa, and to Hawaii and other Pacific islands4.  It was first found in Florida in 1924 and Hawaii in 19994.

Official Control: Wasmannia auropunctata is listed as a harmful organism by Bermuda, French Polynesia, Japan, and Taiwan3.

California DistributionWasmannia auropunctata has not been found in the environment of California except for possibly in 19374.

California InterceptionsWasmannia auropunctata has been intercepted 46 times by CDFA’s high risk programs and border stations.  Most interceptions have been on cut flowers, fruit, and plants from Hawaii and Florida.

The risk Wasmannia auropunctata would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Wasmannia auropunctata is found primary in warm climates. It has been present in Florida for more than 90 years but has not spread beyond the southern half of the state.  It is native to southern Texas but has not spread. Wasmannia auropunctata will probably be limited to southern and coastal California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Wasmannia auropunctata is a generalist forager that can feed on a wide variety of sources.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ants are capable of rapid reproduction and can disperse long distances when colonies or queens are moved.  Wasmannia auropunctata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Wasmannia auropunctata is not expected to lower crop yields or increase crop production costs.  It is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and could cause trade disruptions as a contaminating pest on a wide variety of commodities.  It is not expected to vector other pestiferous organisms.  Wasmannia auropunctata is known to tend honeydew producing insects and may consume parasitoids, disrupting biological control of pests.  They are also known to be attracted to eyes for moisture2.  Stings associated with this behavior sometimes lead to epidemics of blindness in animals2.  This may lead to changes in cultural practices in livestock production.  The ants are not expected to interfere with water supplies.  Wasmannia auropunctata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Invasive ants such as Wasmannia auropunctata may cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  They may also trigger new treatment programs by residents who find infestations and the associated stings and blind pets unacceptable and in the nursery and livestock industries.  This may lead to significant impacts on cultural practices.  Wasmannia auropunctata receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Wasmannia auropunctata (Little Fire Ant):  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Wasmannia auropunctata is not known to be present in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

There are already other invasive tramp ant species established in California.  These other ants may preclude some of the economic and environmental impacts of Wasmannia auropunctata.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Wasmannia auropunctata is not known to be present in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Brooks, Shawn and J.C. Nickerson. Common name: little fire ant.  University of Florida Featured Creatures.  http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/ants/little_fire_ant.htm

2 Little Fire Ant: Wasmannia auropunctata. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/pi/files/2014/05/2014-LFA-Brochure.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 Wetterer, James K. 2013. Worldwide spread of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Terrestrial arthropod reviews 6: 173-184. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=13&ved=0CGoQFjAM&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fprofile%2FJames_Wetterer%2Fpublication%2F257645059_Worldwide_spread_of_the_little_fire_ant_Wasmannia_auropunctata_%2528Hymenoptera_Formicidae%2529%2Flinks%2F02e7e5258d69a288fd000000.pdf&ei=2VokVdW3KYfBgwSqwIGYCw&usg=AFQjCNF29YvMf8xw_JFsjIN_lj5aEincAg&bvm=bv.89947451,d.eXY


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on April 12, 2016 and closed on May 27, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Camponotus modoc Wheeler: Modoc Carpenter Ant

California Pest Rating for
Camponotus modoc Wheeler: Modoc Carpenter Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

At least one ant hobbyist is selling queen ants of Camponotus modoc in California.1  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction on this ant.

History & Status:

Background:  Camponotus modoc is a carpenter ant that inhabits montane forests.2,3  It is a generalist forager on dead and living insects, nectar, fruit juices, and honeydew2.  It nests by excavating galleries in wood such as trees, wood piles, and landscaping materials2.  Colonies may be transported long distances when infested wood is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Camponotus modoc is native to the western United States and Canada3.  It is not known to have invaded any other states or nations.

Official Control: Camponotus modoc is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution Camponotus modoc is native to California and commonly found in montane forests.

California Interceptions:  Camponotus modoc was intercepted once by CDFA’s border stations in pine firewood from Nevada.

The risk Camponotus modoc (Modoc Carpenter Ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Camponotus modoc is native to and widespread in California and is not likely to establish in parts of the state where it does not already occur. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Camponotus modoc is a generalist forager and is considered a destructive pest when it excavates galleries in wooden structures.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ants typically have high reproductive rates.  Camponotus modoc has only been intercepted by CDFA once.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Camponotus modoc is already widespread and is not known to have lowered any crop yields or reduced crop values.  Its presence has not disrupted any markets.  It has not changed cultural practices or vectored other organisms.  It is not known to have injured any animals or interfered with any water supplies.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Camponotus modoc is native to and widespread in California and it has not been found to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It has not affected any threatened or endangered species or disrupted critical habitats.  The ant does trigger additional treatment programs when it infests wooden structures2Camponotus modoc is not known to have impacted cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Camponotus modoc (Modoc Carpenter Ant):  Low (8)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Camponotus modoc is considered to be widespread and common in California. It receives a High (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (5)

Uncertainty:

There is low uncertainty with this ant.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Camponotus modoc is a native ant that is widespread in California and is not reported to have had any negative economic impacts.  It may have limited environmental impacts by triggering new chemical treatments when it infests wooden structures.  No significant impacts are expected from hobbyists trading colonies of this ant within the state, provided that they adequately protect against the escape of colonies or queen ants into urban and rural residential environments.

References:

1 The AntsCanada Global Ant Nursery Project.  http://www.antscanada.com/queen-ants-for-sale/

2 UC IPM: How to Manage Pests of Homes, Structures, People, and Pets: Carpenter Ants:  http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7416.html

3 AntWiki: Camponotus modoc  http://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Camponotus_modoc


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on March 9, 2016 and closed on April 23, 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls

Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim | Erythrina gall wasp

California Pest Rating for
Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: Erythrina gall wasp
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In April 2015 the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) released a Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP) report that proposed to change the status of Quadrastichus erythrinae to non-actionable.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine future direction on this pest in California.

History & Status:

BackgroundQuadrastichus erythrinae is an emerging pest gall wasp that disfigures the leaves and young shoots of more than 60 species of coral trees (Erythrinia spp.)1,2.  It may be transported long distances when infested plants or plant parts such as fallen leaves are moved1.  Female wasps insert eggs inside young leaves and stem tissue1.  As larvae develop, they induce galls which cause leaves to curl and shoots to become swollen1.  Larvae pupate inside leaves and stems and adults chew their way out as they emerge1.  Heavy infestations can cause defoliation and death of trees1Quadrastichus erythrinae was first found in Hawaii in 2005 and within 2 years caused 95% mortality of Erythrina trees1.

Worldwide Distribution: Quadrastichus erythrinae is believed to be native to Africa1.  From there it has spread through much of Asia and the Pacific islands including Hawaii1.  In the Americas it is established in Brazil, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Florida1.

Official Control: Quadrastichus erythrinae is listed as a harmful organism by China, but is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations3.

California DistributionQuadrastichus erythrinae has never been found in the environment of California.

California InterceptionsQuadrastichus erythrinae has never been intercepted in California.

The risk Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The current distribution of Quadrastichus erythrinae corresponds to USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 10-13.  This indicates that the pest is likely to be limited to the warmest parts of southern California.  Quadrastichus erythrinae receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Quadrastichus erythrinae is only known to feed on coral trees in the genus Erythrina.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Quadrastichus erythrinae has a high reproductive rate.  Each female carries an average of 320 eggs and can complete a life cycle in 20 days1.  These gall wasps may be transported long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved and disperse locally by flying, wind, or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment1Quadrastichus erythrinae receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: If Quadrastichus erythrinae were to establish in California it is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may reduce the value of Erythrina nursery stock and increase production costs of those trees.  The gall wasp is not expected to disrupt any markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  Quadrastichus erythrinae receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.

B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Quadrastichus erythrinae is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem practices.  It is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who wish to save their coral trees.  Coral trees are grown as ornamentals in southern California and may be extirpated by Quadrastichus erythrinae.  Erythrina gall wasp receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp):  Medium (9)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Quadrastichus erythrinae has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:  

There have not been any surveys for Quadrastichus erythrinae in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Quadrastichus erythrinae has never been found in California.  However, if it were to establish in the state its effects are likely to be limited to coral trees in the nursery industry and southern California landscape.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 CABI Invasive Species Compendium.  Datasheet on Quadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp).  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/46220

2 Baez, Ignacio. DEEP Report Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim: Erythrina gall wasp. Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP). Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Lab. Center for Plant Health Science and Technology.

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on January 15, 2016 and closed on February 29 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

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Pest Rating: B


Posted by ls

Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): Eucalyptus Gall Wasp

California Pest Rating for
Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead): Eucalyptus Gall Wasp
Hymenoptera: Eulophidae
Pest Rating:  C

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Ophelimus maskelli has been found in the environment of southern California and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundOphelimus maskelli is a species of wasp that induces galls on leaves of several species of Eucalyptus.  Uncontrolled populations can cause severe leaf damage and early leaf drop1.

Worldwide Distribution: Ophelimus maskelli is probably native to Australia.  It was first found in the Mediterranean basin in Italy in 1999 and has since spread around the region1.  It has also been found in New Zealand, Indonesia, South Africa, and Vietnam1.  Ophelimus maskelli may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Official Control: Ophelimus maskelli is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California DistributionOphelimus maskelli is found in the environment of Riverside, San Diego, and Orange County1.  It is likely present in Los Angeles County.

California InterceptionsOphelimus maskelli has been found in one nursery in Riverside County (PDR 331P06142763).

The risk Ophelimus maskelli (Eucalyptus gall wasp) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Eucalyptus trees are commonly planted as ornamentals in southern and coastal California. Ophelimus maskelli is likely to establish wherever suitable hosts are found.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Ophelimus maskelli is only known to feed on the leaves of Eucalyptus trees.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.
Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Ophelimus maskelli can build large populations quickly, indicating high reproductive potential.  It may be transported long distances in infested plants or fresh plant parts.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Ophelimus maskelli is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of Eucalyptus nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is not expected to disrupt markets, change cultural practices, vector other organisms, or injure animals.  Ophelimus maskelli receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A.  The pest could lower crop yield.
B.  The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C.  The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D.  The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E.  The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F.  The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G.  The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5)  Environmental Impact: Ophelimus maskelli is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It may trigger additional treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Eucalyptus trees are common ornamentals and can be defoliated by this wasp.  Ophelimus maskelli receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A.  The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B.  The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C.  The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D.  The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E.  The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ophelimus maskelli (Eucalyptus gall wasp):  Medium (10)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points
Medium = 9-12 points
High = 13-15 points

6)  Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Ophelimus maskelli is established in Riverside, San Diego, and Orange counties1.  It is probably also present in Los Angeles County.  It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

Ophelimus maskelli was widespread and abundant in southern California when it was first observed.  It is likely much more widespread.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Ophelimus maskelli is widespread and abundant in the environment of southern California and is not under official control.  Impacts are expected to be limited to disfigurement of Eucalyptus trees and possible increased insecticide use.  A “C” rating is justified.

References:

1 Burks, Roger A., Jason L. Mottern, Rebeccah Waterworth, and Timothy D. Paine. 2015. First report of the Eucalyptus gall wasp, Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an invasive pest on Eucalyptus, from the Western Hemisphere.  Zootaxa 3926(3): 448-450.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

The 45-day comment period opened on Wednesday, December 16, 2015 and closed on January 30 , 2016.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment: 

Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  C


Posted by ls