California Pest Rating for
Manchurian Wild Rice | Zizania latifolia
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R
G&M Nursery PEST RATING PROFILE
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Submitted by: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery
G&M Nursery has been granted a Certified Producer’s Certificates issued by the County of Riverside through California’s Department of Food and Agriculture’s Certified Farmers’ Market Inspection Program for Zizania latifolia at G&M Nursery’s production site in Riverside, California (see attached certificates from 2016 and 2017). In late 2017, G&M Nursery received a Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission. Riverside County proceeded to collect speci mens of G&M Nursery’s Manchurian Wild Rice and sent the specimens to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing. The CDFA had given the specimen a Q-rating.
History & Status:
Background: The wild rice genus Zizania, relation to the members of tribe Oryzeae (Kong et.al., 2006; Guo et.al., 2007; Yingying et.al., 2013), is an aquatic or wetland versatile food harvested from lakes as grain and vegetable. There are four species (Xu et.al., 2010): Zizania aquatica L., Zizania palustris L., Zizania texana Hitche, and Zizania latifolia Turcz.
Zizania latifolia, which grows 78.7~157.5 in (=2~ 4m) height, is an aquatic perennial grass. Zizania latifolia is tall and upright with 1 in (=2~3 cm) wide leaves up to 100 in (=2.5 m) long; the flower head is 15.8 ~ 23.6 in (=40~60 cm) long and purplish or red brown in color. Lower portion of culm, used as vegetable, is immersed; panicle with middle branch bears both male and female spikelet. It is not grown for its grain, as are other wild rice species, but for the stems.
Zizana latifolia is rare in the wild and its use as a grain has completely disappeared in China. It is a popular nutritious aquatic vegetable because the stem of the plant becomes swollen into juicy gall being infected by the fungus Ustilago esculentia P. Henn. This vegetable has been grown for centuries in China (Oritani et al. 2007).
When the fungus invades the host plant, its cells increase in size and number. Infection with Ustilago esculentia prevents the plant from flowering and setting seed so the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome (Terrel & Battra 1982). New sprouts are infected by spores, which is a paddy (Chung et al. 2004). The galled portion of stem, which is edible as vegetable, is 1.2~1.6 in (=3~4 cm) wide and up to 10 in (=25.4 cm) long.
Worldwide Distribution: Zizania aquatic, Zizania palustris, and Zizania tesana, which are important as field crops, are distributed in North America and Eastern Europe (Yingying et.al., 2013).
Zizania latifolia, which has been cultivated and prevalent at lakes and/or wetlands, is native to the regions of Southeast Asia, Japan, Korea, China (Guo et al. 2007; Xu et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2014), Taiwan, North-eastern India (Jain et al. 2011 & 2012; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Russia’s Far East (Agro Atlas 2008;Tzvelev 1989; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Ukraine (Prokudin et al. 1977; Dubyna et al. 1996), Britain (Fern 1997), and Lithuanica (Liatukas et al. 2009) where are grown as a vegetable. It has been introduced into Hawaii (Lichvar et al. 2016).
Zizania latifolia was introduced into New Zealand and was naturalized in 1906 (New Zealand plant conservation network, Zizania latifolia (2013)).
Official Control: An illegal planting of Zizania latifolia infected with smut fungus, Ustilago esculenta Henn., was discovered near Modesto, California in 1991 (APSnet: plant disease back issue abstracts). It was destroyed to prevent the spread of the smut that poses a threat to native wild rice.
California Distribution: Zizania latifolia has been cultivated in Riverside County since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017).
California Interceptions: Riverside County submitted specimens of G&M Nursery’s Manchurian Wild Rice to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing in 2017.
Consequences of Introduction:
1) Climate/Host Interaction: Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score: Medium (2).
The plant could occur in wetlands, river banks, tidal flats, roadside ditches, and damp paddocks in warm areas (climate of California). The favorable climate temperature for the plant to grow is 68oF~86oF (=20oC~30oC); it grows very slow when temperature is lower than 59oF (=15oC). Ustilago esculenta is active when climate temperature is approximate 77oF (=25oC). Zizania latifolia stops growing when temperature is lower than 50oF (=10oC) or greater than 86oF (=30oC). A land with pH 5.5~pH 6.5 is suitable for this plant to grow (李文汕 2001- published in Chinese).
-Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.
-Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.
-High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.
2) Known Pest Host Range: Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: Low (1).
Ustilago esculenta is a species of fungus in the Ustilaginaceae, a family of smut fungi. A suitable temperature for Ustilago esculenta to actively grow is approximate 77oF (=25oC) (李文汕 2001- published in Chinese).This species attacks Zizania latifolia, which is the only known host (Chung et al. 2004) and it can be transmitted in the rhizome (Chung et al. 2004). It expresses that this fungus is not dangerous due to infection of other Oryzeae (Liatukas et al. 2009).
-Low (1) has a very limited host range.
-Medium (2) has a moderate host range.
-High (3) has a wide host range.
3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: Low (1).
Infection with Ustilago esculentia destroys the flowering structures of the plant and does not make seed so that the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome (Terrell et al. 1982; Chan et al. 1980). Without providing (or recirculating) sufficient supply of water and without having moderate ambient temperature, the plant does not have high reproduction or dispersion.
-Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.
-Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.
-High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.
4) Economic Impact: Evaluate the likely economic impacts of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: Low (1) causes 0 or 1 (e.g., G) of these impacts.
The studies of cytological and morphological suggested that the Asian Zizania latifolia is clearly differentiated from the North American species (Duvall, 1987; Terrell et al., 1997), which was well proved by phylogenetic study (Xu et al., 2010). It is a nutritious aquatic vegetable for growing Zizania latifolia rather than planting the native Zizania in North America for crops (Terrell et al. 1982; Kawagishi et al. 2006). When the supply of water is recirculated in a closed system, the impact of agricultural use for irrigation will be insignificant.
A. The pest could lower crop yield.
B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).
C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).
D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.
E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.
F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.
G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.
-Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.
-Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.
-High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.
5) Environmental Impact: Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score: Medium (2) cause one of the above to occur (e.g., A).
Zizania latifolia grows quickly when nitrogen and phosphorus are abundant in the environment (Lee et al. 2004). It is likely that polluted water saturated with nutrients from sewage waste was favorable for vegetative development of this plant. Research in New Zealand showed that Zizania latifolia was superior in cleaning of dairy farm wastewater than Phragmites australis (Tanner 1996). This plant can be grown in wetlands or shallow shores of water bodies as forage for cattle and horses (Pan et al. 1993; Zhai et al. 2001).
It can cause land to become waterlogged and form swampy areas due to destroyed drainage systems. It can damage lakes and streamside plant communities by overtopping and suppressing the other plants (Liatukas et al. 2009).
A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.
B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.
C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.
D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.
E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.
-Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.
-Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.
-High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.
Consequences of Introduction to California for Zizania latifolia:
Add up the total score and include it here. Low (7)
-Low = 5-8 points
-Medium = 9-12 points
-High = 13-15 points
6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score) Not established (0).
Zizania latifolia has been planted in Riverside, California since 2015. Pest has never detected in California.
–Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.
-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).
-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.
The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)
There is low uncertainty. Some tests in greenhouse can be done for introduction of Zizania latifolia, infected with Ustilago esculenta, and other wild rice in California so that the effect of this fungus on other native wild rice can be verified.
Conclusion and Rating Justification:
The ambient temperature for Zizania latifolia to grow is 68oF~86oF; Ustilago esculenta is active when the ambient temperature is about 77oF. A land with pH 5.5~6.5 is suitable for this plant to grow. Under these restrictions, Zizania latifolia can be cultivated in limited areas in California.
When Ustilago esculentia invades Zizania latifolia, it prevents the plant from flowering and making seed so that the plant is spread asexually by rhizome. Zizania latifolia has been cultivated by G&M Nursery in Riverside, California since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017). Based on G&M Nursery’s experience, knowledge, and skills in growing Zizania latifolia, there have not been any problems with the reproduction or dispersion of Ustilago esculentia during those years.
Proposed Rating: C
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(Name, address, telephone number and email address of the rater.)
Name: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery
Address: 10151 Cleveland Ave., Riverside, CA 92503
Telephone number: (714) 244-5980
Email address: susonwen[@]hotmail.com
Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.
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Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R
Posted by ls