All posts by Javaid Iqbal

Tropical Whiteweed | Ageratum conyzoides L.

California Pest Rating Proposal
Tropical whiteweed | Ageratum conyzoides L.
Family:  Asteraceae
Current Pest Rating: Q
      Proposed Pest Rating: C |  Proposed Seed Rating: None
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18
Initiating Event:

Tropical whiteweed was intercepted in Yolo county in October 2017 (PDR 570P066111862). It has not yet been rated. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (tropical whiteweed, billy goat weed) is an erect, 30 to 80 cm tall, annual herb with shallow, fibrous roots. The stem is cylindrical and is covered with short, white hairs; it becomes strong and woody with age. The leaves are pubescent with long petioles and they are arranged oppositely. The fruit is a ribbed or angled, black achene that had rough bristles with upward turning spines. Tropical whiteweed has great morphological variation, and appears highly adaptable to different ecological conditions. It is a common pantropical weed that can extend into subtropical and warm temperate zones, where it grows during the summer2.

Worldwide Distribution: Tropical whiteweed is native to South and Central America and probably also the West Indies. It is introduced in Asia, Africa, North America, Europe, and Oceania2.

United States: Tropical whiteweed is known from Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Alabama, California, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Missouri5.

 

California Distribution: Tropical whiteweed has not yet been detected officially in California. Only one voucher from San Diego County is submitted3.

Official Control : Tropical whiteweed is listed as a harmful organism in New Zealand 7.

California Interceptions: Tropical whiteweed was recently intercepted in Yolo County in October 2017 (PRD 570P066111862)6. It has previously been intercepted in California during nursery inspections (300P06 039955, 1317560) and a dog team intercept (340P06128213)6.

The risk Ageratum conyzoides (tropical whiteweed) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Tropical whiteweed is adapted to Central and South America and it would presumably thrive in similar climates. It may be able to establish in a very limited part of California. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Tropical whiteweed does not require any one host, but grows wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

-Low (1) has a very limited host range

-Medium (2) has a moderate host range

-High (3) has a wide host range

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Tropical whiteweed reproduces by seed. It has no photoperiodic requirement for germination and in some areas one-half of the seeds will germinate shortly after they are shed. Each plant can produce up to 40,000 seeds that can be dispersed by wind and water. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles and in contaminated agricultural produce2, 4. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Tropical whiteweed is considered to be an important weed of crops in the tropics and subtropics in open situations. Year-round flowering and the production of large quantities of seed allow it to compete with crops, which could lower the crop yield and value. It occurs in cultivated land, roadsides, and in forest edges. Tropical whiteweed is also an important alternate host for pathogens and nematode pests of various economically important crops. For example, it is a symptomless carrier of Burkholderia solanacearum, which is a bacterial pest of potato in India. It is a host of the banana nematodes Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus in Brazil and of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, in many parts of the world. It is also the host of the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Tanzania Virus (TYLCTZV) and the Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus2. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  A, B & E

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Tropical whiteweed thrives best in rich, moist, mineral soils with high humidity and it tolerates shading. It is not tolerant to soils with poor fertility1.It is likely to trigger new chemical treatments by ranchers and land managers. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Ageratum conyzoides (tropical whiteweed): Medium (12)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Tropical whiteweed is not considered to be naturalized in California, as only one voucher from San Diego County has been submitted. It considered as localized distribution in California and Received a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry   distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Tropical whiteweed has only been documented from San Diego County and has been intercepted a couple of times. This weed has been growing in California for years and has not escaped; therefore, the uncertainty about this species is low.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a potential weed with a distribution in limited areas. A “C” rating is recommended, as the plant is invasive, but it is of limited adaptability in the dry climate of California.


References:
  1. Global Invasive Species database. Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1493&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN
  2. Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests, Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/3572
  3. Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California, second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley. Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_smasch_county.pl?taxon_id=771
  4. Pacific Island Ecosystem. Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ageratum_conyzoides.htm
  5. Plant in USA.  Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://www.plantsinusa.com/show/plant/Ageratum-Conyzoides/2744
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed October 20, 2017.  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed October 20, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650;  plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:*

1/5/18 – 2/19/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

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Three-lined Cockroach | Luridiblatta trivittata

California Pest Rating Proposal
Three-lined cockroach |  Luridiblatta trivittata
Blattodea: Blatellidae
Current Pest Rating: Z
Proposed Pest Rating: C  
Comment Period: 1/5/18 – 2/19/18
Initiating Event:

Luridiblatta trivittata has a current rating of Z. It was recently reported in Vallejo, California and it is known to occur throughout the San Francisco Bay area. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Luridiblatta trivittata, the three-lined cockroach, is a tiny cockroach in the family Ectobiidae. It looks similar to larvae of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica), but that species has two dark pronotal lines instead of the three in L. trivittata1. It is primarily an outdoor species, but it will enter homes, especially in the late summer. This species is synanthropic (occurring only where humans do), occurring in leaf litter, plant debris, mulch, and compost piles. It is native to Mediterranean Europe and was introduced to the west coast of the United States, first being reported there in 2004. This species has spread throughout the San Francisco Bay area and other parts of northern California2, 3.

Luridiblatta trivittata was formerly known in the literature as Phyllodromica trivittata1.

Worldwide Distribution: Luridiblatta trivittata is native to dry habitats in the Mediterranean. It has been recorded from Morocco, Algeria, Spain, Italy, Libya, and Israel1.

Official Control: Luridiblatta trivittata is not listed as a harmful organism by any states or nations and it is not known to be under official control anywhere6.

California Distribution: Luridiblatta trivittata was known to be present in the San Francisco Bay area as early as 2004 and it is very common in northern California.

California Interceptions: There was only one specimen (PDR1374767) reported in the Pest and Damage Record Database by CDFA5. This was found in mulch in Pinole, Contra Costa County.

The risk Luridiblatta trivittata (three-lined Cockroach) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Luridiblatta trivittata can feed on a variety of leftover food and plant debris in the home. They just need hiding places and access to water. It may establish in larger, but limited, warm metropolitan areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Luridiblatta trivittata is an omnivorous scavenger. It prefers sugary, starchy, or protein-rich foods, but can also consume decaying organic matter4. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The adult female produces an egg capsule (ootheca) at the tip of the abdomen that carries eggs during the incubation period. Each egg capsule usually contains between 30 and 40 young. Two generations are produced in one year (spring and fall) 3. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Luridiblatta trivittata is not expected to lower crop yields or crop value because it is not an agricultural pest. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Luridiblatta trivittata is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It might trigger new chemical treatments by residents who find infestations inside the home or in gardens. It is not expected to significantly impact cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Luridiblatta trivittata  (Three-lined Cockroach):  Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Luridiblatta trivittata has a localized distribution in California (San Francisco Bay area) and receive Low Score (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:

Luridiblatta trivittata has been present in California since at least 2004.  So far its spread has been limited to the San Francisco Bay area.  Much of California is probably suitable for this species and there is a strong possibility that it will continue to spread.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Luridiblatta trivittata has established a widespread distribution in the San Francisco Bay area. It does not appear to be having a significant economic or environmental impact. Therefore, a “C” rating is justified.


References:
  1. California Plant Pest & Disease Report Vol. 25. 2009. Accessed September 26, 2017.  https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/plant/ppd/PDF/CPPDR_2011_25.pdf
  2. Cockroaches Management Guidelines UC-IMP. Accessed September 26, 2017.  http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7467.html
  3. Insect of San Francisco Bay Area. Accessed September 26, 2017. http://isfba.bugpeople.org/sites/CAEB150000/isfbaguide/isfbaSiteGuide.pdf
  4. Orkin pest control. Accessed September 26, 2017. https://www.orkin.com/cockroaches/cockroach-food/
  5. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.
  6. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.aspUSDA phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed September 7, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Jason Leathers, 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA, 95814, (916) 654-1211, plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: *

1/5/18 – 2/19/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.

Jewels of Opar/Fameflower | Talinum Paniculatum

Jewels of Opar/Talinum paniculatum | Photo by Ronggy
California Pest Rating Proposal
Talinum paniculatum:  Jewels of opar / Fameflower
 Family:  Portulacaceae
Current Pest Rating: Q
Proposed Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: None
Comment Period: 12/5/17 – 1/19/18
Initiating Event:

Jewels of opar was intercepted for the first time at the Needles border station in July 2017 (PRD NE0P06655879); this plant has not yet been rated. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background:  Talinum paniculatum (jewels of opar or fameflower) is a fleshy, shrubby, erect, glabrous, herbaceous plant from the purslane family (Portulacaceae) that grows up to 120 centimeters tall. Jewels of opar is probably the most widespread species of the genus, as it is frequently encountered as a weed. The small, delicate, pink flowers in cloudlike panicles contrast attractively with the golden yellow, round seed capsules and are produced almost year-round. The leaves are glossy and bright green; they are sometime used as a vegetable1.

Worldwide Distribution: Jewels of opar is native to tropical America, but is now a pantropical weed. It occurs as an adventive scattered throughout tropical Africa, and is locally cultivated in Ghana and Nigeria4. Jewels of opar is also reported from Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, South America, and the southern United States. It was introduced to central Argentina, central Africa, and southern Asia2.

United States:  Jewels of opar is known from Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida2. It is generally thought to be native to the southwest and adventive eastward, where it is often weedy1, 3.

California Distribution: Jewels of opar has not yet been detected in California, although it known to occur as greenhouse weed4.

Official Control: Jewels of opar is not considered to be a noxious weed by any State government authorities5.

California Interceptions: Jewels of opar was recently intercepted at the Needles border station in July 2017 in a shipment from Texas (PRD NE0P06655879)4.

The risk Talinum paniculatum (Jewels of opar) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Jewels of oparis adapted to central and southern America and it would presumably thrive in similar climates. It may be able to establish in limited part of California but it does not seem to tolerate the summer drought found in most of CA. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Jewels of opardoes not require any one host, but grows wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

-Low (1) has a very limited host range

-Medium (2) has a moderate host range

High (3) has a wide host range

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Jewels of opar reproduces by seed and stem cutting. The seeds are small (1 mm long), have a lenticular to comma-shape, and are produced in large numbers. There are about 5000 seeds per gram3. These seeds could be dispersed short distances by foraging animals, human activity, or by wind. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles and in contaminated agricultural produce. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Jewels of oparis considered to be a pantropical weed, but its invasiveness is not addressed in literature. It occurs in cultivated land, roadsides, and in forest edges. It rarely, if ever grows in dense stands, but can seed around grasslands in moist hot summer areas. It can be nuisance weed in greenhouses. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Jewels of oparhas not yet naturalized in California, although it is common in heated greenhouses, especially those devoted to cacti & succulents. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 1

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

– Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

– High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Talinum paniculatum (Jewels of opar): Low (8)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Jewels of oparhas never been documented as naturalized in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

 Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:

Jewels of opar has never been documented as naturalized in California but it was recently intercepted at the CDFA Needles Inspection Station. The environment of California is not new for this weed. It has been in greenhouses in CA for years and has not escaped; therefore, the uncertainty about this species is low.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Nevertheless, it can be nuisance weed in greenhouses and should be include in nursery cleanliness standards. Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a low risk weed. A C” rating is recommended.


References:
  1. Encyclopedia of living forms. LLife, Online. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.llifle.com/Encyclopedia/SUCCULENTS/Family/Portulacaceae/32895/Talinum_paniculatum
  2. Flora of North America,     Accessed August 7, 2017.    http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200007021
  3. Philippine Medicinal Plants.    Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.stuartxchange.org/Talinum.html
  4. Plantnet online.  Accessed August 7, 2017. http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Talinum_paniculatum_(PROTA)
  5. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed August 7, 2017.  http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  6. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed August 7, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Author:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.

Responsible Party:

Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:*

12/5/17 – 1/19/18


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.

Smallflower Hawksbeard | Crepis pulchra

California Pest Rating
Crepis pulchra: Smallflower hawksbeard
Family:  Asteraceae 
Former Pest Rating: None
CURRENT Pest Rating: C | Proposed Seed Rating: R
Initiating Event:

Crepis pulchra had no previous pest rating; it has been reported in Napa, Solano and Contra Costa counties. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Crepis pulchra is a flowering plant in the daisy family with the common name smallflower hawksbeard. Crepis pulchra is widespread in Europe, Central Asia and parts of Africa. It has become naturalized in the parts of United States and Canada1. It is annual herb up to 40 inches tall with erect, glandular stem. One plant can produce up to 40 flower heads and each flower can produce 30 yellow ray florets. The leaves are alternate, toothed and the basal leaves are pinnately lobed. Flowering occurs from April to August. It can grow up to 3000 m elevation in dry open habitats, rolling grasslands, pastures, abandoned fields, waste areas, railroads and roadsides1.

Worldwide Distribution: Crepis pulchra is widespread across much of Europe, Morocco, Algeria, western and central Asia. It has been  reported in Ontario Canada  and TX, OK, MO, AR, LA, MS, AL, FL, GA, SC, NC,VA, DE, WV, OH, IL, KY, TN & OR in the United States3,1.

Official Control: Crepis pulchra is not declared or considered noxious by any state government authorities7.

California Distribution:  Crepis pulchra currently is known in limited areas of Solano, Napa & Contra Costa counties2.

California Interceptions: There were 8 vouchers submitted from Solano, Napa & Contra Costa counties between 1999 and 20112.

The risk Crepis pulchra (Smallflower hawksbeard) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The plant has adapted to a wide area in the eastern states and Oregon. California has similar ecologically conditions as its native range, so it may be established on a larger but limited part of California. Therefore Crepis pulchra receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Most plants do not require any one host, but grow wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Crepis pulchra reproduces only by seed; each plant can produce 40 seeded fruits5. These fruits are dispersed short distances by foraging animals, human activity or by wind. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles, on larger animals and in contaminated agricultural produce. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Crepis pulchra is a weed in some agricultural situations and it may reduce crop yield where it establishes. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Crepis pulchra has not yet spread widely in California. If it does spread, it might trigger new chemical treatments by ranchers and land managers. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Crepis pulchra (Smallflower hawksbeard): Medium (10)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Crepis pulchra has been reported in Napa, Solano & Contra Costa counties and seems likely to be restricted to this area at this time. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: -1

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (9)

Uncertainty:  

Crepis pulchra has been present in California about 30 year ago and it is localized in a limited area. Due to its relatively noninvasive nature, there are limited chances that it will spread widely in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a medium risk. A “Crating is recommended, because of lake of evidence of its invasiveness.

References:
  1. Flora of North America online.  Accessed March 9, 2017 http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242416376
  2. Jepson Herbarium. Online UC Berkeley.  Accessed March 9, 2017  http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_consort.pl?taxon_name=Crepis%20pulchra
  3. Plant profiles  USDA    Accessed March 9, 2017 https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CRPU3
  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  5. Wildflower of the southeastern US.   Accessed March 9, 2017  http://2bnthewild.com/plants/H270.htm
  6. S. National Plant Germplasm System Accessed March 9, 2017 https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=310895
  7. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed January 03, 2017 https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

 


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/12/17 – 10/27/17*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
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Odermatt Mealybug | Pseudococcus odermatti

California Pest Rating
Pseudococcus odermatti – Odermatt mealybug
Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae
Former Pest Rating: Q
CURRENT Pest Rating: A
Initiating Event:

Pseudococcus odermatti is frequently intercepted by CDFA. Currently it has a temporary rating of Q. A pest rating proposal is required to assign a permanent pest rating.

History & Status:

Background: Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly known as odermatt mealybug. Like other species in the genus Pseudococcus, odermatt mealybug can feed on a variety of cultivated plants. Known hosts include: Annonaceae: Sugar apple (Annona squamosa); Araliaceae: Fetsia paper plant (Fatsia japonica), Araceae: Aglaonema spp., Rosaceae: Pyracantha spp., Ebenaceae: Diospros spp., Pittosporaceae: Japanese cheesewood (Pittosporum tobira), Rutaceae: (Citrus aurantium & Citrus latifolia) 1, 4.

Worldwide Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti is established in Bahamas, Belize, China, Costa Rica, India and Japan. In the United States it is reported from Hawaii and Florida1.

Official Control:  There is no data available for Pseudococcus odermatti, but Pseudococcus spp. are listed as harmful organisms in Dominica, Grenada, Japan, Saint Luci, Taiwan and Panama 3.

California Distribution: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Pseudococcus odermatti is regularly found by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and November, 2016 this mealybug was intercepted 94 times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida and Hawaii2.

The risk Pseudococcus odermatti would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on a large variety of plants cultivated in California, especial widely planted citrus. It is likely to establish wherever host plants are grown and receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California: Score: (3)

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Pseudococcus odermatti feeds on seven different families of plants which grown throughout in California1. It has a moderate host range. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest: Score: (2)

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Most species of Pseudococcus genus are famous for their high reproductive rates. They may spread long distances when host plants are moved. Furthermore, they may be spread by wind or by hitchhiking on clothing, animals, or equipment.

Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest: Score: (3)

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is considered an economic pest of several crops that are grown in California and may be expected to lower crop yields and increase crop production costs. If the scale were to enter the state, it may disrupt markets for fresh fruit and nursery stock. It has the potential to trigger loss of markets. Pseudococcus odermatti receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact:  A B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Pseudococcus odermatti is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control its infestation. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: (2)

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Odermatt mealybug:  High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

Pseudococcus odermatti is commonly intercepted. There have been no formal surveys for this scale in the state. It is therefore possible that it could be present in some locations in California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Pseudococcus odermatti has never been found in the environment of California and its entry to the state has potentially significant economic and environmental impacts. An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Miller & Williams 1997, Downie, D.A. Gullan, P.J. Scale Net. Accessed 12-19-16 http://scalenet.info/catalogue/Pseudococcus%20odermatti/
  2. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  3. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD).             https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  4. USDA,  APHIS, Identification Technology Program,  Fact sheet   Accessed on 12-19-16 http://idtools.org/id/scales/factsheet.php?name=7011

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

9/12/17 – 10/27/17*


*NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

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Anoplolepis longipes: long-legged ant

California Pest Rating
Anoplolepis longipes: long-legged ant
Hymenoptera: Formicidae
Former Pest Rating: Q
CURRENT Pest Rating: A
Initiating Event:

Anoplolepis longipes was intercepted on a regular basis before 2015 by CDFA. Then, there was a hiatus on interceptions, until it was found in a cut flower shipment from Hawaii on April, 2017. The insect is currently “Q” rated by CDFA, so a pest rating proposal is needed to determine future direction.

History & Status:

Background: Anoplolepis longipes is also known in the literature as Anoplolepis gracilipes and has three common names: long-legged ant, yellow crazy ant, and Maldive ant1. Anoplolepis longipes workers are typically small to medium-sized, around 4-5 mm long with remarkably long legs and 11 segmented antennae. The antennal scape is 1.5 times longer than the head length; this is a key diagnostic feature for the species3.

The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) considers it among the top 100 of the world’s worst invaders1. The native range of these ants is unclear. A recent study by Chen (2008) using ecological niche modelling suggested that Anoplolepis longipes originated in south Asia, expanded into Europe and Afrotropical regions. Then it formed its current distribution. The native range of the species has been obscured by a long history of human-assisted dispersal, as Anoplolepis longipes is readily moved to new areas within sea cargo. To this day, these ants are regularly detected in shipping containers and have been introduced to numerous oceanic islands in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific oceans3, 4.

Worldwide Distribution:  Anoplolepis longipes has been found widely throughout the moist tropical lowlands of Asia, Africa, Australia, Central and South America. These ants have been introduced to many Pacific, Caribbean and some Indian Ocean islands. Particularly devastating incursions have been reported on Christmas Island. In the United States these ants were introduced to the Hawaii Islands in 1952 3, 5.

Official Control: Anoplolepis longipes is listed as a harmful organism in French Polynesia and the Republic of Korea7. All ants (Formicidae) are listed as harmful organisms by Australia and Nauru7.

California Distribution:  Anoplolepis longipes has never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Anoplolepis longipes has been intercepted 259 times since 1990, most recently in April, 2017 by CDFA’s border station and nursery regulatory inspection. Interceptions are typically on plants or plant material imported from Hawaii 6.

The risk Anoplolepis longipes (Long-legged ant) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Anoplolepis longipes have a broad diet characteristic of many invasive ants. A generalized feeding regime increases the invasiveness of an ant due to the increased ability to gain nutrition from any available resources including grains, seeds, arthropods, decaying matter and vegetation3. These ants can move into forests, rural areas, and urban environments at the same time because of their ability to gain nutrition from available resources. The California environment is very suitable for these ants and they could establish throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:  Score: 3

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Anoplolepis longipes is primarily a species of lowland, tropical forest. Most collection records are below 1200m in elevation and from moist habitats. In Hawaii it is usually found from sea level to about 600 meters in elevation. It is known to invade disturbed habitats such as urban areas, forest edges and agricultural fields. The ability to live in human dwellings made these ants a serious pest in many households and buildings. However, it prefers to live in a moist habitat and does not establish in heated buildings in cities in temperate regions3.

Anoplolepis longipes have been known to successfully colonize a variety of agricultural systems, including cinnamon, citrus, coffee, cocoa, coconut, mango, sugarcane, banana and grape plantations. In agricultural regions they are typically found nesting at the base, or even in the crown, of crop plants. These ants can feed on dead insects, fish scraps, decaying fruits and on live arthropods2, 3. Anoplolepis longipes can reside in urban and forest setting anywhere near the food source. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Anoplolepis longipes colonies are polygynous (multi-queened) and generally without intraspecific aggression among workers. The life cycle of Anoplolepis longipes has been estimated to take 76-84 days at 20-22oC. Workers live approximately 6 months, and the queens for several years. Queens lay about 700 eggs annually throughout their life span. The primary dispersal within the habitat is through budding and rarely via winged female3. Historically, the rate of spread is potentially much larger through human-mediated transportation. These ants can be moved long distances through terrestrial vehicles, infested machinery, boats, cargo ships, and aircraft. They can also be transported in packaging material, timber and in soil. There have been deliberate introductions for biological control of plant pests in coconut, coffee and cacao plantations2. It receives at High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest. Score: 3

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Anoplolepis longipes feed and breed on a wide variety of plants, including economically important crops, such as grapes, citrus and many vegetables grown in the moist belt in California. Anoplolepis longipes have the potential to lower yield in these crops by feeding on leaves. These ants may also increase crop production costs by triggering additional management activities. Therefore, it is probable that if Anoplolepis longipes were to establish in California, it would trigger a loss of markets. This would be expected especially for exports of California table grapes. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Anoplolepis longipes are aggressive invaders that have the potential to cause slow, long-term ecological changes that have the potential to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes.  They may also trigger new treatment programs by residents who find infestations.  This may lead to significant impacts on cultural practices. These ants can compete with Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), as well as with native ants by taking over their habitat. On Christmas Island it attacked native crabs and, therefore, could pose a threat to California arthropods, including rare or endangered ones. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A, B, D, E

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Anoplolepis longipes (Long-legged ant): High (15)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Anoplolepis longipes has never been found in natural environment in California and receives a Not established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: 0

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (15)

Uncertainty:

There have not been any formal surveys of Anoplolepis longipes in California. This species has been intercepted through regulatory pathways by CDFA, but it is possible that it might be present in certain areas of California.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Anoplolepis longipes is not known to be present in California and would be expected to have a significant economic and environmental impact if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.


References:
  1. Encyclopedia of Life.   eoL online resources.   Accessed June 12, 2017. http://eol.org/pages/470492/overview
  2. Global Invasive spices database.  Accessed June 12, 2017.   http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=110
  3. Invasive Species Compendium: Distribution maps for plant pests. Accessed June 12, 2017.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/5575 
  4. Invasive animal risk assessment Dept. of Agriculture and Fisheries Biosecurity Queensland. Accessed June 12, 2017. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/63372/IPA-Yellow-Crazy-Ant-Risk-Assessment.pdf
  5. L. H. Himmelstein, 2003. Introduced Species summary project. Accessed June 12, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/Anoplolepis_gracilipes.html
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed June 12, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

August 25, 2017 – October 9, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

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♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.

Jeweled distaff thistle | Carthamus oxyacantha

Jewel distaff thistle (photo by Steve Hurst, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
Jewel distaff thistle (photo by Steve Hurst, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
California Pest Rating
Carthamus oxyacantha:  Jeweled distaff thistle
Family:  Asteraceae
Former Pest Rating: None
CURRENT Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: P
Initiating Event:

Jeweled distaff thistle was reported in California in the late 1970’s and had no previous pest rating. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Jeweled distaff thistle is a spiny-leaved annual weed that can grow up to 1.5 m tall. Like other spiny plants in the genus Carthamus, this species is not eaten by livestock, enabling it to spread on grazing lands2. The yellow flowers are born in flower heads approximately two to three cm in diameter and the leaves are covered with spines. It is a wild safflower relative found in arid and semi-arid environments in central and southern Asia5. It was collected in 1978 in Monterey County, California. It is considered by the United States Department of Food and Agriculture to be a noxious weed subject to eradication if found. Jeweled distaff thistle is a pernicious weed of agricultural lands especially, it reduces the yield of cereal crops. Jeweled distaff thistle most closely resembles cultivated safflower; it has smaller heads and much spinier leaves1.

Worldwide Distribution: Jeweled distaff thistle is reported from Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan4.

California Distribution:  It was reported only in Monterey County, where it may be eradicated.

Official Control: Jeweled distaff thistle is listed as a harmful organism in

Colombia, Honduras and Mexico6. It is listed by U.S. Federal government as Noxious weed in Florida, Minnesota South Carolina, Massachusetts and Class

“A” Noxious weed for Alabama, North Carolina and Vermont7.

California Interceptions: Historically, only two vouchers were submitted in 1978 from Monterey County3.

The risk Carthamus oxyacantha (Jeweled distaff thistle) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Jeweled distaff thistle is adapted to central and southern Asia and similar climates. It may able to establish in a larger but limited part of California like Carthamus tinctorius. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Jeweled distaff thistle do not require any one host, but grow wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range

Medium (2) has a moderate host range

High (3) has a wide host range

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Jeweled distaff thistle reproduces only by seed; each plant can produce up to 36 flower head that produces 15 to 20 single-seeded fruits5. These flower heads are dispersed short distances by foraging animals, human activity or by wind. They may be dispersed longer distances by vehicles, on larger animals and in contaminated agricultural produce. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Jeweled distaff thistle could invade crops, especially summer season crops in California. It could decrease crop yield and can lower the crop value, as it has been reported in its native range. Where adapted it displaces both native plants and other plants; this could negatively change normal cultural practices. It had spiny-tipped leaves with phyllaries heads which could injured the agriculturally important animals.  It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B, D, F

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Jeweled distaff thistle has not yet spread widely in California. If it does spread, it might trigger new chemical treatments by ranchers and land managers. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Carthamus oxyacantha (Jeweled distaff thistle): Medium (12)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Jeweled distaff thistle has been reported only in Monterey County and seems likely eradicated in this area. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

 Uncertainty:

Jeweled distaff thistle has been known in California for decades, although it has not yet spread widely, there is nothing to stop it spreading in the appropriate habitats. There is some uncertainty as to how well it can spread in California if it escapes.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a medium risk weed with a distribution in Monterey County. A B” rating is recommended, as the plant is invasive and is a federal noxious weed.

References:
  1. Flora of North America  online   Accessed April 26, 2017. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200023631
  2. Federal Noxious Weed Dissminules of U.S. Accessed May 9, 2017.    http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/FNW/FNW%20seeds/html/fact%20sheets/Carthamus%20oxyacantha.htm
  3. Baldwin, B. G., D. H. Goldman, D. J. Keil, R. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California, second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley. Accessed May 9, 2017.
    http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_consort.pl?taxon_name=Carthamus+oxyacantha&county=06053
  4. US National Plant Germplasm system. Accessed May 9, 2017. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?9239
  5. Sullaiman Mohammed, Mohammad A Fredan 2015, American Journal of Environmental Sciences. Accessed May 9, 2017.
    http://thescipub.com/PDF/ajessp.2015.125.132.pdf
  6. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed May 9, 2017
    https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/
  7. USDA  Natural Resouces Conservation Services online. Accessed May 9, 2017
    https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=CAOX6

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

45-day comment period: 7/20/17 – 9/3/17


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: B | Proposed Seed Rating: P

Sri Lankan Weevil | Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus

California Pest Rating
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus: Sri Lankan weevil
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
  Former Pest Rating:  A
CURRENT Pest Rating: A
Initiating Event:

Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus has been rated A by CDFA. Due to recent interceptions in California, a pest rating proposal is required.

History & Status:

Background: Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall, the Sri Lankan weevil, is a plant pest with a wide range of hosts. This weevil spread from Sri Lanka into India and then to Pakistan where it is considered a pest of more than 20 crops. In the United States, the Sri Lankan weevil was first identified on citrus sp. in Pompano Beach a city in Broward County Florida1.

Adult Sri Lankan weevils vary in length from approximately 6.0 to 8.5 mm; the female weevil is slightly larger than the male by 1.0 to 2.0 mm. In this genus, 336 species recognized are from Southeast Asia. These weevils can feed on more than 80 different plants species. These include, citrus, cotton, sweet potato, fig, loquat, plum, mango and mahogany3.

Worldwide Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is native to southern India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. It has been reported from Southeast Asia (including China and Japan), Africa, the Palearctic, Indonesia, Australia and the United States (Florida)3.

Official Control: The Sri Lankan weevil is listed as a harmful organism in the Republic of Korea5.

California Distribution: The Sri Lankan weevil is not reported in California; however, there have not been any recent surveys to confirm this.

California Interceptions: The Sri Lankan weevil was intercepted by CDFA’s high risk inspections, border stations, dog teams, and nursery inspections. Between January 1, 2000 and March, 2017, this insect was intercepted six times, typically on nursery stock and fresh plant parts from Florida4.

The risk Sri Lankan weevil would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: The Sri Lankan weevil can feed on a variety of field crops, nursery stocks, and fruits of California. The Sri Lankan weevil may establish in larger, but limited, warm agricultural and metropolitan areas of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The Sri Lankan weevil has a wide range of hosts and it can feed on almost 80 different kinds of plant species3.  Since, host species are grown throughout California. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest:

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Female Myllocerus may lay up to 360 eggs over a 24-day period, and larvae emerge in 3-5 days. The Sri Lankan weevil eggs are laid directly on organic material at the soil surface, a common substrate in California. Eggs are less than 0.5 mm, ovoid and usually laid in clusters of 3-5. The eggs are white or cream-colored at first, then gradually turn brown when they are close to hatching1. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest:

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is well-known for causing significant damage to agricultural crops and fruits products, especially young plants. Leaf-feeding adults damage the foliage of ornamental plants, fruit trees, and vegetables, whereas the larvae injure root systems; this decreases crop value and yield. Peach growers in Florida are reported to be having a difficult time managing damage from the weevil. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Economic Impact: A, B, C

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 3

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

– High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The Sri Lankan weevil is not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It is not expected to directly impact threatened or endangered species. It can increase production costs to growers if they perform any treatment to control infestations. It is not expected to have significant impacts on cultural practices, home/urban gardening, or ornamental plantings. The Sri Lankan weevil receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the Environmental impact of the pest to California using the criteria below:  

Environmental Impact:  D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Sri Lankan weevil: High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: The Sri Lankan weevil has never been found in California and receives a Not Established (0) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included: Score -0

Not Established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: High (13)

Uncertainty:

The Sri Lankan weevil is intercepted six times in California. There have not been any detection surveys conducted recently to confirm its presence. The environment of California is highly favorable for the Sri Lankan weevil therefore, the uncertainty about this species is high.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:  

The Sri Lankan weevil is not established in California, it would be expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to establish in the state.  An “A” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Anita Neal 2013.  University of Florida.   Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/orn/sri_lankan_weevil.htm

  1. Charles W. O’Brien, Muhammad Haseeb, Michael C. Thomas. Pest weevil from Indian Subcontinent. Florida  Dept. Of Agricultural. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/10795/141061/ent412.pdf

  1. Pest Alert. Florida dept. Of Agriculture & consumer services. Accessed on 3-20-17.

http://www.famu.edu/cesta/iframeapps/Invasive_Weevil_Species/Desktop/Myllocerus_undatus_Marshall_-_Sri_Lanka_Weevil_or_Asian_Grey_Weevil.htm

  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services.

http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp

  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 3-20-17.

https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

July 7, 2017 – August 21, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating: A

Orange Hawkweed | Hieracium aurantiacum

Orange Hawkweed, photo by Becca MacDonald, Sault College, bugwood.org
California Pest Rating
Hieracium aurantiacum:  Orange hawkweed
Family : Asteraceae
Former Pest Rating: None
CURRENT Pest Rating : B |  Proposed Seed Rating: P
Initiating Event:

Orange hawkweed had no previous pest rating, it has been reported in Nevada, Siskiyou, and Mono counties. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Orange hawkweed is a fibrous rooted perennial herb in the Aster family (Asteraceae) that grows 10-36 inches tall. It blooms in late spring to early summer and  produces bright orange to orange-red ray flowers with 5 to 30 flower heads. Flower heads close every evening and reopen at mid-morning each day prior to seeding. Every flower head can produce between 12 and 50 small brown or black single seeded fruit  and has a hairy tuff at one end that allows the seed to be carried by the wind. Flower stems are bare, all plant parts contain a milky juice and leaves are covered with stiff hairs. Orange hawkweed, like all invasive hawkweeds, has a shallow and fibrous root system and underground creeping rhizomes.The plant rosettes also originate from aboveground stolons (resembling those of strawberry). The stolons are capable of producing new plants where the runners contact soil; therefore, patch expansion is accomplished primarily by stolon growth and/or rhizomes. Long distance spread is mostly by wind and water borne seed or by seeds carried in and on wildlife and livestock2,3.

The scientific name Hieracium is of Greek origin and means ‘hawk’. Hawkweed refers to the fact that many species of this genus grow at high altitudes that are only accessible by hawks. It spread rapidly in North America after its introduction as an ornamental and/or as a contamination of pasture seeds from its native range in Europe1.

Worldwide Distribution: Orange hawkweed is native to Europe it grows; in subalpine areas resulting in a disjunct distribution1. It has spread to most of Europe and in southern Russia. Due to its use as a garden ornamental and rock garden plant,  it was introduced into exotic locations including New Zealand, Tasmania, Japan, Canada, Australia and North America1,3.

Official Control: Orange hawkweed is listed as a harmful organism in Korea5. It is   prohibited entry to Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Orange hawkweed is deemed a noxious weed in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana and British Columbia. This makes it unlawful to transport, propagate and sell in these localities3.

California Distribution: Orange hawkweed has been reported  from Siskiyou, Nevada and Mono counties.

California Interceptions: One PDR (470P06027609 from Siskiyou County) was reported in the Pest and Damage Record Database by CDFA4. There are five vouchers from Siskiyou , Nevada and Mono  counties documented  between 1967 and 2013. Only the Siskiyou County population seemed  adventive.

The risk Hieracium aurantiacum (Orange hawkweed) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Orange hawkweed is well established in Oregon and Washington, and is spreading there. These states have similar habitat to northern California. Therefore, there is a high risk that it will establish in this part of California. It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California.

Low (1) not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California

2) Pest Host Range: Orange hawkweed does not require any one host, but grows wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range

Medium (2) has a moderate host range

High (3) has a wide host range

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Orange hawkweed reproduces and spreads through prolific seed production, as well as vegetatively through stolons, and rhizomes. Under ideal conditions, one plant can spread and infest an area two to three feet in diameter in its first year of growth. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, or “hitch-hiking” and are often moved in contaminated soil associated with transplanting new plants into gardens and flowerbeds2. Seeds are able to germinate immediately after dropping from the plant and can remain viable in the soil for up to seven years3. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the dispersal potential of the pest:.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential

4) Economic Impact: Orange hawkweed is invasive in natural or lawn environments in high latitude and altitude areas. It can form mats that prevent the growth of forest understory plants. Orange hawkweed monocultures may degrade forest rangeland, reducing the amount of forage available to livestock3. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using these criteria.

Economic Impact: D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: (1)

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts

5) Environmental Impact: Orange hawkweed is an aggressive competitor for space, light, and soil nutrients. It has been reported to be allelopathic, producing phytotoxic chemicals in pollen grains that inhibit seed germination, seedling emergence and regeneration of other plants2.  Rare taxa that might be affected include species such as Kincaid’s lupine (Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii),Fender’s Blue Butterfly (Plebejus icarioides ssp. fendri) and Humboldt milk–vetch (Astragalus agnicidus).

It receives a High(3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the following criteria.

Environmental Impact: A,C,D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs

E. Significantly impacting, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact Score: (3) cultural practices

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur

Consequences of Introduction to California for Orange hawkweed: 

Rating (Score): Add up the total score and include it here

Low = 5-8 points

 Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

Total points based on above criteria, which does not take into account the current  distribution in California: Medium (12).

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Orange hawkweed has been reported in Mono, Siskiyou and Nevada  counties and may be eridicate at this time. It receives a Low (-1) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:-

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is based on introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information Score: (11)

Uncertainty:

Orange hawkweed has been present in California about 30 years and it is localized in a limited area. It has the potential to spread to more acreage and may be eradicated at this time. It is likely that this plant will come to dominate many new areas and increase its density and distribution.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conclusions of the harm associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Based on the score listed above, Orange hawkweed is a Medium risk. Although it is only medium risk in California, it is possible to keep it out of the State with modest effort. Given this, and its ability to spread widely and displace native plants, a “B” rating is proposed.


References:
  1. Ghislaine Cortat   CABI online Orange hawkweed. Accessed 4-25-17.  http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/27160
  2. Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Pest Risk Assessment for Orange hawkweed, Hieracium aurantiacum  Accessed  4-25-2017. https://www.oregon.gov/ODA/shared/Documents/Publications/Weeds/PlantPestRiskAssessmentOrangeHawkweed.pdf
  3. US Forest Services Fact Sheet.  Accessed  4-25-2017. https://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/invasive_plants/weeds/orange-hawkweed%20.pdf
  4. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. Accessed 4-25-2017 http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  5. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed 4-25-2017.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period: CLOSED

July 6, 2017 – August 20, 2017


NOTE:

You must be registered and logged in to post a comment.  If you have registered and have not received the registration confirmation, please contact us at plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Pest Rating : B |  Proposed Seed Rating: P

 

Yellow-Flag Iris | Iris pseudacorus L.

California Pest Rating
Iris pseudacorus L. : Yellow-Flag Iris
Family:  Iridaceae
Former Pest Rating: None
CURRENT Pest Rating: B |  Proposed Seed Rating: R
Initiating Event:

Iris pseudacorus was introduced in California in the early 1950’s and had no previous pest rating. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Iris pseudacorus, commonly called yellow-flag iris, is a rhizomatous beardless wetland iris that is native to Europe, northern Asia, the Middle East and northern Africa. It has naturalized in much of North America, particularly in the eastern U.S. It is at home in wet soils, typically forming large colonies along streams, ponds and marshes2.

Iris pseudacorus is a perennial, emergent aquatic plant ranging from 0.5–1.5 m in height. It has bright yellow flowers (3-4” across), with a darker yellow zone and brown or violet veining on each fall. It blooms in late spring to early summer on rigid, upright, branched stalks. Each flower stalk bears 4-12 flowers. Flowers give way to large seed pods4. Plant roots have been used in the past for a variety of purposes including medical treatments, dyes, inks, and snuff. Plant seeds have been used as a coffee substitute with no caffeine2.

Worldwide Distribution: Iris pseudacorus is native to all the countries of Europe except Iceland; it is also native to the Caucasus Mountains, Western Asia and North Africa. In North America, it has been reported in Canada from Newfoundland to British Columbia. It is present in the majority of the United States, with the exception of a handful of western and mid-western states4Iris pseudacorus has been reported from Delaware, Maryland,  North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia and all New England states3,4.

Official Control: Iris pseudacorus is listed as noxious weed in these states: CN, MA, MN, NH, OR and WA 7.

California Distribution:  Iris pseudacorus is reported from Sacramento, San Diego, Solano, Siskiyou, Merced, San Luis Obispo, Contra Costa, Butte, Los Angeles, Shasta, San Mateo, Monterey, San Bernardino, Ventura, Santa Barbara, Kern, Mendocino, Riverside,  Orange and Madera counties3.

California Interceptions: Two PDR’s (413865 Siskiyou and 1349823 Contra Costa) were reported in the Pest and Damage Record Database by CDFA5.   There were 69 vouchers from all over the California submitted since the 1990’s.

The risk Iris pseudacorus (Yellow-flag iris) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Iris pseudacorus could grow on wet soil and it is highly adapted to acidic soil. The overall California climate is perfect fit for its ability to spread aggressively in wetlands. Its widespread distribution demonstrates its ability to occupy wetlands. Therefore, Iris pseudacorus receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Iris pseudacorus do not require any one  host, but grow wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

 – High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: Iris pseudacorus propagate via seed and rhizomes.  The corky seeds are buoyant, with 95% of them able to float for up to 2 months and germinate along shore edges; they typically do not germinate while immersed in water. The thick, tuberous rhizomes spreads radially to produce large clonal populations of up to several hundred flowering “stems”. Rhizomes can split to produce up to 10 plants per year. These rhizomes are drought tolerant, but during floods, both rhizomes and seeds may be washed downstream4. It receives a High (3) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Iris pseudacorus can impede irrigation and swimming. It may be reduce flow and block irrigation systems and flood control ditches. Its seeds can clog pipes and water control structures. Removal of plant material from these systems may require herbicides or excavation equipment and can be costly4.

It can cause gastroenteritis in cattle if ingested, and it contains glycosides that can cause skin irritation in wildlife that come in contact with this plant5.

It receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:   F, G

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Iris pseudacorus could invade the water systems of California, disrupt natural lake communities and potentially lower biodiversity by dominating lake margins. This vegetative growth can also trap sediment, raise the local elevation of the ecosystem, and alter wetland hydrology. The clonal nature of Iris pseudacorus causes it to form dense stands that could affect populations of sensitive species such as Mason’s lilaeopsis (Lilaeopsis masonii), CA Clapper rail (Rallus obsoletus), Suisun aster (Symphyotrichum lentum) and Delta tula pea (Lathyrus jepsonii), San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila) and water howellia (Howelia aquatilis). Iris pseudacorus receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A B, C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Iris pseudacorus (Yellow-flag iris): High (13)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Iris pseudacorus is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas. It receives a Medium (-2) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: -2

-Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

-High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Medium (11)

Uncertainty:

Iris pseudacorus has been in California a long time, but has spread slowly in wetlands. It has the potential to spread to more acreage and it is likely that this plant will come to dominant many new areas and increase its density and distribution.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

A bad weed in wetlands in California. Deserves a “B” rating as it has invaded many areas to which it is adapted and undoubtedly has the ability to spread further. Because of this potential future harm, a “B” rating is justified.

References:
  1. Connick, S. and M. Gerel. Partnering to prevent invasions of plants of horticultural origin. California Invasive Plant Council Symposium 2004. Ventura, CA.   Accessed February 10, 2017 http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Iris_pseudacorus.php
  1. Missouri Botanical Garden on line. Accessed February 15, 2017 http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=c797
  1. Jepson Herbarium. Online  UC Berkeley.  Accessed February 15, 2017 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_smasch_county.pl?taxon_id=29301
  1. Morgan, V.H., L. Berent and A. Fusaro.    Glansis online. Accessed February 15, 2017. https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/greatlakes/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=1115&Potential=N&Type=0
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed February 15, 2017. https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

USDA data for State Noxious weeds. Accessed March 1, 2017 https://plants.usda.gov/java/noxComposite?stateRpt=yes


Author:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Responsible Party:

Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period: CLOSED

Apr 7, 2017 – May 22, 2017


Pest Rating: B |  Proposed Seed Rating: R

Lily of the Valley Vine | Salpichroa origanifolia

California Pest Rating
Salpichroa origanifolia:   Lily of the valley vine
Family:  Solanaceae
Former Rating: None
CURRENT Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed Seed Rating: R
Initiating Event:

Salpichroa origanifolia was introduced in California in the early 1930’s and had no previous pest rating. A pest rating proposal is required to determine a permanent rating for this pest.

History & Status:

Background: Salpichroa origanifolia is a species of flowering plant in the Solanaceae family known by the common names lily of the valley vine, pampas lily-of-the-valley or cock’s-eggs. Salpichroa origanifolia is a weed of urban areas where it grows on home sites and neglected areas, trailing over fences and low bushes3. It is native to South America and is naturalized in Africa, Australasia, Europe, and North America1.

Salpichroa origanifolia is a fast growing creeping herbaceous plant or woody vine with scrambling or trailing stems produced from a long-lived woody rootstock. It has oval shaped leaves that are hairy, with leaf stalks about the same length as the leaf blades. Flowers are bell-shaped, whitish in color, 6 – 8mm long form at the leaf axils. These flowers generally have a drooping or nodding appearance. Flowering occurs throughout the year, but is most prolific during summer. The fruit is an elongated or egg-shaped berry with a smooth surface. These berries (10-20 mm long and 7-8 mm wide) turn yellow or whitish in color as they mature and each contains several seeds. The seeds are brown to pale yellow in color, flattened, rounded in shape (about 2 mm across), and surrounded in a sticky substance6.

Salpichroa origanifolia was sold in CA nurseries in the early 20th century. Although it has not been common in nurseries for decades, it has shown itself to be particularly resistant after establishment. Some plants are likely adventive, but most collection document plants that were likely planted.

Worldwide Distribution: Salpichroa origanifolia is native to South America, originating from Argentina and Uruguay. It has naturalized overseas in Europe (included UK, Croatia, France, Ireland, Portugal, Spain & Italy), Africa, New Zealand and Australia. In the United States, it is reported in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California1, 7.

Official Control: Salpichroa origanifolia is not declared or considered noxious by any state government authorities6. However, in Tasmania it is regarded as a toxic weed and its sale and distribution are illegal1.

California Distribution: Salpichroa origanifolia is reported from Alameda, San Diego, Solano, San Luis Obispo, Contra Costa, Butte, Los Angeles, Monterey, San Bernardino, Ventura, Santa Barbara, Riverside, Orange, San Benito, San Francisco, Sonoma, Yolo, Marin, Humboldt, San Joaquin, Santa Clara, Colusa, Napa and Yuba counties3.

California Interceptions: Two PDR’s (1450405 and 1251122) were reported in the Pest and Damage Record Database by CDFA5. There have been155 vouchers from all over California submitted since 1930’s.

The risk Salpichroa origanifolia (Lily of the valley vine) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction:

 1) Climate/Host Interaction: Salpichroa origanifolia is native to an area with a very similar climate to parts of California. It has the ability to naturalized in urban areas, forest, woodland and riparian vegetation. It is usually limited in coverage however. Therefore, Salpichroa origanifolia receives a Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: Salpichroa origanifolia does not require any one host, but grows wherever ecological conditions are favorable. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

– Low (1) has a very limited host range.

– Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: This species reproduces by seeds and vegetatively from creeping underground stems (i.e. rhizomes) and suckering roots. Root fragments and pieces of underground stems are spread during soil moving activities and in dumped garden waste. It produces about 2000 seeds per plant which are dispersed by soil and plant movement and animals that eat the fruits of this plant like birds, rats, mice and ants7.Despite this, it has not spread from the sites of introduction. It receives a Medium (2) in this category

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Salpichroa origanifolia is not known as an agricultural weed, but it could be a problematic weed in home gardening and grazing land in the State. Therefore, it could negatively change the normal cultural practices. It receives a Low (1) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact:  D

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: Salpichroa origanifolia is locally highly invasive and smothers neighboring vegetation, killing large shrubs and fruit trees, and making vegetable and flower culture difficult4. It produce dense stand that could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes. Its invasive nature create a monoculture that could affect the rare taxa like, Humboldt milk–vetch (Astragalus agnicidus), Abruptbeak sedge (Carex abrupta), showy Indian clover (Trifolium amoenum), and San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila). It receivesHigh (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact: A B, C

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score: 3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Salpichroa origanifolia  (Lily of the valley vine): Medium (11)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: Salpichroa origanifolia is scattered but widespread in California and might spread more given enough time. It receives a High (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included:

Score: -3

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

-Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

-Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8)

Uncertainty:  

Salpichroa origanifolia has been known in California a long time. It spread very slowly. This plant could invade many new areas and increase its density and acreage or it may continue to spread slowly the arears where it is establish. There is moderate uncertainty.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

Conclusions of the harm(s) associated with this pest to California using all of the evidence presented above: Proposed Rating: based on the score listed above the pest is a medium risk weed with a distribution in at least 24 counties. A C” rating is recommended, as the plant is widely distributed, but could spread further.

References:
  1. Crop protection Compendium.   Search for invasive species.   Online Accessed February 21, 2017. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/116862
  1. Encyclopedia of Life. Online Accessed February 21, 2017.       http://eol.org/pages/581082/overview#cite_note-TasGov-2
  1. Jepson Herbarium. Online  UC Berkeley.  Accessed February 21, 2017 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_smasch_county.pl?taxon_id=43020
  1. Monash University, Invasive species online.
    Accessed February 21, 2017 http://invasivespecies.org.au/traction/permalink/wra2111
  1. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  1. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed February 15, 2017.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

Weed of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Accessed February 21, 2017             https://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/salpichroa_origanifolia.htm


Author:

Javaid Iqbal, California Department of Food and Agriculture


Responsible Party:

Dean G. Kelch, Primary Botanist; California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6650; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov


Comment Period:  CLOSED

Mar 23, 2017 – May 7, 2017


Pest Rating: C  |  Proposed Seed Rating: R

Seed Bugs | Nysius spp.

 California Pest Rating
Nysius spp.  : (Seed Bugs)
Hemiptera: Lygaeidae
Former Pest Rating: Q
CURRENT Pest  Rating: NR
Initiating Event:

Nysius spp. (Seed Bugs) are frequently intercepted by CDFA’s high risk programs and at border stations. These have a temporary rating of “Q”.  A pest rating proposal is required to evaluate their pest risk.

History & Status:

Background: The insects of the Nysius spp. commonly known as seed bugs or ground bugs and these are found on every continent except Antarctica2. The Lygaeidae is a very successful family of true bugs found worldwide. Several species of this family are well-known as major economic pests of a variety of crops. Some members of genus Nysius spp. are very useful for insect studies especially, insect physiology and evolutionary ecology.2

The insects of Nysius spp. are small insect commonly found within grassy or weedy fields, pastures, and foothills. Each spring, once the plants in these areas dry up, these insects migrates to find new places to feed. This becomes a nuisance for homeowners when these bugs migrate into their landscapes and homes and can cause problems for gardeners and farmers. The problems are most serious in the year with wet and cool springs.1

Nysius species are polyphagous insects that feed on a large number of crops, fruits & weeds5. The members of this genus have been associated with both endemic and introduced plant species from sea level to over 13,000 feet3. Crops attacked by these insects include: cabbage, rape, turnip, clover, lucerne, cucumber, carrots, potato, beets, cotton, sorghum, tomatoes and all types of squash, barley, wheat and many more crops. Many fruits plants were attacked by the insects of this genus, especially soft skin fruit like strawberries, kiwifruit and apple are seriously injured. Several weeds are reservoir hosts of these bugs, particularly those belonging to the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Portulacaceae families.4, 5

Worldwide Distribution: The insects of Nysius spp. are considered among the most successful insects on earth; they are found on every continent except Antarctica.2

Official Control: Nysius spp. are listed as harmful organisms by New Zealand, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Canada and Taiwan.8

California Distribution: Nysius spp. are distributed all over California, but there are no official surveys done for these insects to confirm their presence. There are 106 described species in the genus Nysius and many of these have never been found in the environment of California.

California Interceptions: Nysius spp. have been intercepted multiple times through border station inspections, dog teams and high risk pest exclusion activities. Between January 2000 and December 2016, they have been intercepted 990 times. Many of these specimen were submitted by homeowners from all over the state.

The risk Nysius spp. (Seed bugs) would pose to California is evaluated below.

Consequences of Introduction: 

1) Climate/Host Interaction: Hosts plants of Nysius spp. are commonly grown in California and these species are expected to be established wherever the hosts are grown. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate if the pest would have suitable hosts and climate to establish in California:

Low (1) Not likely to establish in California; or likely to establish in very limited areas.

Medium (2) may be able to establish in a larger but limited part of California.

High (3) likely to establish a widespread distribution in California.

2) Known Pest Host Range: The insects of Nysius are highly polyphagous that can feed on variety of field crop and wild plants. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the host range of the pest.

Low (1) has a very limited host range.

Medium (2) has a moderate host range.

High (3) has a wide host range.

3) Pest Dispersal Potential: The female of Nysius spp. generally lay eggs in clutches, which can range in size from 10 to over 100 eggs and may lay many clutches in their lifetime. The adults travel short distance in search of food and overwintering sites. They may move longer distances as result of hitchhiking on infested planting material or field equipment. It receives a High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the natural and artificial dispersal potential of the pest.

Low (1) does not have high reproductive or dispersal potential.

Medium (2) has either high reproductive or dispersal potential.

High (3) has both high reproduction and dispersal potential.

4) Economic Impact: Some species of Nysius considered pests of seedlings and in severe infestations they can damage young almond, pistachio, pomegranate, and citrus trees. Nysius huttoni feed on wheat grain in the milk-ripe stage with sucking mouthparts, which pierce through the glumes into the developing grain. It inject saliva that contains an enzyme, which bring changes in the flour protein makes it runny dough unsuitable for baking.4, 5  Most of the species are viewed as agricultural pests.  It might reduce the crop yield and increase crop production costs for farmers. It is not expected to change cultural practice vector other organisms, injure animals, or disrupt water supplies. Depending on the species they could receive a Low (-1) to Medium (2) in this category.

Evaluate the economic impact of the pest to California using the criteria below.

Economic Impact: A, B

A. The pest could lower crop yield.

B. The pest could lower crop value (includes increasing crop production costs).

C. The pest could trigger the loss of markets (includes quarantines).

D. The pest could negatively change normal cultural practices.

E. The pest can vector, or is vectored, by another pestiferous organism.

F. The organism is injurious or poisonous to agriculturally important animals.

G. The organism can interfere with the delivery or supply of water for agricultural uses.

Economic Impact Score: 1-2

Low (1) causes 0 or 1 of these impacts.

Medium (2) causes 2 of these impacts.

High (3) causes 3 or more of these impacts.

5) Environmental Impact: The insects of Nysius spp. are not expected to lower biodiversity, disrupt natural communities, or change ecosystem processes. It may effect sensitive species of Brassicaceae such as Caperfruit tropidocarpum (Tropidocarpum capparideum), Santa Cruz Wallflower (Erysimum teretifolium), Tiburon jewel flower (Streptanthus niger) and Metcalf canyon jewel flower (Streptanthus albidus ssp. Albidus). However, no significant documented impact occurs from native species on sensitive species. It would not be expected to disrupt critical habitats. If pest species were established then would it very likely trigger new treatment programs by farmers and residents who find infested plants unsightly. Depending on species  it would a receive Low (-1)  to  High (3) in this category.

Evaluate the environmental impact of the pest on California using the criteria below.

Environmental Impact:  B, D

A. The pest could have a significant environmental impact such as lowering biodiversity, disrupting natural communities, or changing ecosystem processes.

B. The pest could directly affect threatened or endangered species.

C. The pest could impact threatened or endangered species by disrupting critical habitats.

D. The pest could trigger additional official or private treatment programs.

E. The pest significantly impacts cultural practices, home/urban gardening or ornamental plantings.

Environmental Impact: Score:  1-3

Low (1) causes none of the above to occur.

Medium (2) causes one of the above to occur.

High (3) causes two or more of the above to occur.

Consequences of Introduction to California for Nysius spp. (Seed bugs): Low -High (11-14)

Low = 5-8 points

Medium = 9-12 points

High = 13-15 points

6) Post Entry Distribution and Survey Information: There are 106 described species of Nysius and many of them are established in California. They receive a High (-3) in this category.   Nysius not established in California receive a Not established (0) in this category.

This genus receives a Not Established (0) to High Established (-3) in this category.

Evaluate the known distribution in California. Only official records identified by a taxonomic expert and supported by voucher specimens deposited in natural history collections should be considered. Pest incursions that have been eradicated, are under eradication, or have been delimited with no further detections should not be included.

Not established (0) Pest never detected in California, or known only from incursions.

Low (-1) Pest has a localized distribution in California, or is established in one suitable climate/host area (region).

Medium (-2) Pest is widespread in California but not fully established in the endangered area, or pest established in two contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

High (-3) Pest has fully established in the endangered area, or pest is reported in more than two contiguous or non-contiguous suitable climate/host areas.

Final Score:

The final score is the consequences of introduction score minus the post entry distribution and survey information score: Low (8) to High (14).

Uncertainty:  

Uncertainty is high as the species are hard to identify and they vary substantially in their current status and risk to CA.

Conclusion and Rating Justification:

There are many species of Nysius that have not been found in the environment of California.  New species could have significant economic and environmental impacts. Examples of species of Nysius that are not found in California and would be likely to have significant impacts here include Nysius nemorivagus from Hawaii3 and Nysius vinitor from Australia.  While on the other hand there are lot more species which are commonly found in California and are not expected to have significant economic and environmental impacts to California. Example of these species are Nysius raphanus Howard & Nysius tenellus Barber.

It is not possible combine pest rating all 106 species in one proposal. Pest ratings can be lawfully proposed for each individual species versus the whole genus. Non-native Nysius species can have significant impact on California agriculture whereas native species are already present in the state and are being monitored for spread and growth. Considering these facts, a “NR” rating is justified this genus.

References:
  1. R. Haviland, W. J. Bentley, 2016   UC IPM.   Accessed on 2-08-17. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74153.html
  2. R. Burdfield – Steel, David M Shuker. 2014. The evolutionary ecology of the Lygaeidae.  On line NCBI.  Accessed on 2-08-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201440/
  3. Jayma L. M. Kessing, Ronal F.L. Mau. 1993. Crop knowledge master Hawaii.    Accessed on 2-08-17. http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/type/nysius.htm
  4. Brambila. 2007.  USDA- APHIS – PPQ   Invasive Arthropod workshop. Accessed on Feb, 6 2017. https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/9865/135458/pdf_brambila_heteroptera_spdn2007-small.pdf
  5. Baker, R. Cannon. 2006.  CSL pest risk analysis for Nysius huttoni Accessed on 2-08-17. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/phiw/riskRegister/downloadExternalPra.cfm?id=3865
  6. Pest and Damage Record Database, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services. http://phpps.cdfa.ca.gov/user/frmLogon2.asp
  7. Pest Information wiki. Online   Accessed on 1-31-17. http://wiki.pestinfo.org/wiki/Nysius_vinitor
  8. USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance & Tracking System (PCIT) Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD). Accessed on 1-31-17.  https://pcit.aphis.usda.gov/pcit/

 


Responsible Party:

Javaid Iqbal,  California Department of Food and Agriculture; 1220 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814; Tel. (916) 403-6695; plant.health[@]cdfa.ca.gov.


Comment Period:  CLOSED

45-day comment period: Mar 14, 2017 – April 28, 2017


Comment Format:

♦  Comments should refer to the appropriate California Pest Rating Proposal Form subsection(s) being commented on, as shown below.

Example Comment:
Consequences of Introduction:  1. Climate/Host Interaction: [Your comment that relates to “Climate/Host Interaction” here.]

♦  Posted comments will not be able to be viewed immediately.

♦  Comments may not be posted if they:

Contain inappropriate language which is not germane to the pest rating proposal;

Contains defamatory, false, inaccurate, abusive, obscene, pornographic, sexually oriented, threatening, racially offensive, discriminatory or illegal material;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting sexual harassment or other forms of discrimination;

Violates agency regulations prohibiting workplace violence, including threats.

♦  Comments may be edited prior to posting to ensure they are entirely germane.

♦  Posted comments shall be those which have been approved in content and posted to the website to be viewed, not just submitted.


Pest  Rating: NR