All posts by Lisa Serrano

Vertebrate Pests

Vertebrate pests are any species of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, or fish that causes damage to agricultural, natural, or industrial resources, or to any other resource, and to the public health or safety. Vertebrate pests cause millions of dollars in damage to agricultural crops, transportation infrastructure, water conveyance and restoration lands each year. Vertebrate pests threaten the public health and the environment as vectors of diseases that could be transmitted to humans, livestock and wildlife.


PEST RATINGS AND PROPOSALS:

Nutria |  Myocastor coypus
Pest Rating:  A

Insects, Mites & Earthworms

Insects and mites are related in that their skeletons are on the outside (Phyllum: Arthropoda), but differ in that adult insects have six legs and adult mites have eight.  Both groups can be beneficial, neutral or destructive to their environment.  Like nematodes, they can cause yearly losses in the billions of dollars for agricultural crops around the world.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

⇒ BLATTODEA

Three-lined Cockroach | Luridiblatta trivittata
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18

COLEOPTERA

Ambrosia Beetle |  Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/11/18 – 2/25/18

Banded Elm Bark Beetle | Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 1/16/18 – 3/2/18

A Bark Beetle | Pycnarthrum hispidum (Ferrari)
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 1/16/18 – 3/2/18

Bark Beetle | Coccotrypes rutschuruensis Eggers
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/16/18 – 3/2/18

Black Pine Bark Beetle | Hylastes ater (Paykull)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/17/18 – 3/3/18

Camphor Shot Borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/11/18 – 2/25/18

Hylesinus cingulatus Blandford
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/17/18 – 3/3/18

Small Spruce Bark Beetle | Polygraphus poligraphus (L.)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/16/18 – 3/2/18

Strangulate Weevil | Trochorhopalus strangulatus (Gyllenhal)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/11/18 – 2/25/18

 HEMIPTERA

Armored Scale | Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 12/12/17 – 1/26/18

Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18

A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/17/18 – 3/3/18

PEST RATINGS:

COLEOPTERA

Beetle: Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston)
Pest Rating: C

Cereal Leaf Beetle: Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus)
Pest Rating:  B

Coffee Bean Weevil | Araecerus fasciculatus
Pest Rating: B

Diaprepes Root Weevil | Diaprepes abbreviatus
Pest Rating: B

Olive Bark Beetle | Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard)
Pest Rating: B

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer: Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus
Pest Rating:  B

Red-Black False Blister Beetle: Ananca bicolor (Fairmaire)
Pest Rating:  B

Redneck Longhorn Beetle | Aromia bungii
Pest Rating: A

Sap Beetle:  Brachypeplus basalis (Erichson)
Pest Rating:  B

Scolytid Weevil: Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius)
Pest Rating:  B

Seed Beetle | Bruchidius terrenus
Pest Rating:  B

Small Hive Beetle (SHB): Aethina tumida Murray
Pest Rating: B

Sri Lankan weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus
Pest Rating:  A

Taiwan Slender Longhorned Beetle: Stenhomalus taiwanus Matsushita
Pest Rating: A

West Indian Sugarcane Weevil | Metamasius hemipterus (L.)
Pest Rating:  C

Velvet Longhorn Beetle: Trichoferus campestris Faldermann
Pest Rating:  A

DIPTERA

Allium Leafminer: Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew
Pest Rating: A

Apple Leaf Gall Midge: Dasineura mali (Kieffer)
Pest Rating:  A

Daylily Leafminer: Ophiomyia kwansonis Sasakawa
Pest Rating:  B

Ginger Maggot: Eumerus figurans (Walker)
Pest Rating:  B

An Ornamental Fig Pest: Horidiplosis ficifolii Harris
Pest Rating:  B

Striped Vinegar Fly: Zaprionus indianus Gupta
Pest Rating: B

HEMIPTERA

Agave Mealybugs:
Paracoccus gillianae and Psuedococcus variabilis (formerly sp. A) 

Pest Rating: C

Agave Scale:  Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell)
Pest Rating: B

Alazon Mealybug | Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi)
Pest Rating:  A

Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug | Dysmicoccus neobrevipes
 Pest Rating: A

Balsam Woolly Adelgid |  Adelges piceae
Pest Rating: B

Banana Mealybug:  Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius
Pest Rating:  A

Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly: Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi
Pest Rating:  A

Boxwood Scale: Pinnaspis buxi (Bouché)
Pest Rating: A

Bougainvillea Mealybug: Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink
Pest Rating: A

Bronze Bug: Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé
Pest Rating: B

Citrus Snow Scale:  Unaspis citri Comstock
Pest Rating:  A

Crapemyrtle Scale: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae
Pest Rating: A

Curtain Fig Psyllid: Macrohomotoma gladiata
Pest Rating: B

Cycad Aulacaspis Scale:  Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi
Pest Rating:  A

Elongate Hemlock Scale: Fiorinia externa Ferris
Pest Rating: A

Ficus Leaf-rolling Psyllid: Trioza brevigenae Mathur
Pest Rating: B

Ficus Whitefly: Singhiella simplex (Singh)
Pest Rating:  B

Fig Wax Scale | Ceroplastes rusci (L.)
Pest Rating:  A

Floridana Scale: Lindingaspis floridana Ferris
Pest Rating:  B

Florida Wax Scale | Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock
Pest Rating: A

Fly Speck Scale:  Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead
Pest Rating:  B

Garden Fleahopper: Halticus bractatus
Pest Rating: A

Green Scale: Coccus viridis
Pest Rating: A

Hemlock Scale: Hemiberlesia ithacae (Ferris)
Synonym: Abgrallaspis ithacae
Pest Rating: B

Herculeana Scale: Clavaspis herculeana
Pest Rating: A

Jack Beardsley mealybug: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi
Pest Rating: A

Lesser Snow Scale: Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley)
Pest Rating: A

Longan Scale: Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell)
Pest Rating:  B

Magnolia White Scale: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley)
Pest Rating: A

Mango Scale: Radionaspis indica
Pest Rating: B

Mango Shield Scale: Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green)
Pest Rating: A

Masked Scale: Mycetaspis personata (Comstock)
Pest Rating: A

A Mealybug: Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley)
Pest Rating: A

Mealybug:  Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell)
Pest Rating: C

Mining Scale: Howardia biclavis
Pest Rating: A

Odermatt Mealybug | Pseudococcidae mealybug
Pest Rating: A

Oriental Scale: Aonidiella orientalis
Pest Rating: A

Pacific Mealybug: Planococcus minor (Maskell) 
Pest Rating: A

Papaya Mealybug | Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink
Pest Rating: A

A Planthopper:  Kallitaxila granulata (Stål)
Pest Rating:  A

Protea Mealybug:  Delottococcus confusus (De Lotto)
Pest Rating:  C

Protea Mealybug: Paracoccus hakeae (Williams)
Synonym: Phenacoccus hakeae
Pest Rating:  C

Red Streaked Leafhopper: Balclutha rubrostriata (Melichar)
Pest Rating: A

Red Wax Scale | Ceroplastes rubens Maskell
Pest Rating:  A

Root Mealybug: Ripersiella hibisci (Kawai & Takagi)
Pest Rating: A

Rufous Scale | Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan)
Pest Rating: A

Seed Bugs | Nysius spp.
Pest Rating: NR

Soft Scale | Kilifia americana Ben-Dov
Pest Rating: A

Spanish Moss Orthezia: Graminorthezia tillandsiae (Morrison)
Pest Rating: C

Spiraling Whitefly: Aleurodicus dispersus Russell
Pest Rating: A

Spotted Lanternfly:  Lycorma delicatula White
Pest Rating:  A

Stellate Scale: Ceroplastes stellifer
Synonym: Vinsonia stellifera
Pest Rating: A

Taro Planthopper: Tarophagus colocasiae
Pest Rating: B

Trilobe Scale: Pseudaonida trilobitiformis (Green)
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

Unilobed Scale:  Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana)
Pest Rating:  B

Waratah Scale: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams
Pest Rating:  A

White Fly: Asiothrixus antidesmae (Takahashi)
Pest Rating: A

White Peach Scale: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)
Pest Rating: A

HYMENOPTERA 

An Ant:  Ochetellus glaber (Mayr)
Pest Rating:  A

Asian Needle Ant | Brachyponera chinensis
Pest Rating: A

Bigheaded Ant: Pheidole megacephala
Pest Rating:  A

Erythrina gall wasp: Quadrastichus erythrinae
Pest Rating: B

Eucalyptus Gall Wasp: Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead)
Pest Rating: C

Florida Carpenter Ant | Camponotus floridanus (Buckley)
Pest Rating: A

Flower Ant | Monomorium floricola
Pest Rating: A

Little Fire Ant: Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)
Pest Rating: A

Long-legged Ant: Anoplolepsis longipes
Pest Rating: A

Modoc Carpenter Ant: Camponotus modoc Wheeler
Pest Rating: C

Native Ant: Formica francoeuri Bolton
Pest Rating: C

Stingless Bee: Plebeia frontalis (Friese)
Pest Rating: B

⇒ LEPIDOPTERA

Banana Moth |  Opogona sacchari (Bojer)
Pest Rating: C

Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix | Pandemis cerasana Hübner
Pest Rating:  A

Carnation tortrix  |  Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner)
Pest Rating: A

Cherry Bark Tortrix | Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli)
Pest Rating:  A

Eastern Tent Caterpillar |  Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius)
Pest Rating: A

Erythrina Twigborer: Terastia meticulosalis Guenée
Pest Rating:  B

Golden twin-spot moth: Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper)
Pest Rating: A

Green Garden Looper | Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday)
Pest Rating:  A

Grey Tortrix | Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday
Pest Rating: A

Southern Armyworm: Spodoptera eridania (Stoll)
Pest Rating: A

Tomato Leafminer: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
Pest Rating: A

Winter Moth | Operophtera brumata (L.)
Pest Rating:  A

THYSANOPTERA

Bamboo Orchid Thrips: Dichromothrips smithi (Zimmerman)
Pest Rating:  A

Banana-silvering Thrips: Hercinothrips bicinctus (Bagnall)
Pest Rating: B

Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti)
Pest Rating: A

Black Vine Thrips: Retithrips syriacus (Mayet)
Pest Rating: A

Chilli Thrips:  Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood
Pest Rating: B

Japanese Flower Thrips | Thrips setosus
Pest Rating:  A

Kelly’s Citrus Thrips: Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall)
Pest Rating: A

Lord Howe Island Thrips | Dendrothrips howei Mound
Pest Rating: B

Melon Thrips: Thrips palmi (Karny)
Pest Rating:  A

Rose Thrips | Thrips fuscipennis
Pest Rating:  A

Weeping Ficus Thrips: Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann)
Pest Rating:  B


EARTHWORMS | ANNELIDA

Asian Crazy Worm | Amynthas agrestis
Pest Rating:  A

Nematodes

(Plant Parasitic Nematodes)

Nematodes (also called ‘roundworms’) are relatively small, multicellular, worm-like animals. They are found in almost every environmental niche imaginable, living free in soil, marine and freshwater habitats while feeding on bacteria, fungi, and nematodes, or as parasites of humans, insects, fish, larger animals and plants.

Plant parasitic nematodes are abundant in many soils and may be feed on roots and other below ground plant tissue as external feeders while living outside a plant or penetrate and enter plant tissue to live and feed internally causing damage to plants. While most species of plant parasitic nematodes feed on below ground plant tissue, a relatively fewer number may inhabit and feed on above ground tissue. Billions of dollars in losses to agricultural crops due to damages caused by plant parasitic nematodes occur worldwide every year. California’s agricultural industry could lose several hundred million dollars annually in crop losses if certain plant parasitic nematodes not known to occur or of limited occurrence in California would become widespread within the State.


PEST RATINGS AND PROPOSALS:

Anguina funesta
Pest Rating: A

Anguina tritici | Wheat Seed gall nematode
Pest Rating: A

Asian Citrus Root-knot Nematodes
Pest Rating:  A

Bursaphelenchus coccophilus
Pest Rating: A

Ditylenchus destructor Thourne, 1945
Pest Rating: A

Helicotylenchus spp.
Pest Rating: C

Helicotylenchus multicinctus
Pest Rating:  B

Hemicycliophora arenaria
Pest Rating: B

Heterodera carotae Jones, 1950
Pest Rating: B

Longidorus elongatus: Needle nematode
Pest Rating:  B

Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1983.
(A Root knot Nematode)
Pest Rating: A

Paratylenchus spp. Micoletzky, 1922
Pest Rating: C

Pratylenchus alleni 
Pest Rating:  A

Pratylenchus coffeae
Pest Rating: B

Pratylenchus neglectus
Pest Rating: C

Pratylenchus thornei
Pest Rating: C

Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949
Pest Rating: A

Rotylenchulus reniformis
Pest Rating: A

Scutellonema spp. Cobb, 1913
Pest Rating: C

Tylenchorhynchus spp.
Pest Rating: C

Xiphinema index
Pest Rating: B

 


Plant Pathogens

Plant diseases can be caused by several pathogenic microorganisms including fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and plant parasitic nematodes. In California, several plant pathogens have evolved with native plants and consequently, caused little damage. However, many other pathogens are either not present or have only been newly discovered within the State. Without effective regulations in place, exotic pathogens may gain entry into California from other global regions through imported contaminated plant and soil commodities, and detrimentally impact the State’s agriculture and natural environments.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

Fungi:

Diaporthe pseudophoenicicola
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 12/29/17 – 2/12/18

Virus

Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus
Current Pest Rating: A
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 1/4/18 – 2/18/18


PEST RATINGS:

Bacteria:

Acidovorax citrulli
Pest Rating:  A

Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum
Pest Rating: B

Erwinia aphidicola
Pest Rating: B

Rhodococcus fascians
Pest Rating:  C

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni
Pest Rating:  B

Fungi:

Ascochyta aquileqiae
Pest Rating: C

Calonectria pseudonaviculata
Pest Rating:  B

Calonectria pteridis
Pest Rating: B

Cercospora coniogrammes
 Pest Rating:  B

Cercospora ruscicola
Pest Rating: B

Coleophoma empetri
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum aracearum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum asianum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum boninense
Pest Rating:   B

Colletotrichum cliviae
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum cordylinicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum cymbidiicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum fructicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum karstii
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum orbiculare 
Pest Rating:  B

Colletotrichum petchii
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum queenslandicum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum sansevieriae
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum siamense
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum spaethianum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum theobromicola
Pest Rating: B

Diaporthe pseudomangiferae
Pest Rating: C

Diaporthe vaccinii
Pest Rating: C

Didymella bryoniae
Pest Rating: B

Erysiphe aquilegiae
Pest Rating: C

Fusarium brachygibbosum
Pest Rating: C

Ganoderma adspersum
Pest Rating: B

Geosmithia pallida
Pest Rating: C

Greeneria uvicola
Pest Rating: B

Kweilingia divina
Pest Rating:  A

Melampsoridium hiratsukanum: Alder Rust
Pest Rating: C

Neofusicoccum mangiferae
Pest Rating: C

Peronosclerospora philippinensis
Pest Rating: C

Peronospora belbahrii
Pest Rating:  C

Peronospora digitalidis
Pest Rating: C

Peronospora mesembryanthemi
Pest Rating:  B

Phakopsora phyllanthi
Pest Rating:  C

Phyllosticta yuccae
Pest Rating: C

Phytophthora bisheria
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora cactorum
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora cambivora
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora hedraiandra
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora niederhauserii
Pest Rating:   B

Phytophthora parvispora
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora quercina
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora siskiyouensis
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora tentaculata
Pest Rating:  B

Plasmopara constantinescui
Pest Rating:  B

Podosphaera caricae-papayae
Pest Rating:  B

Podosphaera xanthii
Pest Rating: C

Pseudocercospora myrticola
Pest Rating:  B

Pseudocercospora purpurea
Pest Rating: B

Pseudocercospora smilacicola
Pest Rating: B

Puccinia crepidus-japonicae
Pest Rating: D

Puccinia kuehnii 
Pest Rating: C

Puccinia psidii: Myrtle Rust
Pest Rating:  C

Ramularia slaviicola
Pest Rating: C

Sarocladium oryzae
Pest Rating:  A

Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae
Pest Rating: C

Septoria protearum
Pest Rating: B

Stemphylium solani 
Pest Rating: A

Thekopsora minima
Pest Rating: C

Tranzschelia mexicana
Pest Rating:  B

Uromyces transversalis
Pest Rating: C

Ustilago esculenta Henn. 1895
Pest Rating: A

Phytoplasmas:

Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni
(= Peach X-disease, Peach Rosette, Peach Red Suture, and Little Peach Phytoplasmas)
Pest Rating: C

Texas Phoenix Palm Decline Phytoplasma
Pest Rating:  A

Viruses and Viroids:

Bamboo Mosaic Virus (BaMV)
Pest Rating: B

Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus
 Pest Rating:  B

Freesia Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating: B

Freesia Sneak Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Grapevine Red Blotch Associated Virus
Pest Rating: B

Hibiscus Latent Fort Pierce Virus (HLFPV)
Pest Rating: B

Pea Seed-borne Mosaic Virus (PSbMV)
Pest Rating:  B

Pepino Mosaic Virus (PepMV)
Pest Rating:  B

Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid
Pest Rating:  A

Squash Vein Yellowing Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid
Pest Rating:  A

Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus
Pest Rating:  B


Snails and Slugs

Snails and slugs are among the most bothersome pests in many gardens and landscapes. They feed on a variety of living plants and on decaying plant matter. They chew irregular holes with smooth edges in leaves and flowers and can clip succulent plant parts. They also can chew fruit and young plant bark.

The brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa), is the most common snail causing problems in California gardens. It was introduced from France during the 1850s for use as food. Another troublesome snail is the white garden snail, Theba pisana.

Several species of slugs also cause damage including the gray garden slug (Deroceras reticulatum, formerly Agriolimax meticulatus), the banded slug (Lehmannia poirieri), the three-band garden slug (L. valentiana), the tawny slug (Limacus flavus), and the greenhouse slug (Milax gagates).

Source (including image of tawny slug on ripe strawberry): UC IPM Online
Jack Kelly Clark, ANR Communication Services, principal photographer

PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

 NONE AT THIS TIME

PEST RATINGS:

 SNAILS

Cuban Brown Snail:  Zachrysia provisoria (Pfeiffer)
Pest Rating:  A

A Hygromiid Snail: Xerotricha conspurcata (Draparnaud) 
Pest Rating:  B

Small Pointed Snail: Cochlicella barbara (Linnaeus)
Pest Rating:  B

⇒ GASTROPODA

Banded Wood Snail:  Cepaea nemoralis
Pest Rating: A

Chinese Slug: Meghimatium bilineatum (Benson)
Pest Rating: A

A Semi-Slug: Parmarion martensi (Simroth)
Pest Rating: A


Weeds

Weeds are simply an unwanted plant in the wrong place, at the right time.  The weeds can directly and indirectly impact agricultural crops and are just as costly to the environment as any other unwanted species.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

Giant Ragweed | Ambrosia trifida L.
Current Pest Rating: B
Proposed Pest Rating: B
Comment Period: 1/10/18 – 2/24/18

Graceful Spurge | Euphorbia hypericifolia L.
Proposed Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18

Jewels of Opar/Fameflower |  Talinum paniculatum
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None
Comment Period: 12/5/17 – 1/19/18

Manchurian Wild Rice | Zizania latifolia
Proposed Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18

Prickly Acacia | Vachellia nilotica
Proposed Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P
Comment Period: 1/4/18 – 2/18/18

Swingle (tree of heaven) | Ailanthus altissima (Miller)
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Seed Rating: N/A
Comment Period: 1/17/18 – 3/3/18

Tropical Whiteweed | Ageratum conyzoides L.
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18

Turkey Berry | Solanum torvum
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A
Comment Period: 12/01/17 – 1/15/18

PEST RATINGS:

Alligatorweed |  Alternanthera philoxeroides  
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Balloon Plant Asclepias physocarpa
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Barbwire Russian Thistle |  Salsola gobicola
Pest Rating : B | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Bearded creeper | Crupina vulgaris Pers. ex. Cass.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Bermuda grass | Cynodon dactylon
 Pest Rating:  D  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  None

Bitou bush | Chrysanthemoides monilifera
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Branched broomrape | Orobanche ramosa L.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Buffel grass | Pennisetum ciliare
Pest Rating: D  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  None

Capeweed | Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Chamberbitter: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Pest Rating: C |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Cheatgrass | Bromus tectorum
Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Coco-Yam, Elephant Ear or Taro  |  Colocasia esculenta
Pest Rating: D |  Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Common reed (Phragmites australis):

Phragmites australis cf. subsp. altissimus (non-native)
Pest Rating: C  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Phragmites australis subsp. americanus (native)
Pest Rating: D | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Dagger-flower | Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. 
Synonym: Centaurea salmantica L.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Egyptian broomrape | Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.
Pest Rating:  A  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

European Frogbit | Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

False Yellowhead | Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Flowering-rush | Butomus umbellatus
Pest Rating:  B  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Giant Hogweed | Heracleum mantegazzianum
Pest Rating : A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Giant Knotweeds:
Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis,
& F. X bohemica
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Giant Reed |  Arundo donax
Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Goatsrue | Galega officinalis
Pest Rating:  A  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

Hedera spp. | English Ivy, Irish Ivy & Algerian Ivy
Pest Rating: None |  Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Jeweled distaff thistle | Carthamus oxyacantha
Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Jointed bulrush | Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla
Synonym: Scirpus articulatus L.
Pest Rating: D | Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Jointvetch | Aeschynomene spp.
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Kidneyleaf Mud Plantain | Heteranthera reniformis
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Laportea Canadensis
Pest Rating: D | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Lily of the Valley Vine | Salpichroa origanifolia
Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Myrtle Spurge | Euphorbia Myrsinites
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Old man’s beard | Clematis vitalba
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Orange Hawkweed | Hieracium aurantiacum
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Parrotfeather Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
Pest Rating: C | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Paterson’s curse | Echium plantagineum L.
Pest Rating:  A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

Portuguese Broom | Cytisus striatus
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Ruby saltbush | Enchylaena tomentosa R. Br.
Pest Rating:  A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Russian-thistle: Salsola tragus L.
Pest Rating:  C  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Sahara Mustard | Brassica tournefortii
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Santa Maria feverfew | Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Senegal tea plant | Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
Synonym: Alomia splanthoides
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Shining cranesbill | Geranium lucidum L
Pest Rating:  A | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Slender snakecotton | Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.
Pest Rating:  D | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Smallflower Hawksbeard | Crepis pulchra
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Snail Medic | Medicago scutellata (L.) Wilson
Pest Rating:  D | Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

South American spongeplant | Limnobium laevigatum
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Spanish Heath | Erica lusitanica
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Spanish Mercury | Mercurialis ambigua
Pest Rating: B  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Tree Spurge | Euphorbia dendroides
Pest Rating:  B  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  R 

Ward’s weed  |  Carrichtera annua
Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Water hyacinth | Eichhornia crassipes
Pest Rating: None | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

West Indian Woodnettle |  Laportea aestuans
Pest Rating: C |  Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Winged Water-Primrose | Ludwigia decurrens
Pest Rating: A  | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Yellow-Flag Iris | Iris pseudacorus L.
Pest Rating: B | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Yellow Floating-heart | Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) Kuntze
Pest Rating: A  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R


Image Credits


Insects and Mites Banner

Top Row:

  • Image, left: Cereal Leaf Beetle (Oulema melanopus) by Hania Berdys (bugwood.org)
  • Image, center: Zaprionus cf. indianus by Darren J. Obbard (obbardlab)
  • Image, right: Horidiplosis ficifolii: an Ornamental Fig Pest by Jakub Beránek

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Mediterranean Fruit Fly by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
  • Image, center: Japanese Beetle by David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
  • Image, right: Ant by Alex Wild Photography, used with permission,alexanderwild.com

nematodes featured image

Top Row:

  • Image, left:  Soybean cyst nematode and egg, public domain via Wikipedia Commons
  • Image, center:  Caenorhabditis elegans, adult hermaphrodite by Bob Goldstein, UNC Chapel Hill http://bio.unc.edu/people/faculty/goldstein/ (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right:  Burrowing nematode by Stephen A. Lewis, Clemson University, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Soybean cyst nematode and egg, public domain viaWikipedia Commons
  • Image, center: Caenorhabditis elegans, adult hermaphrodite by Bob Goldstein, UNC Chapel Hill (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right: Burrowing nematode by Stephen A. Lewis, Clemson University, Bugwood.org

plant-diseases-featured-image

Top Row:

  • Image, left:  Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, center:  Orchid leaves with symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus by Department of Plant Pathology Archive North Carolina State University [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right:  Rice blast, public domain via Wikipedia Commons

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, center: Orchid leaves with symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus by Department of Plant Pathology Archive North Carolina State University [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right: Rice blast, public domain via Wikipedia Commons

snails and slugs featured image

Top Row:

  • Image, left: Small Pointed Snail, Wikipedia
  • Image, center: Cuban Land Snail by B. Frank, Jacksonville,IDTools.org
  • Image, right: Hygromiid Snail by Charles Olsen, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: White garden snail by Charles Olsen, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org
  • Image, center: Tawny slug on ripe strawberry by Jack Kelly Clark, ANR Communication Services, principal photographer, UC IPM Online
  • Image, right: Chocolate-band snail by Charles Olsen, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

weeds featured image

Top Row:
Image, left: Winged Water-Primrose (Ludwigia decurrens),Wikispecies
Image, center: Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Wikimedia
Image, right: Bermuda Grass, David Stephens, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:
Image, left: Giant Salvinia by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Image, center: Yellow Starthistle by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Image, right: Musk Thistle by Integrated Pest Control, CDFA