All posts by Jason Leathers

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug | Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Pink Hibiscus Mealybug | Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Current Pest Rating:  A
Proposed Pest Rating:  B

 


Comment Period: 4/25/18 – 6/9/18


 

Initiating Event:

August 26, 2014, Dr. Gillian Watson identified Maconellicoccus hirsutus from a sample collected on 100 heavily infested silk oak trees at a golf course in Rancho Mirage, Riverside County.  The mealybug was previously eradicated from Riverside County in 2011.  Follow-up surveys have revealed that the pest is now widespread and abundant in Riverside County.  An updated pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

BackgroundMaconellicoccus hirsutus is a highly polyphagous mealybug that feeds on the stems, leaves, buds, fruit, and roots of plants in more than 200 genera in 77 plant families1,2.  Economically important hosts include grapes, citrus, avocado, cotton, Prunus spp., Solanum spp., and ornamentals.  While feeding, the mealybug injects toxic saliva into plants that inhibits cell enlargement, causing stunting of new growth and curling and contortion of leaves7.  Entire plants may be stunted and deformed7.  High populations can lead to the death of plants7.  The mealybug can spread long distances through the trade in host plants and fruit.

Worldwide Distribution: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is considered to be native to southern Asia1,2 and has invaded much of the Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australia, Oceania, and South America.  In North America it has been found in Mexico, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, and Imperial and Riverside counties, California3.  It has recently been detected and is under eradication in Tennessee6.

Official Control: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is listed as a quarantine pest by many nations including Antigua and Barbuda4, Bermuda4, Brazil4, Cayman Islands4, Chile4, Colombia4, Costa Rica4, Ecuador4, El Salvador4, Guatemala4, Honduras4, Israel4, Jamaica4, Japan4, Republic of Korea4, Mexico4, Morocco4, Nicaragua4, Panama4, Paraguay4, Peru4, South Africa4, Turkey4, Uruguay4, and the European Union2.

California DistributionMaconellicoccus hirsutus has been present in Imperial County since 1999.  The mealybug was detected in Riverside County in 2011 and successfully eradicated by the county.  The mealybug was detected again in Riverside County in 2014 infesting 100 silk oak trees at a golf course.

California Interceptions:  Maconellicoccus hirsutus is occasionally intercepted on fruit or plants headed for destinations within California, most often on longan fruits.

The risk Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Maconellicoccus hirsutus, due to its polyphagous nature, is likely to encounter suitable hosts throughout California. The present distribution of the mealybug corresponds to USDA plant hardiness zones 9-131, which encompasses much of California.  Pink hibiscus mealybug receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is known to feed on plants in more than 200 genera in 77 plant families.  The mealybug receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pink hibiscus mealybug has a high reproductive rate.  Each female lays 150-600 eggs and there can be up to 15 generations per year2.  The crawlers of this mealybug are reported to be very active and are capable of spreading to nearby plants; furthermore, they may be dispersed by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, equipment, or animals.  The mealybugs may also be spread long distances through the movement of infested plants or fruit.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Maconellicoccus hirsutus has been present in Imperial County since 1999, where it has been successfully controlled by biological control agents.  No economic damages in California are presently attributed to this pest.  In the presence of effective biological control, the mealybug is not expected to lower crop yields.  In the absence of effective biological control, yields are likely to be reduced (see uncertainty section below).  As it feeds on a wide variety of ornamentals, the mealybug may increase crop production costs in nurseries by triggering new chemical treatments to ensure clean nursery stock.  The mealybug is listed as a quarantine pest by many nations and its presence is likely to disrupt markets for California fresh fruit.  Pink hibiscus mealybug is not expected change cultural practices, vector pestiferous organisms, injure agriculturally important animals, or interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Algodones Dunes sunflower (Helianthus niveus tephrodes), Bakersfield cactus (Opuntia basilaris var. treleasei), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) are listed as threatened or endangered plants in California and are potential hosts of this mealybug.  An infestation of the mealybug in Riverside County in 2011 was eradicated by the county, indicating that the presence of this pest may trigger additional official treatment programs.  Additional treatments are also likely in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  In some cases, the mealybug is likely to be managed by biological control programs such that it does not significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  However, due to its extremely high reproductive rate and broad host range it is likely to sometimes cause significant damage to ornamental plants as it encounters them before biological control agents.  Maconellicoccus hirsutus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Maconellicoccus hirsutus is only known to be established in Imperial and Riverside counties. The mealybug receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(13)

Uncertainty:

There have been no recent statewide surveys for the mealybug, so it may have a larger distribution within California.  In the absence of surveys or official control, trading partners are likely to regulate the entire state, so range expansions of pink hibiscus mealybug may not trigger new impacts on fruit exports.  Pheidole megacephala (bigheaded ant) has recently been detected in California.  This is an aggressive ant that is likely to tend pink hibiscus mealybug and consume all parasites and predators it encounters, reducing the effectiveness of biological control5.  As bigheaded ant expands its range through southern California it is likely to facilitate the invasion of Maconellicoccus hirsutus and may disrupt the presently successful biological control program.  If this were to occur, yield of economically important crops such as almonds, peaches, pistachios, walnuts, olives, and citrus may be reduced.  Crop quality and production costs by increase in the long term.  This may elevate the economic impact of the pest to High (3).

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Maconellicoccus hirsutus is a highly polyphagous mealybug with a limited distribution within California at present.  If it enters commercial fruit groves and vineyards the presence of the mealybug is likely to close or restrict export markets for fresh fruit.  If found outside of its present distribution, it will likely trigger treatment or biological control programs.  However, pink hibiscus mealybug has been known to be present in California since 1999 and is not under official control.  Therefore, the A-rating can longer be justified. A “B” rating is now the appropriate rating.


References:

1Culliney, T.W.  2014.  Deregulation Evaluation of Established Pests (DEEP); DEEP Report on Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green): Egyptian hibiscus mealybug, pink hibiscus mealybug.

2Data sheets on quarantine pests:  Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  2005.  European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.  OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, 413-415.  http://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/insects/Maconellicoccus_hirsutus/DS_Maconellicoccus_hirsutus.pdf

3Ben-Dov, Y. 2014. ScaleNet, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Available online at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Maconellicoccushirsutus.htm  Accessed on 9 April 2014.

4USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

5Buckley, Ralf and Penny Gullan.  1991.  More aggressive ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) provide better protection for soft scales and mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccidae, Pseudococcidae).  Biotropica 23(3): 282-286. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2388205?uid=3739560&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21104122016081

6NAPIS; Email updated dated September 2, 2014.  http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/capsreview.php?code=IRAWBIA

7Hoy, Marjorie A., Avas Hamon, and Ru Nguyen. 2006. Common name: pink hibiscus mealybug. University of Florida Featured Creatures. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/mealybug/mealybug.htm


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:*

4/25/18 – 6/9/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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Posted by ls

Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell

California Pest Rating for
Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

Poliaspis media has recently been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego counties and is presently assigned a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Poliaspis media is a polyphagous armored scale insect that feeds on the undersides of leaves of host plants1.  The scale insect’s feeding induces galls on some host plants1.  Some of the known hosts are: Achariaceae: Melicytus alpinus1; Aizoaceae: Disphyma australe1; Araliaceae: Raukaua anomalus1; Asteliaceae: Astelia fragrans1; Asteraceae: Craspedia sp.1, Ozothamnus sp.1, Sonchus sp.1; Brassicaceae: Streptanthus sp.1; Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis1, Cycas revoluta1; Ericaceae: Acrothamnus colensoi1, Cyathodes sp.1, Dracophyllum latifolium1, Dracophyllum lessonianum1, Dracophyllum oliveri1, Dracophyllum recurvum1, Dracophyllum sp.1, Dracophyllum traversii1, Leptecophylla juniperina1, Leucopogon fraseri1, Leucopogon sp.1, Pentachondra pumila1; Gaultheria depressa1, Gaultheria rupestris1, Gaultheria sp.1; Myrtaceae: Leptospermum scoparium1; Orchidaceae: Orchidaceae sp.1; Plantaginaceae: Veronica decumbens1, Veronica elliptica1, Veronica hulkeana1, Veronica macrantha1, Veronica pentasepala1, Veronica subalpina1, Veronica venustula1; Podocarpaceae: Lepidothamnus laxifolius1; Primulaceae: Myrsine australis1, Myrsine divaricata1, Myrsine salicina1, Samolus repens1; Ranunculaceae: Clematis afoliata1; Restionaceae: Emposidisma minus1; Rubiaceae: Coprosma arborea1, Coprosma chathamica1, Coprosma cheesemanii1, Coprosma depressa1, Coprosma propinqua1, Coprosma pumila1, Coprosma rhamnoides1, Coprosma robusta1, Coprosma rubra1, Coprosma sp.1, Coprosma spathulata1, Coprosma tenuifolia1, Coprosma virescens1; Rutaceae: Leionema nudum1; Santalaceae: Exocarpos bidwillii1; Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea prostrata1, Pimelea urvilleana1; Zamiaceae: Dioon edule1Poliaspis media may be transported long distances when infested plants or fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Poliaspis media was described from specimens collected in New Zealand before 1880, but it may be native to Asia1,2.  It has been found in New Zealand, Fiji, India, Greece, the United Kingdom, and the United States1.  It was first found in Florida in 20072.

Official Control: Poliaspis media is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and the Republic of Korea3.

California Distribution Poliaspis media was collected in the environment of California at a residence in Tustin (Orange County) in 1999 and at a residence in Villa Park (Orange County) in 2016 and again in 2017.  It was found at a park in San Diego County in 2018.

California Interceptions Since 1993, samples of Poliaspis media have been collected 22 times in inspections of nurseries in San Diego, Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara counties.  The scale insects were also intercepted once on a shipment of sago palms (Cycas revoluta) from Florida.

The risk Poliaspis media (cycad poliaspis scale) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Poliaspis media is established in nations with Mediterranean climates similar to much of California and it is expected to establish a widespread distribution here. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Poliaspis media is known to feed on a variety of plants in 21 families. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Scale insects have high reproductive rates and may disperse long distances when infested plants or plant parts are moved.  They may also be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on plants, animals, or equipment.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower any crop yields.  It may lower the value of nursery stock by disfiguring plants with its presence.  It is listed as a harmful organism by several of California’s trading partners and could potentially disrupt markets for nursery stock and other fresh plant material.  Poliaspis media receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Poliaspis media is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  It might trigger new treatment programs in the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Cycads are high value, slow-growing ornamental plants that are popular in California and may be significantly impacted by this insect.  Poliaspis media receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Poliaspis media (Cycad Poliaspis Scale):  High (14) 

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Poliaspis media is only known to be established in the environment of Orange County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Over the course of 20 years, Poliaspis media has been found multiple times in nurseries in California but it has only been intercepted coming into the state once.  It has been found in the environment of Orange and San Diego Counties.  There have been no recent formal surveys for this pest.  It is possible that this scale insect is more widely established in the environment of Southern California and is infesting nurseries locally.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Poliaspis media has been established in the environment of Orange County for several years, was recently found in San Diego County, and is not under official control.  It is expected to have significant impacts on the nursery industry and ornamental plantings as it expands its distribution in the state.  A “B” rating is justified.


References:

1 Miller, Dug, Yair Ben-Dov, Gary Gibson and Nate Hardy.  ScaleNet.  http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Poliaspis%20media/

2 Hodges, Greg and W.N. Dixon. 2007.  The Poliaspis Cycad Scale Poliaspis cycadis Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae): A new exotic scale insect for Florida.  http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/68154/1612633/Pest_Alert_-_Poliaspis_cycadis,_The_Poliaspis_Cycad_Scale.pdf

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: B

 


Posted by ls

South American Palm Weevil |  Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus)

California Pest Rating for

South American palm weevil (Dynamis borassi) Champion, G.C. , 1910

South American Palm Weevil |  Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE

Initiating Event:

On March 17, 2016 several adult and larval weevils collected by San Diego County officials during the removal of a Canary Island date palm in San Ysidro were identified as Rhynchophorus palmarum, South American palm weevil (SAPW) (PDR 370P06400129).  Although SAPW has been found in this area since 2011 this is the first confirmation of a breeding population in California.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Adult female SAPW are attracted to fresh trunk wounds of palm trees and lay their eggs inside a hole in the trunk that they have chewed1.  After hatching, larvae bore into the tree where they feed on live and rotting tissue1.  This feeding can eventually lead to death of the palm.  SAPW adult females are known to vector the nematode Bursaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode), which accelerates the death of the host palm1.  Known reproductive hosts include: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (Afrian oil palm), Euterpe edulis (assai palm), Metroxylon sagu (sago palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm); Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)1.  Adult weevils also feed on a wide variety of fruits and other plants but have never been documented to be a pest of these hosts.  SAPW may be transported long distances when infested palm trees or palm parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: SAPW is native to Central and South America, and has spread northward throughout Mexico, presumably due to unrestricted movement of palm nursery stock.   The beetle is now making incursions across the southern border of the United States into California, Arizona, and Texas.

Official Control: SAPW is listed as a harmful organism by Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See (Vatican City State), Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, and the United Kingdom2Bursaphelenchus cocophilus, a nematode that is vectored by SAPW, is listed as a harmful organism by Antigua and Barbuda, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominica, Honduras, Jamaica, and Saint Lucia2.

California Distribution SAPW has been found in southern San Diego and Imperial counties since 2011, and may have been flying into these areas from Mexico since 19661.

California Interceptions:  SAPW has not been found in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk Rhynchophorus palmarum (SAPW) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: SAPW can be expected to establish throughout California wherever suitable hosts are grown. The weevil is protected from the environment inside palms and is unlikely to be extirpated by cold weather.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: SAPW is known to reproduce in seven species of plants in two plant families.  Adult weevils also feed on a wide variety of food sources, including many fruits and other plants.  However, it has only been documented to be a pest of palms and sugarcane.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: SAPW has high reproductive rates.  Each female can lay 120-150 eggs over a period of 30 days and the weevils can complete a generation in 80 days1.  SAPW can fly a mile in 24 hours and may be transported long distances when infested palms or sugarcane are moved1.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: As it expands its range in California, SAPW is likely to reduce yields in date groves and palm nurseries by destroying trees.  The species might also increase crop production costs in date groves and lower the value of palm nursery stock.  SAPW is considered a quarantine pest by many of California’s trading partners and has the potential to disrupt exports as a contaminating pest.  SAPW is also known to vector the plant pathogenic nematode Bursaphelenchus cocophilus.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A, B, C, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: As it expands its range in California, SAPW is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.   The beetle is not likely to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt any critical habitats.  SAPW may trigger new treatments by residents, by the nursery industry, and by date growers.  Palm trees are an iconic ornamental plant in the California landscape and may be significantly impacted by this pest.  SAPW receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Common Name:  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: SAPW is only known to have established a localized distribution in southern San Diego County and to have made incursions into Imperial County. The species receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (14)

Uncertainty:

CDFA’s palm weevil trapping was mostly discontinued in 2013, and it is possible that Rhynchophorus palmarum has expanded its range in California since that time.  The species may have additional host trees or switch hosts multiple times in California.  The weevil could switch hosts and feed on native palms, which would disrupt natural communities.  However, the weevils have significant populations in areas with many native Washingtonia palms and have not affected those trees.  Unfortunately, there is one report of SAPW feeding on Washingtonia robusta in Mexico4.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

SAPW is likely to have significant economic and environmental impacts as it expands its range in California.  However, it is already found in southern San Diego and Imperial counties and is thought to regularly enter the state from Mexico.  The weevil is not under official control (e.g., quarantine or eradication).  There are no plans for federal agencies to take any action on this pest3.  A “B”-rating is appropriate.


References:

1 Rhynchophorus palmarum.  USDA APHIS 2011.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/palmweevil/downloads/Rhynchophoruspalmarum_v5.pdf

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Summary of Recommendations for Palm Weevils. 2013.  The PPQ Palm Weevil Working Group (PWWG).

4 García-Hernández, José Luis, Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales, José Guadalupe Loya-Ramírez, J.R. Morales-Cota, Enrique Troyo Diéguez, and Félix Alfredo Beltrán-Morales.  2003.  Primer informe del Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) en Baja California Sur. Folia Entomol. Mex. 42(3): 415-417.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov

Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/24/18 – 3/10/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B

 


Posted by ls

Camphor Shot Borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)

California Pest Rating for
Camphor shot borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)
Curculionidae: Coleoptera
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has proposed changing the status of Cnestus mutilatus from actionable to non-actionable.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent pest rating for this beetle.

History & Status:

Background Cnestus mutilatus is a wood-boring beetle that prefers to attack stems that are 2-5 cm in diameter, including more than 20 botanical families1.  Female beetles bore into trees and inoculate them with fungi1.  Adult beetles and larvae feed on these fungi, and reside within the stems.  A wide variety of trees are attacked.

Known hosts include Aceraceae: Japanese maple (Acer palmatum)1, red maple (Acer rubrum) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) 1, maples (Acer spp.) 1, Acer sieboldianum1; Betulaceae: American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 1, Japanese hornbeam (Carpinus laxiflora) 1; Cornaceae: flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) 1, dogwood (Cornus spp.) 1; Fabaceae: Albizia spp. 1, Ormosia hosiei1; Fagaceae: beech (Fagus grandifolia) 1, chestnut (Castanea spp.) 1, Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) 1, Quercus shumardii1; Hamamelidaceae: sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) 1; Juglandaceae: hickory (Carya spp.) 1, Platycarya spp. 1; Lauraceae: camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora) 1, spicebush (Benzoin [Lindera] spp.) 1, Lindera erythrocarpa1, Lindera triloba1, Parabenzoin [Lindera] praecox1, Machilus [Persea] thunbergii1; Magnoliaceae: yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) 1; Meliaceae: Melia azedarach1; big leaved mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) 1; Oleaceae: Osmanthus fragrans1; Taxodiaceae: Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) 1; Pinaceae: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) 1; Rosaceae: black cherry (Prunus serotina) 1, wild plum (Prunus americana) 1; Theaceae: Camellia spp. 1; Ulmaceae: elm (Ulmus alata) 1; Vitaceae: muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) 1. It has also been reported on Anacardiaceae, Cupressaceae, Melastomataceae, Papilionaceae, and Styracaceae1.  The beetles can be transported long distances when infested nursery stock or firewood is moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Cnestus mutilatus is native to Asia, and has invaded the eastern United States and established a widespread distribution there1.

Official Control: Cnestus mutilatus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution Cnestus mutilatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions Cnestus mutilatus has never been intercepted by CDFA or County Agricultural agents.

The risk Cnestus mutilatus (Camphor shot borer) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:   

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The native distribution of Cnestus mutilatus corresponds with Plant Hardiness Zones 5 through 131, which matches most of the state of California. One model predicts that this beetle will not find the western United States as favorable as the east due to precipitation and temperature requirements1,2.  However, this same model also predicted that the beetles would not find suitable habitats in other eastern states where the beetle has since been found.  Other invasive wood boring beetles with similar native Asian distributions are thriving in California.  The accuracy of predictive models for wood-boring beetle distributions could likely be improved by including data on the environment inside trees, where the beetles spend the majority of their lives.  Host trees of the beetle are widely grown as ornamentals in California.  Cnestus mutilatus can be expected to establish a widespread distribution in California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Cnestus mutilatus is highly polyphagous and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cnestus mutilatus both disperses and overwinters as mated females so a single individual can found a new population.  Female beetles can fly 2-3km and can rapidly be transported long distances when infested nursery stock or firewood is moved1Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Cnestus mutilatus attacks nursery stock and a variety of insecticide treatments have been developed for this pest.  If this beetle were to establish in California, it is likely to affect yields of nurseries and increase production costs.  The beetles also vector symbiotic fungi from tree to tree.  Known hosts of the beetle include cherry, plum, and grapes (Prunus serotina, Prunus americana, and Vitis rotundifolia).  If the beetles are able to feed on grapevines and other stone fruit trees, it could have significant impacts on California’s $5.58 billion grape industry and $21 billion fruit and nut crop industries.  Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact:  A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Cnestus mutilatus is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not expected to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The beetle is likely to trigger new chemical treatments by the nursery industry and by residents who find infested plants unsightly.  Many host trees of the beetle are planted as ornamentals in California and are likely to be significantly affected by this pest.  Cnestus mutilatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Cnestus mutilatus (Camphor shot borer):  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Cnestus mutilatus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

In some cases, Cnestus mutilatus is attracted to gasoline mixed with ethanol3.  Female beetles can bore into plastic fuel storage containers, causing fuel to leak out3.  This could potentially increase the risk of fire in California3.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Cnestus mutilatus has not been found in California and is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:

1 PPQ. 2017. DEEP report for Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)—Camphor shot borer. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, NC. 5 pp.  To request a copy of this report please contact USDA.

2 Olatinwo, R., D. Streett, and C. Carlton. 2014. Habitat suitability under changing climatic conditions for the exotic ambrosia beetle, Cnestus mutilatus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in the southeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(4):782-788.  https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/2014/ja_2014_olatinwo_004.pdf

3 Carlton, Chris and Victoria Bayless.  2011. A case of Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) Females Damaging Plastic Fuel Storage Containers in Louisiana, U.S.A. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(3): 290-291. http://www.lsuinsects.org/resources/docs/publications/Carlton&Bayless2011Cnestus.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

Ambrosia Beetle | Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)

California Pest Rating for
Ambrosia Beetle |  Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

The United States Department of Agriculture’s Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Lab has proposed changing the status of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus amputatus from actionable to nonactionable1.  A pest rating proposal is required to determine the impacts that this proposed change might have on California and to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Xylosandrus amputatus is a small fungus-feeding ambrosia beetle1.  Female beetles carry a symbiotic fungus and inoculate host trees1.  Adults and larvae then feed on the fungus1.  In its native range this beetle has been collected from trees in the families Anacardiaceae, Ebenaceae, Geraniaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapindaceae, Styracaceae, and Theaceae2.  Reported hosts include maple (Acer sp.)1, sumac (Rhus trichocarpa)1, Diospyros morrisiana1, zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum)1, Actinodaphne lanciflora1 (possibly lancifolia), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora)1, Cinnamomum mairei1, Cinnamomum osmophloeum1, Machilus sp.1, Persea (Machilus) thubergii1, fig (Ficus carica)1, jujube (Ziziphus jujube)1, snowbell (Styrax suberifolium)1, and Stewartia monoderpha1 (possibly monodelpha).  The beetles can be rapidly transported long distances when infested wood products such as firewood are moved.

Worldwide Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus is native to Asia (China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan)1,2.  The beetle is only known to have invaded Florida and Georgia1.

Official Control Xylosandrus amputatus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Xylosandrus amputatus has never been intercepted by CDFA or the County Agricultural Commissioners.

The risk Xylosandrus amputatus would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:   

1) Climate/Host Interaction:  Xylosandrus amputatus is likely able to establish throughout USDA Plant Hardiness zones 7 through 101. This is a climatic match for most of California.  Suitable host plants are grown throughout this region as well.  The beetle receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range:  Xylosandrus amputatus is known to feed on at least 314 species of plants in 9 plant families.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: In Florida, Xylosandrus amputatus has spread 200 miles in 7 years, demonstrating a high dispersal potential1.  The beetle could be spread through the movement of infested wood, including firewood.  Ambrosia beetles also have high reproductive potential.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: In Florida and Georgia, where Xylosandrus amputatus has become established, it has not been found attacking healthy, stressed, or dying trees1.  It has only been found in traps.  Until more information about its biology in Florida or Georgia is known, it is appropriate to consider impacts that the beetles could have on all known hosts.  Fig and jujube are both known hosts that are grown commercially in California.  If Xylosandrus amputatus were to become established in the state the beetle could lower crop yields and increase crop production costs.  Female beetles also vector a fungal symbiont, Ambrosiella beaveri1.  However, it is not known if this fungus is pestiferous1Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Xylosandrus amputatus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The beetle is not expected to feed on any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The species might trigger new treatment programs in fig and jujube orchards, however it is not likely to significantly impact cultural practices or home/urban gardens.  However, known host trees are common ornamental plants in California and may be susceptible to attack, especially if trees that are stressed due to drought.  Xylosandrus amputatus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Xylosandrus amputatus:  High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in the environment of California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

Although Xylosandrus amputatus is well established throughout most of Florida and part of Georgia, however the beetles are only known from traps.  There is no information as to what host plants the beetles are feeding on in these states or if host trees are healthy or stressed.  There is a possibility that they are feeding on additional host tree species.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Xylosandrus amputatus has never been found in California.  If it were to enter the state, it is likely to have significant impacts on ornamental trees and fig and jujube production.  An “A”-rating is justified.


References:

Note:  If links do not work please copy and paste URLs into your browser.

1PPQ. 2017. DEEP report for Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Raleigh, North Carolina. 4 pp.  To request a copy of this report please contact USDA.

2 Cognato, Anthony I., Rachel O. Olson, and Robert J. Rabaglia. 2011. An Asian Ambrosia Beetle, Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini), Discovered in Florida, U.S.A. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(1): 43-45.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony_Cognato/publication/232681964_An_Asian_Ambrosia_Beetle_Xylosandrus_amputatus_Blandford_Curculionidae_Scolytinae_Xyleborini_Discovered_in_Florida_USA/links/55b7632508ae9289a08be3a5.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 2800 Gateway Oaks Drive, Sacramento CA 95833, (916) 654-1211;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

1/11/2018 – 2/25/2018


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A

 


Posted by ls

 

Grey Tortrix | Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday

California Pest Rating for

Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday: Grey Tortrix
Lepidoptera: Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In August 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) distributed a New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report that proposed to establish a non-reportable/non-actionable policy for Cnephasia stephensiana1.  An updated version of the report was distributed in August 2017.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent rating to this pest.

History & Status:

Background:  Cnephasia stephensiana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on the leaves of more than 120 species of plants1.  First instar caterpillars mine leaves; later instars live externally within spun leaves1.  Caterpillars may also feed on flowers1.  As caterpillars identified as Cnephasia sp. have only been intercepted by USDA five times1, it is presumed that members of this genus are rarely moved in trade.  The moth is thought to disperse primarily through flight1.

Worldwide Distribution: Cnephasia stephensiana is native to Europe and Russia1.  It has been found in Japan1.  It was first found in Canada (in Nova Scotia) in 19542 and has since spread across that country1.  In the United States, it has been collected in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and the state of Washington1.

Official Control: Cnephasia stephensiana is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.  However, Cnephasia jactatana is listed as a harmful organism by Japan and Korea and Cnephasia longana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Ecuador, Korea, and South Africa3.  The entire family Tortricidae is considered harmful by Japan3.

California Distribution Cnephasia stephensiana has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Cnephasia stephensiana has never been intercepted by CDFA or the County Agricultural Commissioners.

The risk Cnephasia stephensiana (grey tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The present range of Cnephasia stephensiana overlaps with USDA plant hardiness zones 4-81. This corresponds with northern and high-elevation regions of California.  Due to its polyphagous nature, the moth is likely to encounter suitable host plants in California.  It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Cnephasia stephensiana is polyphagous and known to feed on more than 120 species of plants.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Each female Cnephasia stephensiana can lay 300-400 eggs, indicating a high reproductive rate.  It rarely moves in trade and disperses locally by flying.  Grey tortrix receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Cnephasia stephensiana is not considered to be a pest in locations where it is abundant and is therefore not expected to lower crop yields or reduce crop values.  The moth rarely moves in trade and is not under official control in any states or nations, indicating that trade disruptions should be minimal.  It is not expected to change cultural practices, vector other organisms, injure animals, or interfere with water supplies.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: None

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Cnephasia stephensiana were to establish in California, it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Due to its polyphagous nature, it is likely to feed on threatened or endangered species.  The moth is not expected to disrupt critical habitats, nor is it expected to trigger new treatment programs.  It is also not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardens, or ornamental plants.  Cnephasia stephensiana receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey tortrix):

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Cnephasia stephensiana has not been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (10)

Uncertainty:

Because of its large host range, there is a lot of uncertainty with this moth in California.  It could encounter specialty crops in the state that it has not encountered in other states.  If this were to occur, there could be disruptions to markets for California’s fresh fruit exports, such as strawberries to Mexico.  There have not been any recent formal surveys for Cnephasia stephensiana in California.  It is possible that it is present in some localities in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Cnephasia stephensiana has never been found in California.  If it were to establish in the state, it is likely to have some economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Landry, Cynthia 2014.  NPAG Report Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday: Grey tortrix.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG). Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory. Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.  Contact npag@aphis.usda.gov for this report.

2 Mutuura, Akira. 1982. Cnephasia stephensiana, a species newly recorded from Canada and compared with the previously recorded C. interjectana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  The Canadian Entomologist 114(08):667-671.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8552795&fileId=S0008347X00039225

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/18/2017 – 11/2/2017*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


PEST RATING: A


Posted by ls

Japanese Flower Thrips | Thrips setosus

California Pest Rating for
Photo Citation: Mound, L. (2005), PaDIL - http://www.padil.gov.au
Photo Citation: Mound, L. (2005), PaDIL – http://www.padil.gov.au
Thrips setosus Moulton: Japanese flower thrips
Thysanoptera: Thripidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

USDA is considering changing the status of Thrips setosus from actionable to non-actionable.  A pest rating proposal is needed to advise direction on this insect.

History & Status:

Background:  Thrips setosus is a polyphagous leaf and flower-feeding thrips.  Female thrips lay eggs in leaves where they are difficult to detect and protected from chemical treatment.  Nymphs and adults feed on plants and cause silvering or bronzing of leaves and leaf scorching.  Known hosts include:  Apiaceae: hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium1); Asparagaceae: Hosta sp.1; Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum morifolium1, Erigeron sp.1, sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus1), oriental false hawksbeard (Youngia japonica1); Balsaminaceae: Impatiens sp.1; Cucurbitaceae: cucumber (Cucumis sativus1); Euphorbiaceae: poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima1); Fabaceae: soybean (Glycine max1), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris1), fava bean (Vicia faba1), asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedaris1); Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea sp.1; Lamiaceae: red dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum1); Pedaliaceae: sesame (Sesamum indicum1); Plantaginaceae: foxglove (Digitalis sp.1); Ranunculaceae: Helleborus sp.1; Solanaceae: bell pepper (Capsicum annum1), jimsonweed (Datura stromium1), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum1), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum1), Petunia x hybrid1, Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense1), eggplant (Solanum melongena1); and Urticaceae: stinging nettle (Urtica dioica1). Thrips setosus has been associated with many additional plants but host records need confirmation (see uncertainty section).  Thrips setosus can be transported long distances when infested plants, cut flowers, or other fresh plant parts are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Thrips setosus is presumably native to Japan.  From there, it has spread to Indonesia, The Republic of Korea, Croatia, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom1.  In the United States, it was first found in 2016 in Michigan in a greenhouse at a nursery that imports plants from multiple nations1.  In that greenhouse, Thrips setosus was able to build up significant populations, despite existing pest management practices.  Since then, the thrips has also been found in the environment surrounding that greenhouse, in associated nursery fields located 11 miles away, and in a trace-forward survey at a greenhouse in Rhode Island1.  The thrips continues to be found in the original infested greenhouse even after multiple treatments.  Before detection, plants from that greenhouse were shipped to 39 other states, so the thrips might be more widespread.  However, trace forward surveys have not found it anywhere else.

Official Control: Thrips setosus is not known to be under official control in any other states or nations.

California Distribution:  Thrips setosus has never been found in the environment in California.

California Interceptions Thrips setosus has never been intercepted by CDFA.

The risk Thrips setosus (Japanese flower thrips) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Thrips setosus is polyphagous and is expected to be able to establish throughout plant hardiness zones 4 to 111. It can be expected to establish throughout almost all of California and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Thrips setosus is known to feed on plants in at least 26 genera in 14 plant families.  There are unverified host records on many other plants in 13 additional families.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Thrips setosus females can lay up to 8 eggs per day and the species can complete 7-12 generations per year, depending on temperature1.  This indicates a high reproductive rate.  Thrips can be transported long distances when infested plants, cut flowers, or other fresh plant parts are moved.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Thrips setosus has been documented as a vector of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV)1.  This virus can cause bronzing, curling, necrotic streaks, or spots on tomato leaves, dark-brown streaks on leaf petioles, stems, and growing tips, and infected plants can be stunted1.  In addition, tomato fruit infected with TSWV is discolored1Thrips setosus is considered to be a less efficient vector of TSWV compared to thrips that are already present in California1.  However, in Michigan the thrips has not been controlled by existing thrips management programs and has not been affected by existing biological control agents.  New chemical treatments required for this thrips are likely to disrupt existing IPM programs in California agroecosystems.  Thrips setosus has not been found in other major tomato growing regions and larger populations of a thrips that is more difficult to control are expected to increase spread of the virus.  If the thrips were to establish in California it is likely to lower crop yields, especially for tomatoes.  It is certain to increase crop production costs.  It is also likely to disrupt California exports.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: If Thrips setosus were to establish in California it is not likely to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. Several endangered species are closely related to possible hosts (see uncertainty section) and might be directly affected by the thrips including Ashland thistle (Cirsium ciliolatum), fountain thistle (Cirsium fontinale fontinale), Chorro Creek bog thistle (Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense), Suisun thistle (Cirsium hydrophilum var. hydrophilum), La Graciosa thistle (Cirsium loncholepis), surf thistle (Cirsium rhothophilum), Parish’s daisy (Erigeron parishii), Scott’s Valley polygonum (Polygonum hickmanii), showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), Pacific grove clover (Trifolium polyodon), and Monterey clover (Trifolium trichocalyx).  Thrips setosus would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats.  It is likely to trigger new treatment programs by growers, in the nursery industry, and by residents.  Many of the host plants are popular in home/urban gardens and as ornamentals and would likely be significantly impacted by this thrips.  Thrips setosus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Thrips setosus (Japanese flower thrips): High (15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Thrips setosus has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

In addition to the known hosts described above there many other host records in the literature that have not yet been verified by USDA.  These candidate hosts include:  Amaryllidaceae: amaryllis (Hippeastrum sp.1); Asparagaceae: monkey grass (Liriope platyphylla1), mondo grass (Ophiopogon jaburan1); Asteraceae: pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariafolium1), Japanese thistle (Cirsium japonicum1), Dahlia sp.1, double Japanese aster (Kalimeris pinnatifida1), Japanese aster (Kalimeris yomena1), lettuce (Lactuca sativa1), Tagetes sp.1; Balsaminaceae: touch-me-not (Impatiens balsamina1); Brassicaceae: cabbage, broccoli, kale, brussels sprouts, collard greens, savoy, kohirabi, and gai lan (Brassica olearacea1); Caprifoliaceae: Abelia spathulata1, Cucurbitaceae: melon (Citrullus battich1), melon (Cucumis melo1), squash (Cucurbita maxima1), squash (Cucurbita moschata1), bitter melon (Momordica charantia1); Dioscoreaceae: Japanese mountain yam (Dioscorea japonica1); Ebenaceae: persimmon (Diospyros kaki1); Fabaceae: Dumasia truncata1, pea (Pisum sativum1), kudzu (Pueraria lobata1), white clover (Trifolium repens1), clover (Trifolium sp.1), vetch (Vicia sativa1); Iridaceae: Iris sp.1; Lamiaceae: henbit (Lamium amplexicaule1), wild mint (Mentha arvensis1), Moraceae: fig (Ficus carica1); Onagraceae: evening primrose (Oenothera sp.1); Poaceae: rice (Oryza sativa1); Polygonaceae: knotweed (Polygonum sp.1); Rosaceae: strawberry (Fragaria ananassa1); Rutaceae: Citrus sp.1; Simaroubaceae: tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima1); Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum1); Vitaceae: grapevine (Vitis vinifera1); and Unknown: glory lily1.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Thrips setosus has only been found in greenhouses in Michigan and Rhode Island as well as several fields in Michigan associated with the infested greenhouse1.  There is uncertainty about whether or not Thrips setosus can survive in the northern United States1.  Since both Michigan and Rhode Island are northern states and the thrips has not been found elsewhere, it is not yet clear that this species has established in the United States or if it is only a regulatory incident that could be addressed.  If Thrips setosus were to establish in California it is likely to have significant impacts to crops worth as much as $14 billion annually including tomatoes, bell pepper, grapes, citrus, lettuce, melons, rice, strawberry, fig, and Brassicaceae.  The thrips would also be expected to have significant environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1 Morrice, Jarrod. 2017.  NPAG Report: Thrips setosus Moulton: Japanese flower thrips. Thysanoptera: Thripidae.  United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Plant Protection and Quantine.  New Pest Advisory Group. Raleigh, NC.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

7/21/2017 – 9/4/2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Pandemis cerasana Hübner | Barred Fruit-tree tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In July 2014 USDA’s New Pest Advisory Group distributed a report that proposed to change the status of Pandemis cerasana, barred fruit-tree tortrix, to non-actionable for the continental United States.  A pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background:  Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous leaf-rolling moth that feeds on shoots, leaves, flower buds, flowers, and fruits of a wide variety of hosts in 20 plant families.  Economically important hosts in California include apple, cherry, plum, peach, pear, blueberry, raspberry, and rose.  In these crops, feeding on flowers and fruit may result in crop losses and blemished fruit.  The most likely pathway for spread of Pandemis cerasana into California is as eggs, larvae, or pupae on nursery stock.

Worldwide Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana is native to Europe and Asia.  It was detected in British Columbia in 19653.  The moth was found in Washington in 1994 and has spread through the nine western counties.  It was first detected in Portland, Oregon in 2013.  It appears that the moth is established in Washington and is spreading naturally through the Pacific Northwest.

Official Control: Pandemis cerasana is listed as a harmful organism by Chile, Costa Rica, and South Africa2 and is considered a quarantine pest by Australia4.  It will also remain actionable in Hawaii under the NPAG report recommendations.

California Distribution:  Pandemis cerasana has never been detected in California.

California Interceptions Pandemis cerasana has never been intercepted in California or by USDA on imported fruit from Canada.

The risk Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants that grow in California and is expected to establish in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-9.  It is expected to be capable of establishing a widespread distribution and receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pandemis cerasana is a polyphagous moth that feeds on a wide variety of plants in 20 families.  It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Pandemis cerasana has moderate reproductive potential.  The moth has one or two generations per year3 and each female typically lays 40-90 eggs.  The moths can fly and may be dispersed long distances by the movement of undetected eggs, larvae, or pupae on plants or plant material.  Pandemis cerasana receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pandemis cerasana has been reported as a minor pest defoliator of apple and pear trees in western Washington; it has not yet spread to the major fruit production areas of that state.  In Europe, management measures for the moth include chemical control, monitoring and control programs, and a regional forecasting model.  In Italy, up to 10-15% of fruit has been reported damaged.  Furthermore, there may be trade disruptions with Australia and Hawaii, where it is considered a quarantine pest.   Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pandemis cerasana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The moth is likely to feed on endangered species that it encounters, such as Nevin’s barberry (Berberis nevinii), island barberry (Berberis pinnata insularis), and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia).  The moth is not likely to disrupt critical habitats.  Pandemis cerasana may trigger new treatments in orchards and in the nursery industry.  The moth is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings.  Pandemis cerasana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Pandemis cerasana (Barred Fruit-Tree Tortrix):  High(14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pandemis cerasana has not been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High(14)

Uncertainty:

There are existing integrated pest management programs in orchards in California.  It is possible that these programs will also manage Pandemis cerasana.  There have not been any recent surveys for this moth in California.  It may already be established in some places.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pandemis cerasana is established in western Washington and has recently spread to Oregon.  It is likely to spread to California at some point in the future, either naturally or through movement of plant material.  When it enters the State, the moth may have significant economic and environmental impacts.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Millar, Leah 2014.  New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) report on Pandemis cerasana Hübner:  Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory.  Center for Plant Health Science & Technology.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Gilligan, T. M., and M. E. Epstein. 2012. Tortricids of Agricultural Importance (TortAI). Colorado State University and California Department of Food and Agriculture.  http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Pandemis_cerasana.htm

4 Plant Health Australia:  Cherry brown tortrix.  High priority pest of cherries. http://www.planthealthaustralia.com.au/pests/cherry-brown-tortrix/


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Operophtera brumata (L.) | Winter Moth

California Pest Rating for
Operophtera brumata (L.):  Winter Moth
Lepidoptera:  Geometridae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

In January 2013 USDA announced that Operophtera brumata, winter moth, was under consideration for deregulation at our ports.  Stephen Brown (CDFA) recommended a rating proposal for the moth.

History & Status:

Background:  Winter moth is an invasive, polyphagous moth that feeds on flower and leaf buds and expanding leaf clusters of more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families3.  In Oregon, adult moths emerge from pupae in soil from early November through December1.  Females are unable to fly.  They climb trees, mate, and lay eggs in bark crevice.  Eggs hatch mid-March. First (1st) instar larvae may balloon by wind; closely related species have been documented dispersing 850m2.  By May larvae have completed development.  They then drop from trees and pupate 1-12 cm below the soil surface3.

Worldwide Distribution: Operophtera brumata is native to Palearctic region.  It was first detected in North America in Nova Scotia in 1949, but is believed to have been introduced before 19351.  It was found in British Columbia in 1976 and Oregon in 1978.  However, museum specimens from a natural history museum indicate that the moth was present in Oregon in 1958, but misidentified as the native moth Operophtera occidentalis.  Recently, winter moth has invaded Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York (Long Island).4

Official Control: United States Department of Agriculture has listed Operophtera brumata as an actionable pest.  It is unknown if winter moth is under official control anywhere else.

California Distribution:  Operophtera brumata has never been found in California.

California Interceptions Operophtera brumata has never been intercepted in California.

This risk winter moth would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Operophtera brumata is highly polyphagous and can be expected to find a plethora of suitable hosts in California. Temperatures above 27˚C (80.6˚F) are reportedly lethal to eggs6; therefore, winter moth may not be able to establish in portions of southern California where temperatures are warm between January and March.  Winter moth is expected to establish a widespread distribution in the cooler parts of California.  Winter moth receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Pest Host Range: Operophtera brumata feeds on more than 160 species of trees and shrubs from 14 plant families.  The moth receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: While adult winter moths have limited natural dispersal capabilities given their flightless females, wind-aided larval dispersal by ballooning is a valid concern.  Furthermore, the moth may be moved long distances through trade in nursery stock.  Female winter moths lay 150-350 eggs.  Operophtera brumata receives a Medium(2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Winter moth is considered a major pest of blueberries (an $82 million industry in California) and deciduous trees in Washington.  Hosts also include a number of other economically important crops, including almond5 ($3.9 billion), raspberries ($223 million), cherry5,7 ($197 million), pears ($98 million), and apple ($58 million).  Operophtera brumata has the potential to impact crops by consuming flower buds and defoliating trees, reducing crop yield.  The moth may also trigger additional treatment programs during prebloom and bloom stages, increasing crop production costs.  Chemical treatments during bloom have the potential to disrupt pollination services, negatively changing normal cultural practices.  The moth is therefore expected to have a significant economic impact on California.  Winter moth receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

Economic Impact: A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact:  As Operophtera brumata invades new areas, it can cause widespread defoliation4.  Forest trees can be defoliated and forced to grow a second set of flush.  When combined with other stressors, such as drought, this can kill trees.  Rosa is listed as a host of winter moth and small-leaved rose (Rosa minutifolia) is listed as an endangered species by the state of California.  However, winter moth is not expected to establish in warmer parts of the state where small-leaved rose is found.  Winter moth may also impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings by defoliating trees, reducing fruit yields, or triggering additional treatments by residents.  O. brumata receives a High(3) rating in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score:

Environmental Impact:  A, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Winter Moth:  High (14)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Operophtera brumata has never been collected in California.  Winter moth therefore receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and backed up by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one ecoarea (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous ecoareas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous ecoareas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High (14)

Uncertainty:  

The parasitoids Cyzenis albican (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Agrypon flaveolatum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) have been introduced to the United States and Canada as biological control agents to control winter moth populations.  In most areas they have been successful at limiting damage from the moth.  However, winter moth populations sometimes continue to reach outbreak levels after parasitoids are introduced3.  It is not certain if the parasitoids would be successful in California, or if resources would be available for mass-rearing programs.  It is also uncertain if O. brumata populations would be controlled by existing IPM programs in some agricultural ecosystems, mitigating economic damage.  Also, since there have been no recent surveys, it is possible that winter moth might be established in limited areas of the state and unnoticed.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Winter moth (Operophtera brumata) has potential to cause significant economic and environmental damage to California.  An ‘A’ rating is justified.

References:

1Kimberling, D.N., J.C. Miller, and R.L. Penrose.  1986.  Distribution and parasitism of winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepitoptera: Geometridae), in western Oregon.  Environmental Entomology 15: 1042-1046.

2Brown, C.E.  1962.  The life history and dispersal of the bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst.), Lepidoptera: Geometridae.  Can. Ent. 94:1103-1107.

3Horgan, F.G., J.H. Myers, and R. Van Meel. 1999.  Cyzenis albicans (Diptera: Tachinidae) does not prevent the outbreak of winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in birch stands and blueberry plots on the lower mainland of British Columbia.  Environ. Entomol. 28(1): 96-107.  https://academic.oup.com/ee/article-abstract/28/1/96/502294/Cyzenis-albicans-Diptera-Tachinidae-Does-Not?redirectedFrom=PDF

4Elkinton, J.S., G.H. Boettner, M. Sremac, R. Cwiazdowski, R.R. Hunkins, J. Callahan, S.B. Schuefele, C.P. Donahue, A.H. Porter, A. Khrimian, B.M. Whited, and N.K. Campbell.  2010.  Survey for winter moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northeastern North America with pheromone-baited traps and hybridization with the native bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 103(2): 135-145.

5Rajaei, H., M. Abaii, and A. Hausmann.  2010.  First record of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northern Iran.  Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6(2):63-68.  https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&ved=0ahUKEwjWgbGU3qnUAhUJxmMKHXHrA2IQFgg9MAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fijab.um.ac.ir%2Findex.php%2Fbiosys%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F25213%2F4299&usg=AFQjCNGYV9wmYICCMDmP4ftvpf2sKx6plw&cad=rja

6Embree, D.G. 1970.  The diurnal and seasonal pattern of hatching winter moth eggs, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae: Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 102(6): 759-768.  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8557345

7San, N.V. and K. Spitzer.  1993.  Isolated populations of the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), their heavy metal content and parasitism.  Eur. J. Entomol. 90: 311-321.  http://www.eje.cz/pdfarticles/473/eje_090_3_311_VanSanSpit.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) | Cherry Bark Tortrix

California Pest Rating for
Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli):  Cherry Bark Tortrix
Lepidoptera:  Tortricidae
Pest Rating:  A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix) is established in the Pacific Northwest, where it is a significant pest of cherry and other Prunus species.  CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey includes trapping for this moth, which is currently unrated.  A pest rating proposal is needed before cherry bark tortrix is detected in California.

History & Status:

Background:  Enarmonia formosana is a wood boring moth whose larvae feed on the bark and sapwood of practically all rosaceous trees, including Prunus (cherry, almond, apricot, nectarine, peach, and plum), Cydonia (quince), Malus (apple), Pyrus (pear), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Pyracantha (firethorne)1.  There is one generation per year2.  Adult moths fly and lay eggs from April to September2.  Eggs are laid in cracks, crevices, wounds, crotches, and lenticels of trees2.  Eggs hatch after a few weeks and larvae seek out openings in the bark through which they enter the tree2.  Larvae burrow deep into the cambium where they feed until the following spring2.  Feeding causes dieback and wilting of the tree canopy and the damage makes the tree susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases, frost damage, and other insect pests2.  This secondary damage can be fatal to the tree.  Because the moths usually attack mature trees, the most likely pathway for spread of cherry bark tortrix into California is through firewood of the host species.

Worldwide Distribution: Enarmonia formosana is native to the Palearctic region.  It is widespread in Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa1.  The first North American detection was in Richmond, British Colombia in May, 19891.  From there, it has been spreading to the south.  It was found just across the border in Whatcom county, Washington in 19912 and then in Oregon in 20004.  Although the moth is widespread in western Washington, it has not been found in eastern Washington, suggesting that the Cascades may be a barrier to natural spread of the moth.

Official Control: Oregon has established a quarantine against Enarmonia formosana regulating the entire state of Washington, the entire province of British Colombia, Multnomah and Clackamas counties in Oregon, and any other state, province, or territory where an established population of the moth is detected and not eradicated.  The quarantine covers all plants in the genera Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus and Sorbus, and unseasoned firewood derived from trees of these host plant genera.  Uninfested nursery stock plants of these genera that are less than two inches in diameter are exempted from the quarantine3.

California Distribution Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California.  Trapping for the moth is included in CDFA’s stone fruit commodity-based survey and it has not been trapped, further supporting its absence from the State.

California Interceptions Enarmonia formosana has never been intercepted in any regulatory situations in California.

The risk cherry bark tortrix (Enarmonia formosana) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Rosaceous plants are widely cultivated in California and Enarmonia formosana is likely to establish wherever they are grown. Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Although cherry bark tortrix is only reported to feed on plants in one family (Rosaceae), these hosts include economically important fruit crops valued at billions of dollars annually.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Cherry bark tortrix spread rapidly throughout western Washington in a decade, infesting 80% of host trees in some areas.  This indicates high reproductive and local dispersal potential.  The moths can spread long distances through the movement of infested firewood or large plants.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Enarmonia formosana is likely to lower the yield of infested host trees.  Crop production costs can be expected to increase if cherry bark tortrix establishes in California as growers are likely to use insecticides, mating disruption, or biological control agents to control moth populations.   The presence of the moth in the State may also trigger lost markets for large nursery stock plants and host firewood.  Cherry bark tortrix receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Enarmonia formosana is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  It is not expected to directly affect any threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  The moth can be expected to trigger additional official or private treatment programs.  A survey found that 75-80% of host trees were infested with cherry bark tortrix in the Bellingham, WA area.  This indicates that the pest can be expected to significantly impact home/urban gardening and ornamental plantings.  Enarmonia formosana receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Enarmonia formosana (cherry bark tortrix):  High(15)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Enarmonia formosana has never been detected in California and receives a Not established(0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score:  High(15)

Uncertainty:

There is a report that high temperatures above 90˚F might be lethal to eggs5.  High temperatures could therefore limit populations of the moth in some areas of the state.  It is also possible that existing IPM programs might manage cherry bark tortrix populations in some circumstances.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Enarmonia formosana is present in the Pacific Northwest where it is a significant pest of rosaceous trees.  From Canada, the moth rapidly spread south through western Washington.  However, a quarantine in Oregon has effectively slowed its spread.  Nevertheless, cherry bark tortrix is likely to spread to California in the future, most likely in infested firewood.  When it arrives it is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts in the state and may trigger official treatments.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:

1Dang, P.T. and D.J. Parker.  1990.  First records of Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli) in North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  Journal of the Entomological Society of British Colombia.  87:3-6. https://journal.entsocbc.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/655

2Murray, Todd.  Garden Friends & Foes:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  Washington State University.  http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/homehort/pest/e_formosana.htm

http://jenny.tfrec.wsu.edu/opm/displaySpecies.php?pn=570 

3Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs:  Cherry Bark Tortrix.  http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/rules/oars_600/oar_603/603_052.html

4Cherry bark tortrix moths found in Oregon.  The Seattle Times.  August 7, 2000.  http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20000807&slug=4035429

5Westcott, R.L. and J.D. DeAngelis.  1993.  New Pest Alert:  Cherry Bark Tortrix Moth.  Oregon State University Extension Service and Oregon Department of Agriculture.   http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/19518/ec1409-e.pdf


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

6/14/2017 – 7/29/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  A


Posted by ls

Flower Ant | Monomorium floricola (Jerdon)

California Pest Rating for
Monomorium floricola (Jerdon): Flower Ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Pest Rating: A

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
 Initiating Event:

On February 21, 2017 Dr. Kevin Williams identified ants collected during inspections of beehives recently shipped into California from Florida as Q-rated Monomorium floricola.  A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  Monomorium floricola is a widely distributed tropical arboreal ant1.  It is a generalist that feeds on honeydew, dead insects, and any other available protein and sugar sources.  It nests in trees, bushes, and structures such as beehives and can be transported long distances when those items are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: Monomorium floricola is widespread in almost all of the tropical areas of the world1 and is widespread and abundant in both Florida and Hawaii.  It was first collected in Florida in 1887 and has not spread north of Putnam County, likely due to its tropical nature2.  Records of the ant from other continental states show that the ants are not able to establish there.  Records from Mississippi were collected on palm trees transported from Florida and planted in a warm coastal location4.  There are no records of the ants spreading from this location.  There is an old catalog record of the ants in Alabama but more recent comprehensive surveys of the ant fauna have not been able to find any of the ants6.  The only known collection of Monomorium floricola in Arizona occurred inside the Biosphere 2 greenhouse structure where plants had been imported from a large number of sources1,7.

Official Control: Monomorium floricola is not known to be under official control in any states or nations.  It is not listed on any nation’s harmful organism list3.

California Distribution:  Monomorium floricola has not been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions:  Between January 1, 2010 and February 23, 2017 Monomorium floricola was intercepted by CDFA 16 times.  In addition to the recent beehive interception mentioned above, recent interceptions have occurred on plants from Hawaii, firewood from Florida, guavas from Mexico, and other beehives from Florida.

The risk Monomorium floricola (flower ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: North of 35˚ latitude, Monomorium floricola has not been found to be established outdoors1.  There it has only been found in greenhouses and other heated buildings1.  35˚ latitude roughly corresponds with the Tehachapi Mountains in California.  Most of the records north of 30˚ latitude are also in heated buildings1 and/or associated with plants that have been moved from more southern locations.  The entire state of California is located north of 32˚.  It is therefore likely that this ant will only be able to establish in the warmest parts of California including greenhouses and heated buildings.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.  Score:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Monomorium floricola is a generalist forager that feeds on a wide variety of protein and sugar sources.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Monomorium floricola does not fly, giving it less local dispersal potential than many other ants.  However, it can be easily transported long distances when infested plants, firewood, or beehives are moved.  It has colonized most of the tropical areas of the world, demonstrating high long distance dispersal potential.  Monomorium floricola is abundant where it is found, indicating high reproductive potential.  The ant receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Monomorium floricola is not documented to be a pest outside of urban areas anywhere in the world.  The ant is not expected to lower any crop yields or values.  It is not expected to disrupt markets.  There are no reports of this ant changing cultural practices in agriculture anywhere in the world.  The ant is not known to vector other organisms or interfere with water supplies.  It is possible that it could harm biological control agents as it tends to honeydew producing insects.  However, there are already other ants in California that interfere with biological control such as argentine ant (Linepithema humile) so impacts will likely be minimal.  Monomorium floricola receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score:

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Invasive ants such as Monomorium floricola may cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have the potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  Flower ant is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  In areas where it is abundant such as Florida, the ants are inconspicuous, difficult to find, and seldom observed.1 However, as a nuisance pest indoors they are a regular source of calls to pest control companies and do result in new treatment programs5.  The ants are slow-moving, unaggressive, and unlikely to sting and are therefore unlikely to have significant cultural impacts.  Monomorium floricola receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact. Score:

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Monomorium floricola (Flower Ant):  Medium (11)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Monomorium floricola is not known to be established in the environment of California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

There are already other invasive tramp ant species established in California.  These other ants may preclude some of the economic and environmental impacts of Monomorium floricola.  However, there is a lot of uncertainty with the introduction of tramp ants to California.  It is possible the ants could interact with well-irrigated crops in San Diego, Imperial, and Riverside counties causing unanticipated economic and environmental impacts unlike anything that has been previously experienced in other locations.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Monomorium floricola has never been found in the environment of California.  If it were to establish in the state, the ant is likely to have significant environmental impacts in greenhouses, heated buildings, and possibly outdoors in the warmest areas of southern California.  An “A”-rating is justified.

References:

1 Wetterer, James K. 2010. Worldwide spread of the flower ant, Monomorium floricola (Hymeoptera: Formicidae).  Myrmecological News 13: 19-27.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/James_Wetterer/publication/256979598_Worldwide_spread_of_the_flower_ant_Monomorium_floricola_Hymenoptera_Formicidae/links/0c9605258d5c35ac5e000000.pdf

2 AntWiki: Monomorium floricolahttp://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Monomorium_floricola

3 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

4 MacGown, J.A. and J.G. Hill. 2010. Two New Exotic Pest Ants, Pseudomyrmex gracilis and Monomorium floricola (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Collected in Mississippi. Midsouth Entomologist.  http://midsouthentomologist.org.msstate.edu/Volume3/Vol3_2_html_files/Vol3_2_007.html

5 Klotz, John H., John R. Mangold, Karen M. Vail, Lloyd R. Davis Jr., and Richard S. Patterson. 1995. A survey of the urban pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peninsular Florida. Florida Entomologist 78(1).  https://ag.tennessee.edu/EPP/Publications1/A%20Survey%20of%20the%20Urban%20Pest%20Ants%20of%20Peninsular%20Florida.pdf

6 Forster, Jason Allen. 2003. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Alabama. A thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of Auburn University.  https://etd.auburn.edu/bitstream/handle/10415/772/FORSTER_JASON_28.pdf?sequence=1

7 Wetterer, J.K., S.E. Miller, D.E. Wheeler, C.A. Olson, D.A. Polhemus, M. Pitts, I.W. Ashton, A.G. Himler, M.M. Yospin, K.R. Helms, E.L. Harken, J. Gallaher, C.E. Dunning, M. Nelson, J. Litsinger, A. Southern, and T.L. Burgess. 1999. Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Florida Entomologist 82(3): 381-388.  http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/59473/57152


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

3/24/2017 – 5/8/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating: A


Posted by ls

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)

California Pest Rating for
Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard): Olive Bark Beetle (OBB)
Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae
Pest Rating:  B

 


PEST RATING PROFILE
Initiating Event:

On October 18, 2016 Dr. Andrew Cline identified a sample of bark beetles obtained from an olive tree at a grape vineyard in Riverside County as Phloeotribus scarabaeoides, the olive bark beetle (OBB).  This is the first record of OBB in the Western Hemisphere and a pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background:  OBB is a bark beetle that is a well-known pest of olive1.  The species is widely distributed around the Mediterranean basin1,3 (including Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia).  Adult females bore through bark and excavate a transverse tunnel on either side of the entry point1.  Inside the twig/branch, the female lays up to 60 eggs and as larvae hatch each larva bores up or down from the entrance tunnel underneath the bark1.  This feeding causes partial to complete girdling1 of the twig/branch; thereby structurally weakening it as well as damaging vasculature.  Larvae pupate inside the feeding galleries1. OBB has 2-4 generations per year1.  Spring and early summer adults tend to lay eggs in prunings and olive wood stacked as firewood rather than living trees1.  In addition to olive, OBB also feeds on oleander (Nerium oleander) and occasionally ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lilac (Syringa vulgaris)1.  OBB may be transported long distances when infested olive wood or living plants are moved.

Worldwide Distribution: OBB is native to the Mediterranean basin.  Thus far, it is not known to have invaded any other regions.

Official Control: OBB is listed as a harmful organism by Japan, Paraguay, and Peru2.

California Distribution:  OBB has been found at the grape vineyard as well as a residence and 3 nurseries, all in Riverside County.  Surveys of olive trees at nurseries in other counties have not found any OBB.

California Interceptions OBB has never been found in any regulatory situations in California.  However, the beetles have been found in trees at three nurseries and might have been spreading through the nursery trade for an indefinite time period.

The risk Phloeotribus scarabaeoides [olive bark beetle (OBB)] would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Olive and oleander are grown throughout California and OBB is likely to establish throughout these areas. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: OBB feeds primarily on olive, secondarily on oleander, and occasionally on ash and lilac.  It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Score: 1

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: OBB has three to four generations per year and each female lays up to 60 eggs.  Adult beetles can fly and all life stages can be transported long distances when olive wood or infested plants are moved.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Score:  3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: OBB is considered a serious pest of olive that can cause heavy losses of young shoots, flowers, and fruit1.  The beetle can be expected to increase crop production costs for olive growers as they implement management strategies.  In regions with established OBB populations, growers are forced to alter cultural practices by moving olive prunings and wood far away from groves to reduce damage.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  A, B, D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

4) Environmental Impact: OBB is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  The species is not likely to directly affect threatened or endangered species or disrupt critical habitats.  OBB is likely to trigger new official and private treatment programs.  Olive and oleander are widespread ornamentals and are likely to be significantly impacted by this pest.  OBB receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Score the pest for Environmental Impact.

Environmental Impact Score:  3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Olive bark beetle (OBB)):  High (13)

Add up the total score and include it here.

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: OBB has only been found in Riverside County. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (12)

Uncertainty: 

OBB might have a widespread distribution in California.  The beetles have been found in olive trees in several nurseries and it is possible that the beetles could have been spreading through the nursery industry for several years.  Secondly, there is a native bark beetle (Hylesinus californicus) that sometimes attacks stressed olive trees and was originally called the olive bark beetle in California.  However, the common name was changed to western ash bark beetle to reflect its typical host.  It is possible that OBB could be more widespread in California and its damage attributed to Hylesinus californicus.  However, adults of Phloeotribus are extremely characteristic amongst all weevils in possessing elongate terminal antennomeres and would be recognized as something new by any coleopterist.  Thirdly, the olive trees at the original detection site had been moved from San Diego County.  It is possible the beetles could be established in San Diego County, although none have been found at the origin.  This evidence suggests the possibility OBB could have a widespread distribution within southern California and possibly the entire State.

Before the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) arrived in California in 2008 the State was the source of 11% of the world’s table olives.  Most of these were produced by small growers with less than 40 acres.  These growers did not make enough profit to pay for treatment costs for olive fly and many of them have switched to less profitable olive oil.  The presence of OBB in California could be especially disastrous for the many small olive growers in the State.  This might lead growers to switch to more water intensive crops, exacerbating the effects of the State’s drought.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Phloeotribus scarabaeoides is expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California’s olive industry and ornamental plantings of oleander and olive throughout the State.  However, it is established and abundant in Riverside County, is not under official control, and has likely been spreading through the nursery trade.  There are no approved treatments or survey tools for this pest and there are no plans for an interior quarantine.  A “B” rating is justified.

References:

1 Alvord, D.V. 2014.  Pests of Fruit Crops: A Color Handbook.  CRC Press.  462pp.

2 USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

3 Knížek, M. 2011. Subfamily Scolytinae. pgs. 204-250. In Lobl, I and A. Smetana (Eds.), Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Volume 7. Apollo Books, Stenstrup. 372pp.


Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

1/19/2017 – 3/5/2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest Rating:  B


Posted by ls