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Manchurian Wild Rice | Zizania latifolia

California Pest Rating for
Click on image for photo citation.
Manchurian Wild Rice | Zizania latifolia
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

 


G&M Nursery PEST RATING PROFILE

also visit CDFA PEST RATING PROFILE


Submitted by: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery


Initiating Event:

G&M Nursery has been granted a Certified Producer’s Certificates issued by the County of Riverside through California’s Department of Food and Agriculture’s Certified Farmers’ Market Inspection Program for Zizania latifolia at G&M Nursery’s production site in Riverside, California (see attached certificates from 2016 and 2017). In late 2017, G&M Nursery received a Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission. Riverside County proceeded to collect speci    mens of G&M Nursery’s Manchurian Wild Rice and sent the specimens to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing. The CDFA had given the specimen a Q-rating.

History & Status:

BackgroundThe wild rice genus Zizania, relation to the members of tribe Oryzeae (Kong et.al., 2006; Guo et.al., 2007; Yingying et.al., 2013), is an aquatic or wetland versatile food harvested from lakes as grain and vegetable. There are four species (Xu et.al., 2010): Zizania aquatica L., Zizania palustris L., Zizania texana Hitche, and Zizania latifolia Turcz.

Zizania latifolia, which grows 78.7~157.5 in (=2~ 4m) height, is an aquatic perennial grass. Zizania latifolia is tall and upright with 1 in (=2~3 cm) wide leaves up to 100 in (=2.5 m) long; the flower head is 15.8 ~ 23.6 in (=40~60 cm) long and purplish or red brown in color. Lower portion of culm, used as vegetable, is immersed; panicle with middle branch bears both male and female spikelet. It is not grown for its grain, as are other wild rice species, but for the stems.

Zizana latifolia is rare in the wild and its use as a grain has completely disappeared in China. It is a popular nutritious aquatic vegetable because the stem of the plant becomes swollen into juicy gall being infected by the fungus Ustilago esculentia P. Henn. This vegetable has been grown for centuries in China (Oritani et al. 2007).

When the fungus invades the host plant, its cells increase in size and number. Infection with Ustilago esculentia prevents the plant from flowering and setting seed so the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome (Terrel & Battra 1982). New sprouts are infected by spores, which is a paddy (Chung et al. 2004). The galled portion of stem, which is edible as vegetable, is 1.2~1.6 in (=3~4 cm) wide and up to 10 in (=25.4 cm) long.

Worldwide DistributionZizania aquatic, Zizania palustris, and Zizania tesana, which are important as field crops, are distributed in North America and Eastern Europe (Yingying et.al., 2013).

Zizania latifolia, which has been cultivated and prevalent at lakes and/or wetlands, is native to the regions of Southeast Asia, Japan, Korea, China (Guo et al. 2007; Xu et al. 2008; Zhang et al. 2014), Taiwan, North-eastern India (Jain et al. 2011 & 2012; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Russia’s Far East (Agro Atlas 2008;Tzvelev 1989; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Ukraine (Prokudin et al. 1977; Dubyna et al. 1996), Britain (Fern 1997), and Lithuanica (Liatukas et al. 2009) where are grown as a vegetable. It has been introduced into Hawaii (Lichvar et al. 2016).

Zizania latifolia was introduced into New Zealand and was naturalized in 1906 (New Zealand plant conservation network, Zizania latifolia (2013)).

Official Control:  An illegal planting of Zizania latifolia infected with smut fungus, Ustilago esculenta Henn., was discovered near Modesto, California in 1991 (APSnet: plant disease back issue abstracts). It was destroyed to prevent the spread of the smut that poses a threat to native wild rice.

California DistributionZizania latifolia has been cultivated in Riverside County since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017).

California Interceptions: Riverside County submitted specimens of G&M Nursery’s Manchurian Wild Rice to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing in 2017.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score: Medium (2).

The plant could occur in wetlands, river banks, tidal flats, roadside ditches, and damp paddocks in warm areas (climate of California). The favorable climate temperature for the plant to grow is 68oF~86oF (=20oC~30oC); it grows very slow when temperature is lower than 59oF (=15oC). Ustilago esculenta is active when climate temperature is approximate 77oF (=25oC). Zizania latifolia stops growing when temperature is lower than 50oF (=10oC) or greater than 86oF (=30oC). A land with pH 5.5~pH 6.5 is suitable for this plant to grow (李文汕 2001- published in Chinese).

-Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

-Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

-High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: Low (1).

Ustilago esculenta is a species of fungus in the Ustilaginaceae, a family of smut fungi. A suitable temperature for Ustilago esculenta to actively grow is approximate 77oF (=25oC) (李文汕 2001- published in Chinese).This species attacks Zizania latifolia, which is the only known host (Chung et al. 2004) and it can be transmitted in the rhizome (Chung et al. 2004). It expresses that this fungus is not dangerous due to infection of other Oryzeae (Liatukas et al. 2009).

-Low (1) has a very limited host range.

-Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

-High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: Low (1).

Infection with Ustilago esculentia destroys the flowering structures of the plant and does not make seed so that the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome (Terrell et al. 1982; Chan et al. 1980). Without providing (or recirculating) sufficient supply of water and without having moderate ambient temperature, the plant does not have high reproduction or dispersion.

-Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

-Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

-High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Evaluate the likely economic impacts of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: Low (1) causes 0 or 1 (e.g., G) of these impacts.

The studies of cytological and morphological suggested that the Asian Zizania latifolia is clearly differentiated from the North American species (Duvall, 1987; Terrell et al., 1997), which was well proved by phylogenetic study (Xu et al., 2010). It is a nutritious aquatic vegetable for growing Zizania latifolia rather than planting the native Zizania in North America for crops (Terrell et al. 1982; Kawagishi et al. 2006). When the supply of water is recirculated in a closed system, the impact of agricultural use for irrigation will be insignificant.

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

-Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

-Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

-High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score: Medium (2) cause one of the above to occur (e.g., A).

Zizania latifolia grows quickly when nitrogen and phosphorus are abundant in the environment (Lee et al. 2004). It is likely that polluted water saturated with nutrients from sewage waste was favorable for vegetative development of this plant. Research in New Zealand showed that Zizania latifolia was superior in cleaning of dairy farm wastewater than Phragmites australis (Tanner 1996). This plant can be grown in wetlands or shallow shores of water bodies as forage for cattle and horses (Pan et al. 1993; Zhai et al. 2001).

It can cause land to become waterlogged and form swampy areas due to destroyed drainage systems. It can damage lakes and streamside plant communities by overtopping and suppressing the other plants (Liatukas et al. 2009).

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

-Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

-Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

-High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Zizania latifolia:

Add up the total score and include it here. Low (7)

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score) Not established (0).

Zizania latifolia has been planted in Riverside, California since 2015. Pest has never detected in California.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

There is low uncertainty. Some tests in greenhouse can be done for introduction of Zizania latifolia, infected with Ustilago esculenta, and other wild rice in California so that the effect of this fungus on other native wild rice can be verified.

 Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The ambient temperature for Zizania latifolia to grow is 68oF~86oF; Ustilago esculenta is active when the ambient temperature is about 77oF. A land with pH 5.5~6.5 is suitable for this plant to grow. Under these restrictions, Zizania latifolia can be cultivated in limited areas in California.

When Ustilago esculentia invades Zizania latifolia, it prevents the plant from flowering and making seed so that the plant is spread asexually by rhizome. Zizania latifolia has been cultivated by G&M Nursery in Riverside, California since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017). Based on G&M Nursery’s experience, knowledge, and skills in growing Zizania latifolia, there have not been any problems with the reproduction or dispersion of Ustilago esculentia during those years.

Proposed Rating: C


References:

Agro Atlas (2008), Agroecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries: plants and their diseases, pets and weeds, Zizania latifolia. accessed on 1/17/2018 http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/related/Zizania_latifolia/map/

APSnet, plant disease back issue abstracts. Accessed on 1/17/2018 https://www.apsnet.org/publications/PlantDisease/BackIssues/Documents/1991Abstracts/PD_75_1075D.htm

Bor NL (1940), Gramineae in kanjilal et al., Flora of Assam, vol. 5, government Press, Shillong.

Bor NL (1960), The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan, London.

Climate of California, accessed on 1/17/2018 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_California

Chan YS, Thrower LB (1980), The host-parasite relationship between Zizania caduciflora Trucz. And Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. Lv. Growth substances in the host-parasite combination, New Phytol. 85, 225-233.

Chung K, Tzeng DD (2004), Nutritional requirements of the edible gall-producing fungus Ustilago esculenta, Journal of Biological Sciences 4(2), 246-252.

Dubyna DV, Sheliag-Sosonko JP (1996), Tendencii antropogennych smen vodnoi rastitelnostii plavienovo- litoralnych geosistem Severnogo Pricernomoria, Gridro-biologiceskii Zhurnal, 32, 8-14.

Duvall MR (1987), A systematic evaluation of the genus Zizania (Poaceae), Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

Fern K (1997), Plants for a future: edible & useful plants for a healthier world, Permanent Publications.

Guo HB, Li SM, Peng J, Ke WD (2007), Zizania latifolia Turcz. Cultivated in China. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54, 1211-1217.

Jain A, Sundriyal M, Roshnibala S, Kotoky R, Kanjilal PB, Singh HB, Sundriyal RC (2011), Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at Indo-Burma hotspots: A case study from Northeast India, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7, 29.

Jain A, Singh HB, Bhattacharyya PR (2012), The ethnobotany and nutritional value of wild rice in Manipur, Indina Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 11(1), 66-69.

Kawagishi H, Hota K, Masuda K, Yamaguchi K, Yazawa K, Shibata K, et al. (2006), Osteoclast-forming suppressive compounds from makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta, Bioci Biotechnol Biochem., 70, 2800-2802.

Kong FN, Shao MJ, Li XS, Cheng LS, Min DJ, Shao LJ, Manli W, Bin W (2006), Construction and characterization of a transformation-component artificial chromosome (TAC) library of Zizania latifolia (Griseb.), Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 24(2), 219-227.

Lee DB, Lee KB, Kim CH, Na SY, 2004, Environmental assessment of water, sediment and plants in the Mankyeong river, ROK Environmental Geochemical Health, 26, 135-145.

Liatukas Z, Stukonis V (2009), Zizania latifolia- a new alien plant in Lithusnia, Botanica Lithuanica 15(1), 17-24.

Lichvar RW, Banks DL, Kirchner WN, Melvin NC (2016), State of Hawaii 2016 wetland plant list, in The national wetland plant list: 2016 wetland ratings, Phytoneuron 2016-30, 1-17. http://wetland-plants.usace.army.mil/nwpl_static/data/DOC/lists_2016/States/pdf/HI_2016v1.pdf

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (2013), accessed on 1/17/2018 http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2657

Oritani Y, et al. (2007), Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia) infected with Ustilago esculenta stimulates innate immune system, via induction of human b-defensin-2, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 841:II international Symposium on Human Effects of Fruits and Vegetables: Favhealth.

Pan FS, He SL, Chen SL, (1993), A systematic and evolutionary study of Zizania L. (Gramineae)- chemical components of the herb. Bulletin of Botanical Research, 13, 399-403.

Prokudin JN, Vovk AG, Petrova OA, Ermolenko ED, Berhichenko JV (1977), Zlaki Ukraimy, Naukova Dumka.

Shukla U (1996), The grasses of North-Eastern India, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

Tanner CC (1996), Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems- a comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species, Ecological Engineering, 7, 58-83.

Terrell EE, Batra IR (1982), Zizania latifolia and Ustilago esculenta, a grass fungus association, Economic Botany 36(3), 274-285.

Terrell EE, Peterson PM, Reveal JL, Duvall MP (1997), Taxonomy of north American species of Zizania (Poaceae), SIDA, 17, 533-549.

Tzvelev NN (1989), The system of grasses (Poaceae) and their evolution, Bot. Rev., 55, 141-204.

Xu XW, Ke WD, Yu XP, Wen JW, Ge S (2008), A preliminary study on population genetic structure and phylogeography of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia (Poaceae) based on Adh1a sequences, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 116, 835-843.

Xu X, Walters C, Antolin MF, Alexander ML, Lutz S, Ge S, Wene J (2010), Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian-North America disjunct wild rice genus (Zizania L., Poaceae), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55, 1008-1017.

Yingying W, Huang L, Fan L (2013), Main agronomic traits domestication and breeding of Gu Zizania latifolia, Journal of Zhejiang University Argic & LifeSci, 39(6), 629-635.

Zhang Y, Xu H, Chen H, Wang F, Huai H (2014), Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10, 72.

Zhai CK, Lu CM, Sun GJ, Lorenz KJ (2001), Comparative study on nutritional value of Chinese and North American wild rice, Journal of Food Compositions Analyses, 14, 371-382.

李文汕 2001, 茭白筍的引進與種植, 台灣濕地90年8月號第27期, www.wetland.org.tw/hope/PDF/2713.pdf

 


Author:

(Name, address, telephone number and email address of the rater.)

Name: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery

Address: 10151 Cleveland Ave., Riverside, CA 92503

Telephone number: (714) 244-5980

Email address: susonwen[@]hotmail.com

 


Responsible Party:

Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:* CLOSED

3/8/18 – 4/22/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

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Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

 


Posted by ls 

 

Ustilago Esculenta

California Pest Rating Proposal for
Ustilago Esculenta
Current Rating: A  | visit PEST RATING PROFILE
Proposed Pest Rating: C

 


Submitted by: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery
Comment Period: 2/28/18 – 4/14/18


Initiating Event:

G&M Nursery has been granted a Certified Producer’s Certificates issued by the County of Riverside through California’s Department of Food and Agriculture’s Certified Farmers’ Market Inspection Program for Zizania latifolia at G&M Nursery’s production site in Riverside, California (see attached certificates from 2016 and 2017). In late 2017, G&M Nursery received a Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission. Riverside County proceeded to collect specimens of G&M Nursery’s Manchurian Wild Rice and sent the specimens to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing. The CDFA had given the pest an A-rating, which the undersigned believes was made without any concrete evidence Zi edible galls. Its cells increase in size and number. Ustilago esculenta prevents Zizania latifolia from flowering and setting seed so the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome. The ability to infect new plants has not yet been experimentally documented.

Worldwide Distribution: 

Zizania latifolia is considered a native plant in Hawaii. Zizania latifolia, which has been cultivated and prevalent at lakes and/or wetlands, is native to the regions of Southeast Asia, Japan, Korea, China (Guo et al., 2007; Xu et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2014), Taiwan, North-eastern India (Jain et al., 2011 & 2012; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Russia’s Far East (Agro Atlas 2008; Tzvelev 1989; Bor 1940 & 1960; Shukla 1996), Ukraine (Prokudin et al., 1977; Dubyna et al. 1996), Britain (Fern 1997), and Lithuanica (Liatukas et al. 2009) where are grown as a vegetable. It has been introduced into Hawaii (Lichvar et al. 2016).

Zizania latifolia was introduced into New Zealand and was naturalized in 1906 (New Zealand plant conservation network, Zizania latifolia (2013).

Official Control:

An illegal planting of Zizania latifolia infected with smut fungus, Ustilago esculenta Henn., was discovered near Modesto, California in 1991 (APSnet: plant disease back issue abstracts). It was destroyed to prevent the spread of the smut that poses a threat to native wild rice.

However, the only Zizania species that grows in California is Zizania aquatica, and it is neither a threatened nor an endangered species in the state of California.

California Distribution:

Zizania latifolia has been cultivated in Riverside County since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017).

California Interceptions:

Riverside County had submitted specimens of G&M’s Manchurian Wild Rice to the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) for testing in 2017.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California. Score: Low (1)

Ustilago esculenta is only known to attack Zizania latifolia, the fungus has very restricted host range and Zizania latifolia is the only known host. The ability to infect new plants has not yet been experimentally documented.

-Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

-Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

-High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: Low (1).

Ustilago esculenta is only known to attack Zizania latifolia, the fungus has very restricted host range and Zizania latifolia is the only known host. The ability to infect new plants has not yet been experimentally documented.

-Low (1) has a very limited host range.

-Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

-High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: Low (1).

Infection with Ustilago esculenta destroys the flowering structures of the plant and does not make seed so that the crop is propagated asexually by rhizome. Without providing (or recirculating) sufficient supply of water and without having moderate ambient temperature, the plant does not have high reproduction or dispersion.

-Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

-Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

-High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Evaluate the likely economic impacts of the pest to California using the criteria below. Score: Low (1) causes 0 or 1 (e.g., G) of these impacts.

The studies of cytological and morphological suggested that the Asian Zizania latifolia is clearly differentiated from the North American species (Duvall, 1987; Terrell et al., 1997), which was well proved by phylogenetic study (Xu et al., 2010). It is a nutritious aquatic vegetable for growing Zizania latifolia rather than planting the native Zizania in North America for crops (Terrell et al., 1982; Kawagishi et al., 2006). When the supply of water is recirculated in a closed system, the impact of agricultural use for irrigation will be insignificant.

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

-Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

-Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

-High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below. Score: Medium (2) cause one of the above to occur (e.g., A).

Zizania latifolia grows quickly when nitrogen and phosphorus are abundant in the environment (Lee et al., 2004). It is likely that polluted water saturated with nutrients from sewage waste was favorable for vegetative development of this plant. Research in New Zealand showed that Zizania latifolia was superior in cleaning of dairy farm wastewater than Phragmites australis (Tanner 1996). This plant can be grown in wetlands or shallow shores of water bodies as forage for cattle and horses (Pan et al. 1993; Zhai et al., 2001).

It can cause land to become waterlogged and form swampy areas due to destroyed drainage systems. It can damage lakes and streamside plant communities by overtopping and suppressing the other plants (Liatukas et al., 2009).

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

-Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

-Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

-High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ustilago esculenta:

Add up the total score and include it here. Low (7)

-Low = 5-8 points

-Medium = 9-12 points

-High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included. (Score) Not established (0).

Zizania latifolia has been planted in Riverside, California since 2015. Pest has never been detected in California.

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (7)

Uncertainty:

There is low uncertainty. Some tests in greenhouse can be done for introduction of Zizania latifolia, infected with Ustilago esculenta, and other wild rice in California so that the effect of this fungus on other native wild rice can be verified.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

The ambient temperature for Zizania latifolia to grow is 68oF~86oF; Ustilago esculenta is active when the ambient temperature is about 77oF. A land with pH 5.5~6.5 is suitable for this plant to grow. Under these restrictions, Zizania latifolia can be cultivated in limited areas in California.

When Ustilago esculenta invades Zizania latifolia, it prevents the plant from flowering and making seed so that the plant is spread asexually by rhizome. Zizania latifolia has been cultivated by G&M nursery in Riverside, California since 2015 (up until G&M Nursery received the Notice to Hold Commodities or Premises from the Riverside County Agricultural Commission in late 2017). Based on G&M’s experience, knowledge, and skills in growing Zizania latifolia, there have been no problems of reproduction or dispersion of Ustilago esculenta during these three years.

Proposed rating: C


References:

Agro Atlas (2008), Agroecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries: plants and their diseases, pets and weeds, Zizania latifolia. Accessed on 1/28/2018 http://www.agroatlas.ru/ru/content/related/Zizania_latifolia/map/

APSnet, plant disease back issue abstracts. Accessed on 1/28/2018 https://www.apsnet.org/publications/PlantDisease/BackIssues/Documents/1991Abstracts/PD_75_1075D.htm

Bor NL (1940), Gramineae in kanjilal et al., Flora of Assam, vol. 5, government Press, Shillong.

Bor NL (1960), The grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan, London.

Climate of California, accessed on 1/28/2018 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_California

Chan YS, Thrower LB (1980), The host-parasite relationship between Zizania caduciflora Trucz. And Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. Lv. Growth substances in the host-parasite combination, New Phytol. 85, 225-233.

Chung K, Tzeng DD (2004), Nutritional requirements of the edible gall-producing fungus Ustilago esculenta, Journal of Biological Sciences 4(2), 246-252.

Dubyna DV, Sheliag-Sosonko JP (1996), Tendencii antropogennych smen vodnoi rastitelnostii plavienovo- litoralnych geosistem Severnogo Pricernomoria, Gridro-biologiceskii Zhurnal, 32, 8-14.

Duvall MR (1987), A systematic evaluation of the genus Zizania (Poaceae), Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

Fern K (1997), Plants for a future: edible & useful plants for a healthier world, Permanent Publications.

Guo HB, Li SM, Peng J, Ke WD (2007), Zizania latifolia Turcz. Cultivated in China. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54, 1211-1217.

Jain A, Sundriyal M, Roshnibala S, Kotoky R, Kanjilal PB, Singh HB, Sundriyal RC (2011), Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at Indo-Burma hotspots: A case study from Northeast India, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7, 29.

Jain A, Singh HB, Bhattacharyya PR (2012), The ethnobotany and nutritional value of wild rice in Manipur, Indina Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 11(1), 66-69.

Kawagishi H, Hota K, Masuda K, Yamaguchi K, Yazawa K, Shibata K, et al. (2006), Osteoclast-forming suppressive compounds from makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta, Bioci Biotechnol Biochem., 70, 2800-2802.

Kong FN, Shao MJ, Li XS, Cheng LS, Min DJ, Shao LJ, Manli W, Bin W (2006), Construction and characterization of a transformation-component artificial chromosome (TAC) library of Zizania latifolia (Griseb.), Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 24(2), 219-227.

Lee DB, Lee KB, Kim CH, Na SY, 2004, Environmental assessment of water, sediment and plants in the Mankyeong river, ROK Environmental Geochemical Health, 26, 135-145.

Liatukas Z, Stukonis V (2009), Zizania latifolia- a new alien plant in Lithusnia, Botanica Lithuanica 15(1), 17-24.

Lichvar RW, Banks DL, Kirchner WN, Melvin NC (2016), State of Hawaii 2016 wetland plant list, in The national wetland plant list: 2016 wetland ratings, Phytoneuron 2016-30, 1-17.

http://wetland-plants.usace.army.mil/nwpl_static/data/DOC/lists_2016/States/pdf/HI_2016v1.pdf

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (2013), accessed on 1/28/2018 http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2657

Oritani Y, et al. (2007), Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia) infected with Ustilago esculenta stimulates innate immune system, via induction of human b-defensin-2, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 841:II international Symposium on Human Effects of Fruits and Vegetables: Favhealth.

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Shukla U (1996), The grasses of North-Eastern India, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

Tanner CC (1996), Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems- a comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species, Ecological Engineering, 7, 58-83.

Terrell EE, Batra IR (1982), Zizania latifolia and Ustilago esculenta, a grass fungus association, Economic Botany 36(3), 274-285.

Terrell EE, Peterson PM, Reveal JL, Duvall MP (1997), Taxonomy of north American species of Zizania (Poaceae), SIDA, 17, 533-549.

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Xu XW, Ke WD, Yu XP, Wen JW, Ge S (2008), A preliminary study on population genetic structure and phylogeography of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia (Poaceae) based on Adh1a sequences, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 116, 835-843.

Xu X, Walters C, Antolin MF, Alexander ML, Lutz S, Ge S, Wene J (2010), Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian-North America disjunct wild rice genus (Zizania L., Poaceae), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55, 1008-1017.

Yingying W, Huang L, Fan L (2013), Main agronomic traits domestication and breeding of Gu Zizania latifolia, Journal of Zhejiang University Argic & LifeSci, 39(6), 629-635.

Zhang Y, Xu H, Chen H, Wang F, Huai H (2014), Diversity of wetland plants used traditionally in China: a literature review, Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10, 72.

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General Information, (2018) accessed 1/28/18

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Author:

(Name, address, telephone number and email address of the rater.)

Name: Chia-Hung Liu, owner of G&M Nursery

Address: 10151 Cleveland Ave., Riverside, CA 92503

Telephone number: (714) 244-5980

Email address: susonwen[@]hotmail.com

 


Responsible Party:

John J. Chitambar, Primary Plant Pathologist/Nematologist, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832. Phone: 916-262-1110, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:*

2/28/18 – 4/14/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

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Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

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Posted by ls 

 

Vertebrate Pests

Vertebrate pests are any species of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, or fish that causes damage to agricultural, natural, or industrial resources, or to any other resource, and to the public health or safety. Vertebrate pests cause millions of dollars in damage to agricultural crops, transportation infrastructure, water conveyance and restoration lands each year. Vertebrate pests threaten the public health and the environment as vectors of diseases that could be transmitted to humans, livestock and wildlife.


PEST RATINGS:

Nutria |  Myocastor coypus
Pest Rating:  A

Insects, Mites & Earthworms

Insects and mites are related in that their skeletons are on the outside (Phyllum: Arthropoda), but differ in that adult insects have six legs and adult mites have eight.  Both groups can be beneficial, neutral or destructive to their environment.  Like nematodes, they can cause yearly losses in the billions of dollars for agricultural crops around the world.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

ACARI

Peacock Mite | Tuckerella sp.
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/11/18 – 5/26/18

COLEOPTERA

Beetle | Anomala ausonia Erichson
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/19/18 – 6/3/18

Beetle | Dyscinetus dubius (Olivier)
Current  Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/13/18 – 5/28/18

Click Beetle | Conoderus posticus (Eschscholtz)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

Dwarf Siberian Pine Beetle | Dryocoetes pini
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/9/18 – 5/24/18

Longhorned Beetle | Acalolepta aesthetica (Olliff)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

Trypodendron signatum (Fabricius)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/20/18 – 6/4/18

HEMIPTERA

Bamboo pit scale | Bambusaspis miliaris (Boisduval)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: B
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

A Burrowing Bug | Rhytidoporus indentatus Uhler
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18

False Trochanter Mealybug | Pseudococcus dolichomelos Gimpel and Miller
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18

Gray Scale | Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Cockerell
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/19/18 – 6/3/18

Mealybug | Palmicultor browni (Williams)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

Palm Mealybug | Palmicultor palmarum (Ehrhorn)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/16/18 – 4/30/18

Plant Bug | Rubrocuneocoris calvertae Henry
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18

Stink Bug | Kalkadoona pallida (Van Duzee)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/10/18 – 5/25/18

Whitefly | Aleurotrachelus anonae Corbett
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

HYMENOPTERA

An Ant | Pheidole dentigula
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/13/18 – 5/28/18

Compact Carpenter Ant | Camponotus planatus
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/11/18 – 5/26/18

Tawny Crazy Ant | Nylanderia fulva
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/12/18 – 5/27/18

Difficult White-Footed Ant  |  Technomyrmex difficilis Forel
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/2/18 – 4/16/18

⇒ LEPIDOPTERA

Cucumber Moth | Diaphania indica (Saunders)
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 3/15/18 – 4/29/18

THYSANOPTERA

Cotton Bud Thrips | Frankliniella schultzei Trybom
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: A
Comment Period: 4/12/18 – 5/27/18

PEST RATINGS:

 BLATTODEA

Three-lined Cockroach | Luridiblatta trivittata
Pest Rating: C

COLEOPTERA

Ambrosia Beetle |  Xylosandrus amputatus (Blandford)
Pest Rating: A

Banded Elm Bark Beetle | Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov
Pest Rating: C

A Bark Beetle | Pycnarthrum hispidum (Ferrari)
Pest Rating: C

Bark Beetle | Coccotrypes rutschuruensis Eggers
Pest Rating: A

Beetle: Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston)
Pest Rating: C

Black Pine Bark Beetle | Hylastes ater (Paykull)
Pest Rating: A

Camphor Shot Borer | Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford)
Pest Rating: A

Cereal Leaf Beetle: Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus)
Pest Rating:  B

Coffee Bean Weevil | Araecerus fasciculatus
Pest Rating: B

Diaprepes Root Weevil | Diaprepes abbreviatus
Pest Rating: B

Hylesinus cingulatus Blandford
Pest Rating: A

Olive Bark Beetle | Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard)
Pest Rating: B

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer: Euwallacea sp. nr. fornicatus
Pest Rating:  B

Red-Black False Blister Beetle: Ananca bicolor (Fairmaire)
Pest Rating:  B

Redneck Longhorn Beetle | Aromia bungii
Pest Rating: A

Sap Beetle:  Brachypeplus basalis (Erichson)
Pest Rating:  B

Scolytid Weevil: Pagiocerus frontalis (Fabricius)
Pest Rating:  B

Seed Beetle | Bruchidius terrenus
Pest Rating:  B

Small Hive Beetle (SHB): Aethina tumida Murray
Pest Rating: B

Small Spruce Bark Beetle | Polygraphus poligraphus (L.)
Pest Rating: A

South American Palm Weevil | Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus)
Pest Rating: B

Sri Lankan weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus
Pest Rating:  A

Strangulate Weevil | Trochorhopalus strangulatus (Gyllenhal)
Pest Rating: A

Taiwan Slender Longhorned Beetle: Stenhomalus taiwanus Matsushita
Pest Rating: A

West Indian Sugarcane Weevil | Metamasius hemipterus (L.)
Pest Rating:  C

Velvet Longhorn Beetle: Trichoferus campestris Faldermann
Pest Rating:  A

DIPTERA

Allium Leafminer: Phytomyza gymnostoma Loew
Pest Rating: A

Apple Leaf Gall Midge: Dasineura mali (Kieffer)
Pest Rating:  A

Daylily Leafminer: Ophiomyia kwansonis Sasakawa
Pest Rating:  B

Ginger Maggot: Eumerus figurans (Walker)
Pest Rating:  B

An Ornamental Fig Pest: Horidiplosis ficifolii Harris
Pest Rating:  B

Striped Vinegar Fly: Zaprionus indianus Gupta
Pest Rating: B

HEMIPTERA

Agave Mealybugs:
Paracoccus gillianae and Psuedococcus variabilis (formerly sp. A) 

Pest Rating: C

Agave Scale:  Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell)
Pest Rating: B

Alazon Mealybug | Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi)
Pest Rating:  A

Annona/Gray Pineapple Mealybug | Dysmicoccus neobrevipes
 Pest Rating: A

Armored Scale | Melanaspis leivasi (Costa Lima)
Pest Rating: A

Balsam Woolly Adelgid |  Adelges piceae
Pest Rating: B

Banana Mealybug:  Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius
Pest Rating:  A

Bondar’s Nesting Whitefly: Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi
Pest Rating:  A

Boxwood Scale: Pinnaspis buxi (Bouché)
Pest Rating: A

Bougainvillea Mealybug: Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink
Pest Rating: A

Bronze Bug: Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé
Pest Rating: B

Citrus Snow Scale:  Unaspis citri Comstock
Pest Rating:  A

Crapemyrtle Scale: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae
Pest Rating: A

Curtain Fig Psyllid: Macrohomotoma gladiata
Pest Rating: B

Cycad Aulacaspis Scale:  Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi
Pest Rating:  A

Cycad Poliaspis Scale | Poliaspis media Maskell
Pest Rating: B

Elongate Hemlock Scale: Fiorinia externa Ferris
Pest Rating: A

Ficus Leaf-rolling Psyllid: Trioza brevigenae Mathur
Pest Rating: B

Ficus Whitefly: Singhiella simplex (Singh)
Pest Rating:  B

Fig Wax Scale | Ceroplastes rusci (L.)
Pest Rating:  A

Floridana Scale: Lindingaspis floridana Ferris
Pest Rating:  B

Florida Wax Scale | Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock
Pest Rating: A

Fly Speck Scale:  Gymnaspis aechmeae Newstead
Pest Rating:  B

Garden Fleahopper: Halticus bractatus
Pest Rating: A

Gray Sugarcane Mealybug | Trionymus boninsis (Kuwana)
Pest Rating: A

Green Scale: Coccus viridis
Pest Rating: A

Hemlock Scale: Hemiberlesia ithacae (Ferris)
Synonym: Abgrallaspis ithacae
Pest Rating: B

Herculeana Scale: Clavaspis herculeana
Pest Rating: A

Jack Beardsley mealybug: Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi
Pest Rating: A

Lesser Snow Scale: Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley)
Pest Rating: A

Longan Scale: Thysanofiorinia nephelii (Maskell)
Pest Rating:  B

Magnolia White Scale: Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Cooley)
Pest Rating: A

Mango Scale: Radionaspis indica
Pest Rating: B

Mango Shield Scale: Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green)
Pest Rating: A

Masked Scale: Mycetaspis personata (Comstock)
Pest Rating: A

A Mealybug: Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley)
Pest Rating: A

A Mealybug | Nipaecoccus floridensis Beardsley
Pest Rating: A

Mealybug:  Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell)
Pest Rating: C

Mining Scale: Howardia biclavis
Pest Rating: A

Odermatt Mealybug | Pseudococcidae mealybug
Pest Rating: A

Oriental Scale: Aonidiella orientalis
Pest Rating: A

Pacific Mealybug: Planococcus minor (Maskell) 
Pest Rating: A

Papaya Mealybug | Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink
Pest Rating: A

A Planthopper:  Kallitaxila granulata (Stål)
Pest Rating:  A

Protea Mealybug:  Delottococcus confusus (De Lotto)
Pest Rating:  C

Protea Mealybug: Paracoccus hakeae (Williams)
Synonym: Phenacoccus hakeae
Pest Rating:  C

Red Streaked Leafhopper: Balclutha rubrostriata (Melichar)
Pest Rating: A

Red Wax Scale | Ceroplastes rubens Maskell
Pest Rating:  A

Root Mealybug: Ripersiella hibisci (Kawai & Takagi)
Pest Rating: A

Rufous Scale | Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan)
Pest Rating: A

Seed Bugs | Nysius spp.
Pest Rating: NR

Soft Scale | Kilifia americana Ben-Dov
Pest Rating: A

Spanish Moss Orthezia: Graminorthezia tillandsiae (Morrison)
Pest Rating: C

Spiraling Whitefly: Aleurodicus dispersus Russell
Pest Rating: A

Spotted Lanternfly:  Lycorma delicatula White
Pest Rating:  A

Stellate Scale: Ceroplastes stellifer
Synonym: Vinsonia stellifera
Pest Rating: A

Taro Planthopper: Tarophagus colocasiae
Pest Rating: B

Trilobe Scale: Pseudaonida trilobitiformis (Green)
Hemiptera: Diaspididae
Pest Rating: A

Unilobed Scale:  Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana)
Pest Rating:  B

Waratah Scale: Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams
Pest Rating:  A

White Fly: Asiothrixus antidesmae (Takahashi)
Pest Rating: A

White Peach Scale: Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni)
Pest Rating: A

HYMENOPTERA 

An Ant:  Ochetellus glaber (Mayr)
Pest Rating:  A

Asian Needle Ant | Brachyponera chinensis
Pest Rating: A

Bigheaded Ant: Pheidole megacephala
Pest Rating:  A

Erythrina gall wasp: Quadrastichus erythrinae
Pest Rating: B

Eucalyptus Gall Wasp: Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead)
Pest Rating: C

Florida Carpenter Ant | Camponotus floridanus (Buckley)
Pest Rating: A

Flower Ant | Monomorium floricola
Pest Rating: A

Little Fire Ant: Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)
Pest Rating: A

Long-legged Ant: Anoplolepsis longipes
Pest Rating: A

Modoc Carpenter Ant: Camponotus modoc Wheeler
Pest Rating: C

Native Ant: Formica francoeuri Bolton
Pest Rating: C

Stingless Bee: Plebeia frontalis (Friese)
Pest Rating: B

⇒ LEPIDOPTERA

Banana Moth |  Opogona sacchari (Bojer)
Pest Rating: C

Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix | Pandemis cerasana Hübner
Pest Rating:  A

Carnation tortrix  |  Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner)
Pest Rating: A

Cherry Bark Tortrix | Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli)
Pest Rating:  A

Eastern Tent Caterpillar |  Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius)
Pest Rating: A

Erythrina Twigborer: Terastia meticulosalis Guenée
Pest Rating:  B

Golden twin-spot moth: Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper)
Pest Rating: A

Green Garden Looper | Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday)
Pest Rating:  A

Grey Tortrix | Cnephasia stephensiana Doubleday
Pest Rating: A

Southern Armyworm: Spodoptera eridania (Stoll)
Pest Rating: A

Tomato Leafminer: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)
Pest Rating: A

Winter Moth | Operophtera brumata (L.)
Pest Rating:  A

THYSANOPTERA

Bamboo Orchid Thrips: Dichromothrips smithi (Zimmerman)
Pest Rating:  A

Banana-silvering Thrips: Hercinothrips bicinctus (Bagnall)
Pest Rating: B

Biltothrips minutus (Bhatti)
Pest Rating: A

Black Vine Thrips: Retithrips syriacus (Mayet)
Pest Rating: A

Chilli Thrips:  Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood
Pest Rating: B

Japanese Flower Thrips | Thrips setosus
Pest Rating:  A

Kelly’s Citrus Thrips: Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall)
Pest Rating: A

Lord Howe Island Thrips | Dendrothrips howei Mound
Pest Rating: B

Melon Thrips: Thrips palmi (Karny)
Pest Rating:  A

Rose Thrips | Thrips fuscipennis
Pest Rating:  A

Weeping Ficus Thrips: Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann)
Pest Rating:  B


EARTHWORMS | ANNELIDA

Asian Crazy Worm | Amynthas agrestis
Pest Rating:  A

Nematodes

(Plant Parasitic Nematodes)

Nematodes (also called ‘roundworms’) are relatively small, multicellular, worm-like animals. They are found in almost every environmental niche imaginable, living free in soil, marine and freshwater habitats while feeding on bacteria, fungi, and nematodes, or as parasites of humans, insects, fish, larger animals and plants.

Plant parasitic nematodes are abundant in many soils and may be feed on roots and other below ground plant tissue as external feeders while living outside a plant or penetrate and enter plant tissue to live and feed internally causing damage to plants. While most species of plant parasitic nematodes feed on below ground plant tissue, a relatively fewer number may inhabit and feed on above ground tissue. Billions of dollars in losses to agricultural crops due to damages caused by plant parasitic nematodes occur worldwide every year. California’s agricultural industry could lose several hundred million dollars annually in crop losses if certain plant parasitic nematodes not known to occur or of limited occurrence in California would become widespread within the State.


PEST RATINGS AND PROPOSALS:

Anguina funesta
Pest Rating: A

Anguina tritici | Wheat Seed gall nematode
Pest Rating: A

Asian Citrus Root-knot Nematodes
Pest Rating:  A

Bursaphelenchus coccophilus
Pest Rating: A

Ditylenchus destructor Thourne, 1945
Pest Rating: A

Helicotylenchus spp.
Pest Rating: C

Helicotylenchus multicinctus
Pest Rating:  B

Hemicycliophora arenaria
Pest Rating: B

Heterodera carotae Jones, 1950
Pest Rating: B

Longidorus elongatus: Needle nematode
Pest Rating:  B

Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1983.
(A Root knot Nematode)
Pest Rating: A

Paratylenchus spp. Micoletzky, 1922
Pest Rating: C

Pratylenchus alleni 
Pest Rating:  A

Pratylenchus coffeae
Pest Rating: B

Pratylenchus neglectus
Pest Rating: C

Pratylenchus thornei
Pest Rating: C

Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949
Pest Rating: A

Rotylenchulus reniformis
Pest Rating: A

Scutellonema spp. Cobb, 1913
Pest Rating: C

Tylenchorhynchus spp.
Pest Rating: C

Xiphinema index
Pest Rating: B

 


Plant Pathogens

Plant diseases can be caused by several pathogenic microorganisms including fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and plant parasitic nematodes. In California, several plant pathogens have evolved with native plants and consequently, caused little damage. However, many other pathogens are either not present or have only been newly discovered within the State. Without effective regulations in place, exotic pathogens may gain entry into California from other global regions through imported contaminated plant and soil commodities, and detrimentally impact the State’s agriculture and natural environments.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

Fungi:

Ustilago esculenta Henn. 1895
Current Pest Rating: A
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 2/28/18 – 4/14/18

Colletotrichum henanense F. Liu & L. Cai 2015
Current Pest Rating:  Q
Proposed Pest Rating: B
Comment Period: 4/6/18 – 5/21/18

Pseudocercospora theae (Cavara) Deighton 1987
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: C
Comment Period: 4/6/18 – 5/21/18

Viruses and Viroids:

Citrus Leaf Blotch Virus
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: B
Comment Period: 4/6/18 – 5/21/18

 


PEST RATINGS:

Bacteria:

Acidovorax citrulli
Pest Rating:  A

Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum
Pest Rating: B

Erwinia aphidicola
Pest Rating: B

Rhodococcus fascians
Pest Rating:  C

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni
Pest Rating:  B

Fungi:

Ascochyta aquileqiae
Pest Rating: C

Calonectria pseudonaviculata
Pest Rating:  B

Calonectria pteridis
Pest Rating: B

Cercospora coniogrammes
 Pest Rating:  B

Cercospora ruscicola
Pest Rating: B

Coleophoma empetri
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum aracearum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum asianum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum boninense
Pest Rating:   B

Colletotrichum cliviae
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum cordylinicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum cymbidiicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum fructicola
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum karstii
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum orbiculare 
Pest Rating:  B

Colletotrichum petchii
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum queenslandicum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum sansevieriae
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum siamense
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum spaethianum
Pest Rating: B

Colletotrichum theobromicola
Pest Rating: B

Diaporthe pseudophoenicicola
Pest Rating: C

Diaporthe pseudomangiferae
Pest Rating: C

Diaporthe vaccinii
Pest Rating: C

Didymella bryoniae
Pest Rating: B

Erysiphe aquilegiae
Pest Rating: C

Fusarium brachygibbosum
Pest Rating: C

Ganoderma adspersum
Pest Rating: B

Geosmithia pallida
Pest Rating: C

Greeneria uvicola
Pest Rating: B

Kweilingia divina
Pest Rating:  A

Marasmiellus palmivorus
Pest Rating: C

Melampsoridium hiratsukanum: Alder Rust
Pest Rating: C

Neofusicoccum mangiferae
Pest Rating: C

Peronosclerospora philippinensis
Pest Rating: C

Peronospora belbahrii
Pest Rating:  C

Peronospora digitalidis
Pest Rating: C

Peronospora mesembryanthemi
Pest Rating:  B

Phakopsora phyllanthi
Pest Rating:  C

Phyllosticta yuccae
Pest Rating: C

Phytophthora bisheria
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora cactorum
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora cambivora
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora hedraiandra
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora niederhauserii
Pest Rating:   B

Phytophthora parvispora
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora quercina
Pest Rating: B

Phytophthora siskiyouensis
Pest Rating:  B

Phytophthora tentaculata
Pest Rating:  B

Plasmopara constantinescui
Pest Rating:  B

Podosphaera caricae-papayae
Pest Rating:  B

Podosphaera xanthii
Pest Rating: C

Pseudocercospora myrticola
Pest Rating:  B

Pseudocercospora purpurea
Pest Rating: B

Pseudocercospora smilacicola
Pest Rating: B

Puccinia crepidus-japonicae
Pest Rating: D

Puccinia kuehnii 
Pest Rating: C

Puccinia psidii: Myrtle Rust
Pest Rating:  C

Ramularia slaviicola
Pest Rating: C

Sarocladium oryzae
Pest Rating:  A

Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae
Pest Rating: C

Septoria protearum
Pest Rating: B

Stemphylium solani 
Pest Rating: A

Thekopsora minima
Pest Rating: C

Tranzschelia mexicana
Pest Rating:  B

Uromyces transversalis
Pest Rating: C

Ustilago esculenta Henn. 1895
Pest Rating: A

Phytoplasmas:

Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni
(= Peach X-disease, Peach Rosette, Peach Red Suture, and Little Peach Phytoplasmas)
Pest Rating: C

Texas Phoenix Palm Decline Phytoplasma
Pest Rating:  A

Viruses and Viroids:

Bamboo Mosaic Virus (BaMV)
Pest Rating: B

Cherry Virus A
Pest Rating: C

Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating: A

Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus
 Pest Rating:  B

Freesia Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating: B

Freesia Sneak Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Grapevine Red Blotch Associated Virus
Pest Rating: B

Hibiscus Latent Fort Pierce Virus (HLFPV)
Pest Rating: B

Pea Seed-borne Mosaic Virus (PSbMV)
Pest Rating:  B

Pepino Mosaic Virus (PepMV)
Pest Rating:  B

Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid
Pest Rating:  A

Squash Vein Yellowing Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid
Pest Rating:  A

Tomato Mottle Mosaic Virus
Pest Rating:  B

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus
Pest Rating:  B


Snails and Slugs

Snails and slugs are among the most bothersome pests in many gardens and landscapes. They feed on a variety of living plants and on decaying plant matter. They chew irregular holes with smooth edges in leaves and flowers and can clip succulent plant parts. They also can chew fruit and young plant bark.

The brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa), is the most common snail causing problems in California gardens. It was introduced from France during the 1850s for use as food. Another troublesome snail is the white garden snail, Theba pisana.

Several species of slugs also cause damage including the gray garden slug (Deroceras reticulatum, formerly Agriolimax meticulatus), the banded slug (Lehmannia poirieri), the three-band garden slug (L. valentiana), the tawny slug (Limacus flavus), and the greenhouse slug (Milax gagates).

Source (including image of tawny slug on ripe strawberry): UC IPM Online
Jack Kelly Clark, ANR Communication Services, principal photographer

PEST RATINGS:

 SNAILS

Cuban Brown Snail:  Zachrysia provisoria (Pfeiffer)
Pest Rating:  A

A Hygromiid Snail: Xerotricha conspurcata (Draparnaud) 
Pest Rating:  B

Small Pointed Snail: Cochlicella barbara (Linnaeus)
Pest Rating:  B

⇒ GASTROPODA

Banded Wood Snail:  Cepaea nemoralis
Pest Rating: A

Chinese Slug: Meghimatium bilineatum (Benson)
Pest Rating: A

A Semi-Slug: Parmarion martensi (Simroth)
Pest Rating: A


Weeds

Weeds are simply an unwanted plant in the wrong place, at the right time.  The weeds can directly and indirectly impact agricultural crops and are just as costly to the environment as any other unwanted species.


PEST RATING PROPOSALS:

European Mistletoe |  Viscum album L
Current Rating: B
Proposed  Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R
Comment Period:  4/13/18 – 5/28/18

Pickerelweed | Pontederia cordata L
Current Pest Rating:  NR
Proposed  Pest Rating: D | Proposed Seed Rating: None
Comment Period: 4/9/18 – 5/24/18

 

PEST RATINGS:

Alligatorweed |  Alternanthera philoxeroides  
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Balloon Plant Asclepias physocarpa
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Barbwire Russian Thistle |  Salsola gobicola
Pest Rating : B | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Bearded creeper | Crupina vulgaris Pers. ex. Cass.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Bermuda grass | Cynodon dactylon
 Pest Rating:  D  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  None

Bitou bush | Chrysanthemoides monilifera
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Branched broomrape | Orobanche ramosa L.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Buffel grass | Pennisetum ciliare
Pest Rating: D  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  None

Capeweed | Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Chamberbitter: Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Pest Rating: C |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Cheatgrass | Bromus tectorum
Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Coco-Yam, Elephant Ear or Taro  |  Colocasia esculenta
Pest Rating: D |  Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Common reed (Phragmites australis):

Phragmites australis cf. subsp. altissimus (non-native)
Pest Rating: C  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Phragmites australis subsp. americanus (native)
Pest Rating: D | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Dagger-flower | Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. 
Synonym: Centaurea salmantica L.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Egyptian broomrape | Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers.
Pest Rating:  A  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

European Frogbit | Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

False Pickerel Weed | Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl ex Kunth
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed Seed Rating: R

False Yellowhead | Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Flowering-rush | Butomus umbellatus
Pest Rating:  B  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Giant Hogweed | Heracleum mantegazzianum
Pest Rating : A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Giant Knotweeds:
Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis,
& F. X bohemica
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Giant Ragweed | Ambrosia trifida L.
Pest Rating: B

Giant Reed |  Arundo donax
Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Goatsrue | Galega officinalis
Pest Rating:  A  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

Graceful Spurge | Euphorbia hypericifolia L.
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Hedera spp. | English Ivy, Irish Ivy & Algerian Ivy
Pest Rating: None |  Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Jeweled distaff thistle | Carthamus oxyacantha
Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Jewels of Opar/Fameflower |  Talinum paniculatum
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None

Jointed bulrush | Schoenoplectus articulatus (L.) Palla
Synonym: Scirpus articulatus L.
Pest Rating: D | Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Jointvetch | Aeschynomene spp.
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Kidneyleaf Mud Plantain | Heteranthera reniformis
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Laportea Canadensis
Pest Rating: D | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Lily of the Valley Vine | Salpichroa origanifolia
Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Manchurian Wild Rice | Zizania latifolia
Current Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Mexican pokeweed | Phytolacca heterotepala H. Walter
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed Seed Rating: R

Myrtle Spurge | Euphorbia Myrsinites
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Old man’s beard | Clematis vitalba
Pest Rating: A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Orange Hawkweed | Hieracium aurantiacum
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Parrotfeather Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
Pest Rating: C | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Paterson’s curse | Echium plantagineum L.
Pest Rating:  A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating:  P

Portuguese Broom | Cytisus striatus
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Prickly Acacia | Vachellia nilotica
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Ruby saltbush | Enchylaena tomentosa R. Br.
Pest Rating:  A |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Russian-thistle: Salsola tragus L.
Pest Rating:  C  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  R

Sahara Mustard | Brassica tournefortii
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Santa Maria feverfew | Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Senegal tea plant | Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
Synonym: Alomia splanthoides
Pest Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Shining cranesbill | Geranium lucidum L
Pest Rating:  A | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Slender snakecotton | Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.
Pest Rating:  D | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

Slender Russian Thistle | Salsola collina Pallas
Pest Rating: A | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Smallflower Hawksbeard | Crepis pulchra
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Snail Medic | Medicago scutellata (L.) Wilson
Pest Rating:  D | Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

South American spongeplant | Limnobium laevigatum
Pest Rating: A | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Spanish Heath | Erica lusitanica
Pest Rating: B |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Spanish Mercury | Mercurialis ambigua
Pest Rating: B  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Tree of Heaven | Ailanthus altissima (Miller)
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R

Tree Spurge | Euphorbia dendroides
Pest Rating:  B  | Proposed  Seed Rating:  R 

Tropical Whiteweed | Ageratum conyzoides L.
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None

Turkey Berry | Solanum torvum
Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: N/A

Ward’s weed  |  Carrichtera annua
Rating: A  |  Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Water hyacinth | Eichhornia crassipes
Pest Rating: None | Proposed  Seed Rating: None

West Indian Woodnettle |  Laportea aestuans
Pest Rating: C |  Proposed  Seed Rating: N/A

Winged Water-Primrose | Ludwigia decurrens
Pest Rating: A  | Proposed  Seed Rating: P

Yellow-Flag Iris | Iris pseudacorus L.
Pest Rating: B | Proposed  Seed Rating: R

Yellow Floating-heart | Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) Kuntze
Pest Rating: A  | Proposed  Seed Rating: R


Image Credits


Insects and Mites Banner

Top Row:

  • Image, left: Cereal Leaf Beetle (Oulema melanopus) by Hania Berdys (bugwood.org)
  • Image, center: Zaprionus cf. indianus by Darren J. Obbard (obbardlab)
  • Image, right: Horidiplosis ficifolii: an Ornamental Fig Pest by Jakub Beránek

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Mediterranean Fruit Fly by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
  • Image, center: Japanese Beetle by David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
  • Image, right: Ant by Alex Wild Photography, used with permission,alexanderwild.com

nematodes featured image

Top Row:

  • Image, left:  Soybean cyst nematode and egg, public domain via Wikipedia Commons
  • Image, center:  Caenorhabditis elegans, adult hermaphrodite by Bob Goldstein, UNC Chapel Hill http://bio.unc.edu/people/faculty/goldstein/ (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right:  Burrowing nematode by Stephen A. Lewis, Clemson University, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Soybean cyst nematode and egg, public domain viaWikipedia Commons
  • Image, center: Caenorhabditis elegans, adult hermaphrodite by Bob Goldstein, UNC Chapel Hill (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right: Burrowing nematode by Stephen A. Lewis, Clemson University, Bugwood.org

plant-diseases-featured-image

Top Row:

  • Image, left:  Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, center:  Orchid leaves with symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus by Department of Plant Pathology Archive North Carolina State University [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right:  Rice blast, public domain via Wikipedia Commons

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: Tobacco mosaic virus symptoms by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, center: Orchid leaves with symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus by Department of Plant Pathology Archive North Carolina State University [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
  • Image, right: Rice blast, public domain via Wikipedia Commons

snails and slugs featured image

Top Row:

  • Image, left: Small Pointed Snail, Wikipedia
  • Image, center: Cuban Land Snail by B. Frank, Jacksonville,IDTools.org
  • Image, right: Hygromiid Snail by Charles Olsen, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:

  • Image, left: White garden snail by Charles Olsen, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org
  • Image, center: Tawny slug on ripe strawberry by Jack Kelly Clark, ANR Communication Services, principal photographer, UC IPM Online
  • Image, right: Chocolate-band snail by Charles Olsen, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org

weeds featured image

Top Row:
Image, left: Winged Water-Primrose (Ludwigia decurrens),Wikispecies
Image, center: Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Wikimedia
Image, right: Bermuda Grass, David Stephens, Bugwood.org

Bottom Row:
Image, left: Giant Salvinia by Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Image, center: Yellow Starthistle by Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org
Image, right: Musk Thistle by Integrated Pest Control, CDFA